School Science Lessons
2019-02-21
Please send comments to: J.Elfick@uq.edu.au

Chemistry I. | J. | K. |
Table of Contents
Chemistry I
See: Incubators, (Commercial)
Indole, C8H7N
Indole-3-acetic acid: IAA
Indole-3-acetonitrile, C10H8N2
Indole-3-butyric acid: IBA
Indole-3-carbinol, C9H9NO
IAA, Indole-3-acetic acid
IBA, Indole-3-butyric acid
IBDU, plant fertilizer
Icariin, Glucosides: 16.3.2.6.1
Ice: 26.0.0
-ide suffix, 9.1
20.0.7 Ideal gas constant, Universal gas equation, PV = nRT
20.0.11 Ideal gas constant/Boltzmann constant
Identification tests for plastics: 3.102
Idose, C6H12O6, sold as: L-Idose
Igneous rocks: 35.21.0
8.6.0 Ignition, Combustion
Illite, Clay mineral: 35.22.4.0
Ilmenite, FeTiO3
"Images of atoms" by Tony Wright: 4.0
1.14 Immersion oil
13.6.1 Isotropy and thixotropy, Cornstarch, cornflour slime
Imidacloprid, C9H10ClN5O2
Imidazole, C3H4N2, glyoxaline
Imidazole derivatives: 16.3.13
Imides: 16.1.5.8
Imines: 16.2.4.3a
Iminodiacetic acid, HN(CH2COOH)2
Imipramine, imipramine hydrochloride (See: 14.15 GIF)
Immersion oil (for microscopy): 1.14
Immiscible liquids, Liquids float on liquids, miscible and immiscible liquids: 11.4.6.1
Immunity, vaccinations: 9.239
Impurity, Separate by adsorbing impurities: 10.1.0
Incandescence, electric light bulb, filament lamp: 33.4.0
Incarvillateine, C42H58N2O8
Incubators, brooders: 2.6.3
Indantrione hydrate, Test for proteins or amino acids, forms characteristic blue colour on heating
Indian ink mounts, Prepare Indian ink mounts: 6.6
Indicators: Acid-base indicators
Indicators, Tests for acid-base indicators: 3.53.1
Indicaxanthine, C14H16N2O6
1.0.0 Indicators, Acid-base indicators
See: Indicators (Commercial)
Indigo, C16H10N2O2, natural dye, now mainly synthetic, used for blue jeans
Indigo carmine: 14 (indicator)
Indium, In
Indole-3-acetic acid: IAA
Indole-3-acetonitrile, C10H8N2
Indole-3-butyric acid: IBA
Indole-3-carbinol, C9H9NO
Indole, C8H7N, Amine
Indole group of alkaloids, Indole derivatives, True alkaloids: 16.3.14
Indolizidine derivatives, True alkaloids: 16.3.15
Indomethacin, C19H16ClNO4, indometacin, anti-inflammatory drug, "Indocid"
Indophenol, C12H9NO2, phenolindophenol, haematology and histology stain
Inert gases, Noble gases: 1.9.0
Infrared rays source: 4.135
Infused oils: 5.04.7
Infusions, herbal infusions: 5.04.1
Inhalents, Abuse of volatile substances: 11.11.01
Inhalation sensitizing, Sensitizing substances, by inhalation, by skin contact: 15.2.6
Inhibit is to slow down a chemical reaction by blocking a part of the mechanism.
Inks
See: Inoculating (Commercial)
Inorganic builders in washing powders: 12.12.03.2a
Inorganic chemistry, Properties of elements: 7.0
Inosine nucleoside, C10H12N4O5, hypoxanthine 9-β-D-ribofuranoside, brewer's yeast, may improve athletic performance
Inositol
Insect fixing solutions, Prepare: 4.1
Insect repellents: 16.18.2
Insecticides: 16.2.0
Insulin, Fibrous proteins and globular proteins: 16.3.6.0.2
Integrated pest management: 16.8.4
Intermolecular bonds: 3.01.6
International system of units, SI, [Système international d'unités (French)]: 6.3.0
Intolerances, Food allergies and intolerances: 19.2.0
InulinC6nH10n+2O5n+1
Invar, Bimetallic strip, compound bar, thermostat: 23.107
Inversion layers: 37.39.2 (Weather)
Invertase (invert sugar)
Investigation, Experimental investigations: Topic 2.2
Invisible ink, Prepare: 3.2.5.0
Iodine, I
Ions ionic, ionizer, ionizing (Chemistry)
Ionic equations, double decomposition reactions: 12.2.1b
Ionic bonding: 14.02
Ions, ionic, ionizer, ionization
IPM, Integrated pest management: 16.8.4
Irgalon ST, EDTA tetrasodium salt, C10H12N2Na4O8
Irgasan, DP300, C12H7Cl3O2, (face and skin wash)
Irgasol Co New, Irgasol Dam 50% Liquid, Irgasol HTW New
Iridium, Ir
Iridoids: 16.3.5.03
Iridomycetin, C10H16O2
Irinotecan, C33H38N4O6, quinoline-based alkaloid
Irinotecan
Iron, Fe
IRR: non-corrosive but can damage skin if prolonged
Irritating, Hazard classifications: 15.1.0
Iso compounds
Isocyanuric acid (swimming pools)
Isoeugenol: 16.3.6.21
Isoflavonoids (phytoestrogens): 16.3.4.2.6
Isoleucine, C6H13NO2, (Table of amino acids)
Isoleucine, Genetic code, DNA codons
Isoprene units (C5H8): 16.3.5.02
Isopropenyl bromide, Bromopropene, C3H5Br: 12.18.14
Isopropyl bromide, Bromopropane: 12.18.13
Isoquinoline derivatives: 16.3.16
Isorhamnetin, C16H12O7
Isosafrole, C10H10O2: 16.3.6.22
Isotopes
Isotropy and thixotropy, Cornstarch, cornflour slime: 13.6.1
Isovaleric acid, C5H10O2

Chemistry J
Table of Contents
Jadeite, Hornblende (Geology)
Janus Green B (diazine green) CI. 11050
Janus Green B, If oxygen present, oxidized to blue, if oxygen absent, reduced to pink, stains mitochondria
See: Jars (Commercial)
Jasmolone, C11H16O2, monoterpene
Jasmone, C11H16O
Jasmonic acid, C12H18O3, plant hormone, tuber formation in potato, yam
Jasper, SiO2 (See: 4.)
Java oil contains geraniol and citronellal
Javelle water, aqueous solution of potassium or sodium hypochlorite, disinfectant and bleaching agent
Jelly
Jenner's Stain, methylene blue eosinate, blood smears
Jet black
Jojoba oil
joule, The units of work, energy, joule, kWh: 21.0.0
Juglone: 16.3.10.1
See: Jugs (Commercial)

Chemistry K
Table of Contents
Ka, Strong acids and weak acids, Ka, pKa: 12.3.0.3
KAA, Prepare KAA insect fixing solution: 4.9
Kaempferol, C15H10O6, flavonol
Kahle's solution, Prepare Kahle's insect fixing solution: 4.10
Kainic acid, C10H15NO4
Kalinite, K2SO4Al2(SO4)3.2H2O
Kaolinite, clays, Al4[(OH)8Si4O10]: 35.20.21.1
"Karo" syrup mountant, Prepare corn syrup mountant: 3.16
Kawain, C14H14O3
KB kilobyte (Electronics)
Kelvin scale, Absolute zero: 6.3.1.5.03
Kerargyrite, horn silver, AgCl
Keratan sulfate
Keratin
Kerosene, paraffin oil
Ketamine, C13H16ClNO: 11.12.2.2
Ketobutyric acid, α-ketobutyric acid, propionyl formic acid, CH3CH2COCOOH
Ketobutyric acid, β-ketobutyric acid, acetoacetic acid, CH3COCH2COOH
Ketones
Ketose, Aldoses and ketoses: Table 16.3.1.3
Ketose sugars: 16.3.1.2b
"Kevlar"
Kheltin, C14H12O5
Kiesel gel, grade C (hydrated silica gel)
Kilogram, mass: 6.3.1.2
kilowatt-hour (kWh), Units of work and energy, joule and calorie: 21.0.0
2.2.04 Kilowatt-hour, kWh (energy)
Kinetin, cytokinin plant hormone
See: Kipp's Apparatus (Commercial)
Kitchen, Household, home, kitchen items
Kjeldahl, Tests for nitrogen content in food, Kjeldahl method: 16.6.9
Knop's solution (hydroponics): 9.9.18.3
Kola, cola
Krebs cycle, citric acid cycle: 16.9.5
Krypton, Kr
Ksp, Solubility equilibrium, solubility product: 7.7.2
Kyanite, disthene, Al2(OSiO4).

26.0.0 Ice
See: Ice models, (Commercial)
4.41 Cool water, melt ice (Primary)
12.1.3 Cut ice with pressure
11.2.3 Density of ice
37.8.3 Dew point hygrometer
11.2.4.0 Float an ice cube
11.2.4.1 Float an ice cube in oil over water
11.11.4.2 "Ice", abuse of volatile substances
22.5.9 Ice calorimeter
16.2.10 Ice cream
20.4.02 Ice cubes in boiling water, Second law of thermodynamics
31.7.20 Ice filaments show electric field
28.11.1 Ice lens, Water concave lens
7.4.3.3 Ice melts, de-icers
34.8.2 Ice model
24.1.2 Lift ice cube with salt
11.2.2 Maximum density of water, negative expansion coefficient of water, "anomalous" properties of water
23.8.23 Melt ice blocks
7.4.3.0 Melting point of ice and freezing point of water
12.1.3 Pressure on solid ice
28.4.07 Refractive index of ice
16.1.4.4 Spinning ice skater
15.3.0.5 Spinning ice skater, angular momentum
7.4.3.1 Temperature at which ice melts
7.4.3.2 Temperature ice and salt mixture freezes
6.3.1.5.1 Triple point and ice point temperatures of water.

Indium, In
Indium
, In (Greek Indikon indigo, spectral lines) (supply shortfall), rare, in semiconductors
Indium, granular, In
Indium (III) acetate, C6H9InO6
Indium (III) acetate hydrate, C6H9InO6.xH2O
Indium (III) acetylacetonate, C15H21InO6
Indium (I) bromide, BrIn
Indium (III) bromide, Br3In
Indium (I) chloride, ClIn
Indium (II) chloride, Cl2In
Indium (III) chloride, Cl3In
Indium (III) chloride tetrahydrate, Cl3In.4H2O
Indium (III) fluoride, F3In
Indium (III) fluoride trihydrate, F3In.3H2O
Indium (III) hydroxide, nanopowder, H3InO3
Indium (I) iodide anhydrous, IIn
Indium (III) nitrate, InN3O9.xH2O
Indium (III) nitride, InN
Indium (III) oxide, nanopowder, In2O3
Indium (III) perchlorate hydrate, Cl3InO12.xH2O
Indium (III) phosphide, InP
Indium (III) sulfate, In2O12S3
Indium (III) trifluoromethanesulfonate, C3F9InO9S3
Indium (III) tris(trifluoromethanesulfonimide), C6F18InN3O12S6
Indium tin oxide, ITO, optically transparent front electrode for each pixel in flat screen televisions, touch screens, solar cells.

Indole, C8H7N, Amine
See diagram: Indole
Indole, aromatic, in coal tar, fused benzene and pyrrole rings, Toxic if ingested
Formed from amino acid tryptophan, C11H12N2O2.
Flowery smell at very low concentrationsm, but in human feces, intense fecal odor, in Jasmine oil and Orange blossom.
Five member heterocycles: 16.3.4.5
IAA (indole-3-acetic acid)
IBA (indole-3-butyric acid)
Indole-3-carbinol
Indolizidine derivatives, True alkaloids: 16.3.15
Indolizidine group of alkaloids: 16.3.9a
Serotonin, C10H12N2O
MCPA: 16.7.5.

IAA, Amine
IAA, Indole-3-acetic acid, 3-indolacetic acid, indol-3-yl-ethanoic acid, C10H9NO2
Phenoxyacetic acids can mimic the natural auxin, plant hormone, indole acetic acid and are not destroyed by the plant.
Auxins: 9.1.7.1 (See 1.)
Marcotting, air layering: 9.10.5, (See: 2, 3)
IAA is sold as: "Rooting powders for stem cuttings": 9.89.

IBA
IBA, indole-3-butyric acid
Auxins: 9.1.7.1 (See 4.)
Cuttings: 9.10.1 (See: 4.)
IBA is sold as "Rooting powders for stem cuttings": 9.89 (See: 1.)
Marcotting, air layering: 9.10.5 (See: 1.)

Inks
Distil ink: 10.5.1
Prepare Indian ink mounts: 6.6
Prepare Indian ink: 8.1.2c
Prepare invisible ink: 3.2.5.0
Separate by chromatography, mixed inks: 3.24.1.

Inks include solvent-based ink, water-based ink, ball pen refill, "Biro" or "Bic" refill, Indian ink, variable toxicity, solvent may be
flammable, marbling ink.
Students must not ingest marbling ink used in primary schools.
Indian ink (Chinese ink), is a mixture of lampblack, carbon black, bone black.
For block printing and screen printing, do not use oil-based solvents, but use water-based screen printing inks, e.g. "Lascaux".

3.2.5.0 Prepare invisible ink
Prepare invisible ink, disappearing ink, secret writing ink, sympathetic ink
"Disappearing Ink", acid / base indicator, thymolphthalein (sold by chemical suppliers)
3.2.5.1 Alum solution, K2SO4Al2(SO4)3.2H2O, invisible writing ink
3.2.5.5 Ammonium iron (II) sulfate or ammonium chloride, invisible writing ink
3.2.5.3 Cane sugar, sucrose solution, invisible writing ink
3.2.5.2 Cobalt (II) chloride solution, invisible writing ink
3.2.5.10 Gold in aqua regia, invisible writing ink
3.2.5.11 Iron (II) sulfate, invisible writing ink
3.2.5.14 Lemon juice, invisible ink
3.2.5.9 Milk, secret writing ink
3.2.5.8 Phenolphthalein (uncoated laxative tablets), invisible writing ink
3.2.5.12 Prepare black ink from iron (II) sulfate and oak galls
4.19 Prepare invisible inks (Primary)
3.2.5.13 Prepare red invisible ink with phenolphthalein
12.15.1 Prepare yellow invisible ink, copper (II) sulfate with ammonium chloride
3.2.5.6 Sodium chloride, invisible writing ink
3.2.5.4 Starch, cornstarch suspension, invisible writing ink with iodine
3.2.5.7 Vegetable juice, onion juice, red cabbage juice, invisible writing ink
3.2.5.15 Watermarks

Invertase
Invert sugar, C12H24O12, HFCS: 8.2.9.1
Invertase, fermentation for brewing: 3.38.

Invertase from baker's yeast, is a yeast extract enzyme.
It catalases sucrose hydrolysis to fructose and glucose (invert sugar).
Invertase is harmful if ingested, irritates eyes, food additive E1103
It is used as a stabilizer, a food processing aid, and in the production of confectionery foods and artificial honey
Invertase hydrolyses sucrose into glucose and fructose, yielding a colourless product, unlike acid hydrolysis of sucrose, which produces
coloured products.
Invertase is sold as "Invertase from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), practical grade".

Inulin
C6nH10n+2O5n+1, C228H382O191, naturally occurring, indigestible and non-absorbable oligosaccharide fructan dietary fibre, plant
energy store in roots or rhizomes instead of starch, used in processed foods to replace sugar and fat.
Occurs in roots and tubersof many plants, especially chicory, and in Jerusalem artichoke, Dahlia, sunflower, wheat, rye, onion,
bananas, garlic, asparagus, barley kernels.
Inulin stimulates the growth of beneficial bacteria in the colon to protect against pathogens, toxins and carcinogens, which can cause
inflammation and cancer.
Prebiotic fermentation of inulin leads to an increase in short-chain fatty acids and lactic acid production, reducing colonic pH and so
potential anticancer activity.
See diagram: Inulin

Iodine, I
See: Iodine Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Iodine value is the number of grams of iodine absorbed by 100 g of fat or oil, to indicate the amount of unsaturated acids.
Iodine solution, 1% iodine solution, 0.05 M, analytical reagent, 0.1N solution, Iodine indicator solution
Be careful! Iodine may stain the skin.
Remove stains with sodium thisulfate solution.
Iodine, Table of Elements
Iodine, properties: 7.2.2.20
Iodine compounds
Iodine experiments: 12.19.6
Iodine, DEA List 1 chemicals: 3.9.5, (See: Iodine)
Iodine density at STP = 4.93 g/cm3
Iodine clock reaction: 17.1.6
Iodine extraction, I2: 12.19.6.6
Iodine with aluminium: 12.1.3
Iodine with ammonium hydroxide: 12.19.6.7
Iodine with starch: 12.19.6.10
Iodine clock reaction, hydrogen peroxide with potassium iodide: 17.1.6
Hydrolysis of starch by dilute hydrochloric acid: 9.129
Iodine value, Acyclic hydrocarbons: 16.4.1.0
Iodine with chlorine --> iodine monochloride
Iodine with fluorine --> iodine pentafluoride
Iodine writes on iron: 12.19.6.12
Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction, hydrogen peroxide clock 17.1.8
Decolorize iodine solution: 12.19.6.11
Extract iodine from kelp: 10.13.2
Fingerprints with iodine: 12.19.6.9
Prepare Grams iodine solution: 1.6.2
Heat copper with iodine (synthesis reaction): 12.2.2.2
Heat iodine crystals: 12.19.6.0
Heat iron with iodine (synthesis reaction): 12.2.2.3
Lugol's iodine solution, microscopy stain: 3.15
Pass chlorine through iodine solution: 13.4.12
Prepare Grams iodine solution: 1.6.2
Prepare iodine solution, tincture of iodine: 12.19.6.5
Prepare iodine solutions: 1.6.1
Prepare Lugol's iodine solution: 3.15
Prepare solid iodine from tincture of iodine: 12.19.6.8
Separate sodium chloride from iodine: 10.13.1
Schulze's solution (chlor-zinc-iodine), stain: 3.24
Tests for amylose and amylopectin: 9.132a
Tests for breakdown of starch to sugars: 6.5.11 (See: 2.)
Tests for cellulose, iodine test for cellulose: 9.135
Tests for diastase activity: 9.3.10
Tests for glucose and starch, "Testape": 9.182 (See: 2.)
Test for hydrolysis of starch, iodine test, Fehling's solution: 16.10.1
Tests for iodides: 12.11.5.12
Tests for saturated hydrocarbons: Iodine value
Tests for starch in potato tuber cells: 9.133
Tests for starch, iodine solution: 1.6
Tests for starch, iodine tests for starch: 9.132
Tincture of iodine
Zinc powder with iodine solution: 12.2.2.4.

Iodine compounds
Compare silver chloride, silver bromide and silver iodide: 12.19.6.4
Electrolysis of potassium iodide solution: 15.5.27
Equilibrium between ICl and ICl3: 17.5.3
Iodate clock reaction: 17.1.9
Iodate ion: IO3-
Iodates, hazards: 3.7.8
Iodic acid, Prepare iodic acid and potassium iodate: 12.19.6.3
Iodide ion: I-
Iodides, I-, hazards, allergy: 3.7.9
Iodine clock reaction, hydrogen peroxide with potassium iodide: 17.1.6
Iodine monochloride, ICl
Iodine oxides, I2O4, I4O9, I2O5, IO4
Iodine pentafluoride, IF5, Iodine trichloride, ICl3, yellow powder, strong disinfectant, Toxic by all routes
Iodoacetic acid, C2H3IO2, Toxic
Iodoacetronitrile, C2H2IN
Iodobenzene, phenyl iodide, C6H5I, Toxic if ingested
Iodobenzene diacetate, C6H5I(O2CCH3)2
1-iodobutane, n-butyl iodide, C4H9I, Toxic by all routes, Highly flammable
Iodoethane, ethyl iodide, C2H5I, Toxic by all routes, Highly flammable
Iodoform, CHI3, tri-iodomethane, yellow hexagonal plates, mild antiseptic, Toxic if ingested, irritating vapour
Iodoform, triodomethane (antiseptic), Harmful, skin irritant, irritating vapour,
Iodoform test for -COCH3 or -CHOHCH3
Iodomethane, methyl iodide, CH3I
1-iodopropane, n-propyl iodide, Harmful if ingested or skin contact
Iodoso compound, iodoso radical -IO
Iodoxy compound, iodoxy radical -IO2
Iodyl sulfate (IO)2SO4, iodyl ion (IO)+
Nitrogen triiodide, NI3: 12.19.6.13
Potassium iodate (V), KIO3
Potassium iodide, KI
Potassium iodide + benzenediaonium chloride (carcinogenic) --> iodobenzene (explodes above 200oC)
Prepare hydrogen iodide, HI: 12.19.6.1
Prepare iodic acid and potassium iodate: 12.19.6.3
Prepare triodomethane: 16.1.13
Reactions of iodides, I-: 12.19.6.2
Tests for iodides: 12.11.5.12
Tincture of iodine.

Iodine monochloride
Iodine monochloride, ICl, Wijs' solution, Tests for fats and oils
Wijs' solution, iodine chloride, iodine monochloride, Toxic by all routes, avoid vapours, brown-red crystals
Iodine monochloride is dissolved in acetic acid to form Wijs' solution to test fats and oils for the iodine value or iodine number to
determine the degree of unsaturation in fatty acids, e.g. coconut oil about 9, olive oil about 85, linseed oil about 200.

12.19.6.0 Heat iodine crystals
Use a Bunsen burner flame to heat gently < 0.5 g of iodine crystals in a test-tube with a stopper to show sublimation, then allow the
test-tube to cool to show condensation.
If heating more than 0.5 g of iodine strongly, do it only in a fume cupboard to avoid the irritating vapour.

12.19.6.5 Prepare iodine solution, tincture of iodine
Tincture of iodine
Dissolve 10 g of potassium iodide in 30 mL of water.
Add 6.5 g iodine crystals.
Swirl the solution until all the iodine crystals dissolve.
Make up volume to one litre with distilled water to form a solution.

12.19.6.6 Iodine extraction, I2, tincture of iodine
16.3.5.2.8: Povidone, Polyvinyl pyrrolidene
Set up a white background, retort stand and retort ring to fit three separating flasks.
Dilute tincture of iodine to produce 200 mL of a deep golden solution.
Mix 200 mL of the dilute iodine solution with 200 mL 0.2 M copper (II) sulfate to produce a green solution.
Pour one third of the mixture into each of two 250 mL separating flasks.
Keep a third flask for comparison.
Add 100 mL of ether to one flask, insert a stopper and shake while venting the vapours to release
any build up of pressure.
Leave to stand.
Add about 00 mL Freon or chloroform to the second separating flask.
Insert a stopper, shake the flask and leave it to stand.
The ether extraction produces two layers, a blue, lower, aqueous layer, and a yellow, upper, ether layer.
With care in the dilution of the original iodine solution, and the selection of volumes of solution to be used, the final ether layer will
appear the same colour as the original iodine solution.
The Freon or chloroform extraction initially produces a purple colour, during the shaking, which should separate on standing to give an
upper (aqueous) blue layer and a lower (Freon) pink layer.
Iodine is a non-polar substance so it is more soluble in the non-polar Freon and the slightly polar ether, than in water, that is highly polar.
Copper (II) ions are soluble in water but not in non-polar solvents.

12.19.6.7 Iodine with ammonium hydroxide
This experiment is very dangerous.
Wear safety gloves eye and ear protection.
Put 2 or 3 very small iodine crystals in a glass beaker.
Do not use tincture of iodine.
Pour ammonia solution over the crystals to just cover them.
Mix the contents of the beaker by swirling it for a few seconds then leave the beaker in a fume cupboard or well-ventilated place for
five minutes to allow a brown precipitate to form on in the beaker, fifteen minutes if using cloudy ammonia.
Use masking tape to attach two layers of filter paper to a ring clamp attached to a retort stand and leave this apparatus in a safe place
that is well-ventilated without wind or direct sunlight.
Decant the liquid in the beaker to leave a brown solid.
Dispose of decanted liquid down the sink with plenty of water.
Wear safety gloves while using a spatula to transfer the brown solid to the filter paper then leave this apparatus in a safe place to dry
for two hours leaving the light grey solid ammonium nitrogen triiodide.
Be careful! Explosive! When the precipitate is thoroughly dry while wearing ear and eye protection and observers standing well away
and protecting their ears, touch the precipitate with a long stick.
Some people use a long stick with an attached feather to touch the ammonia nitrogen triiodide.
The explosion leaves a purple vapour that should be avoided.
Ammonia nitrogen triiodide may be found is some fireworks called Party Poppers but do not try to open these fireworks and remove
this chemical.

12.19.6.8 Prepare iodine crystals from tincture of iodine
Leave 1 cm of iodine solution in an basin cup to evaporate.
When only drops of liquid are left in the basin, transfer them to an evaporating dish.
Put the dish on a tripod and gauze and place a small watch glass or saucer over the top.
Heat the dish over a small flame.
The remaining liquid quickly evaporates.
Then the iodine vaporizes and becomes deposited as small shiny black crystals on the bottom of the watch glass.
Scrape crystals from the bottom of the watch glass into a dry basin with a knife.
Transfer the crystals to a dry test-tube and heat the test-tube.
The violet vapour of iodine fills the test-tube, and shiny black crystals of solid iodine deposits again in the cooler part of the test-tube.
Like ammonium chloride, iodine does not melt when heated but sublimes.
To keep the iodine crystals put a stopper in the test-tube before the iodine evaporates.

12.19.6.9 Fingerprints with iodine
Press the fingers close together on a sheet of plain white paper.
While vaporizing the iodine from the evaporating dish in the previous experiment, remove the watch glass for seconds and place the
sheet of paper with the finger-prints downward over the dish.
When the paper is removed the prints show up clearly on the white paper.
This method of developing fingerprints on cigarettes may used by crime investigators.

12.19.6.10 Iodine with starch
1. Use tincture of iodine to detect the presence of iodine starch, when an intensely black-blue complex forms.
Some clock reactions produce iodine to be detected by the formation of a starch-iodine complex.
The complex comprises a linear chain of iodine molecules inside the spiral of glucose molecules that form the starch structure.
Iodine with boiled starch solution produces an intense blue colour.

12.19.6.11 Decolorize iodine solution
Alkalis also decolorize iodine.
Add drops of sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, or ammonia solution to iodine solution.

12.19.6.12 Iodine writes on iron
Rub the blade of a penknife with sandpaper to clean the surface.
Heat the blade and then stroke it on both sides with a small piece of candle or taper.
When the blade has cooled a thin coating of wax is found to have adhered to the metal.
Use a knitting needle to write initials in the wax.
Write deeply enough to reach the iron.
Cover the blade with iodine solution in a test-tube and leave it for half an hour.
Remove the wax to find initials etched on the blade.

Ions, ionic, ionizer, ionizing
See: Atomic & Ionic chart, (Commercial)
Ions: 5.0.0
Chemical equations and ionic equations: 12.1.0
Common ion effect
Ionic migration: 33.3.9
Electric writing: 3.4.4
Ion exchange resin
Ion exchange resins, deionized water: 16.4.4.1
Ion exchange resins, Water softening using ion exchange resin: 12.13.13
Ionic bonds, electrovalent bonds, e.g. sodium chloride: 3.01.1
Ionic equations: 12.2.1b
Ionic migration: 33.3.9
Ionic surfactants in washing powders: 12.12.03.1a
Ionizing radiation, Geiger counter: 2.9.0
Ionization reaction of carbonic acid: 12.3.0.5
Ionization by radioactivity, smoke alarms, electroscope: 32.3.4.4 (Physics)
Ionization by X-rays: 32.3.4.8, (Physics)
Ionizer for swimming pools: 18.7.34
Migration of ions, speed of ions: 32.3.3.2 (Physics)
Movement of copper and chromate ions: 33.89
Movement of copper ions, ammonium nitrate: 3.4.3
Movement of ions between microscope slides, Cu2+ ions, CO2+ ions: 33.90
Movement of ions, potassium permanganate solution: 3.4.1
Movement of ions, sodium sulfate solution: 3.4.2
Phosphate ions in water: 18.4.1
Prepare salts by chemical reactions: 12.2.1a
Test paper to determine electric polarity: 3.4.5
Tests for anions in sewage and tap water: 18.5.2
Tests for cations, prepare a solution for group analysis: 12.11.4.0
Tests for ions in a water sample: 18.4.0.

Iridium, Ir
Iridium
(Latin iris rainbow, from colours of its salts), Iridium powder, AAS solution, yellow-white metal
Iridium-192, reactor-produced medical radioisotope, half-life 73.83 days, wire form, treat head and breast cancer
Iridium as layer in the earth came from the KT boundary caused by the Chicxulub asteroid impact in Gulf of Mexico over 54 million
years ago.
Iridium has very high density 22, 420 kg / m3, and melting point 2, 446oC, so is used in crucibles and to harden platinum.
Possibly the rarest element and may come from an asteroid.
(Acetylacetonato)dicarbonyliridium(I), C7H7IrO4
Bis(1, 5-cyclooctadiene)diiridium(I) dichloride, C16H24Cl2Ir2
Chlorobis(cyclooctene)iridium(I), dimer, C32H56Cl2Ir2
Dichlorotetrakis(2-(2-pyridinyl)phenyl)diiridium(III), C44H32Cl2Ir2N4
Diiodo(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)iridium(III), dimer, C20H30I4Ir2
Iridium (III) acetylacetonate, C15H21IrO6
Iridium (III) bromide hydrate, Br3Ir.xH2O
Iridium (III) chloride hydrate, Cl3Ir.xH2O
Iridium (IV) chloride hydrate, Cl4Ir.xH2O
Pentaamminechloroiridium(III) chloride, H15Cl3IrN5
Tetrairidium dodecacarbonyl, C12Ir4O12.

Iron, Fe
See: Iron Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Iron, Table of Elements
Iron, properties: 7.2.2.21
Iron and iron deficiency: 1.5.0, (Soil)
Iron compounds, ferrous Fe2+, ferric Fe3+, ferrate
Ferric, Ferro, Ferrous, compounds
Iron experiments Reactions of iron: 14.8.0
Tests for iron: 12.11.3.20
Tests for iron in cooking water: 19.3.3a.

Burn steel wool and burn iron filings: 13.3.3
Burn steel wool and weigh the products: 7.1.1.1
Burn steel wool, change in weight: 12.1.2
Burn steel wool in chlorine: 13.4.8.1
Detect iron in fruit juice using black tea: 14.8.15
Differences in potential on iron nail: 15.7.3
Dilute sulfuric acid with steel wool: 12.3.3
Direct union of elements, iron with sulfur: 8.0.0
Drink can, Beverage can
Iron from breakfast cereal: 16.7.18
Galvanized iron, galvanized steel
Group 3 tests for Al3+, Cr3+, Fe2+, Fe3+: 12.11.4.3
Halide vapour over hot iron wire forms iron halides: 12.19.2.0
Hand warmers
Heat of rusting, steel wool: 14.1.4
Heat hydrated iron chlorides: 14.8.13
Heat iron (II) sulfide: 14.8.8
Heat iron filings with powdered sulfur: 14.8.6
Heat iron to form iron (II) oxide: 8.2.13
Heat iron with copper: 12.2.2.7
Heat iron with sulfur: 12.2.2.1
Heat steel wool with iodine crystals: 12.2.2.3
Iron and zinc with copper (II) sulfate solution: 12.14.2.3
Iron deficiency: 1.5.0 (Soil)
Iron displaces hydrogen from hydrochloric acid: 14.8.12
Iron displace hydrogen from sulfuric acid: 14.8.11
Iron from breakfast cereal: 16.7.18
Iron in drinking water: 18.2.2.2
Iron powder heat pack: 14.1.12
Iron with copper (II) sulfate solution: 12.14.2.2
Iron with sulfuric acid, Temperature and rate of reaction: 17.2.3
Ocean Iron Fertilization (OIF): 37.43.2
Oxidation of iron: 6.23 (Soils)
Physical changes, magnetize and demagnetize iron wire: 7.1.4
Potential difference from combining half cells, zinc and iron: 15.7.1
Reactions of chlorine with steel wool: 13.4.16
Rusting: 15.3.0
Stains in swimming pools: 18.7.42
Steel wool.

Iron compounds
Iron compounds, ferrous Fe2+, ferric Fe3+, ferrate, (anion) Fe3O42-
Ammonium (II) sulfate, Fe(NH4SO4),
Arsenopyrite, FeAsS, mispickel, arsenical pyrites
Acetylferrocene, C12H12FeO
Black iron oxide is a mixed base, Fe3O4: 14.8.10
Bromoferrocene, C10H9BrFe
Cast iron alloy, steel, wrought iron: 5.5.12
Chalcopyrite, CuFeS2: 35.20.9, (mineral)
Chromite, FeCr2O4
Ethylferrocene, C12H14Fe
Ferric, Ferro, Ferrous, compounds
Ferric ammonium sulfate (FAS), iron alum: 12.1.6
Ferric citrate trihydrate
Ferric orthophosphate
Ferric alum, K2SO4.Fe2(SO4)3.24H2O
Ferric hydroxide colloid: 7.8.7.2
Ferricyanides, [Fe(CN)6]3-, hazards: 3.7.5
Ferrocene, C10H10Fe
Ferroceneacetonitrile, C12H11FeN
Ferrocenecarboxylic acid, C11H10FeO2
Ferrocenemethanol, C11H12FeO
Ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate, C10H10F6FeP
Ferrocenium tetrafluoroborate, C10H10BF4Fe
Ferrocyanides, [Fe(CN)6]4-, hazards: 3.7.6
"Ferrous ammonium sulfate", Mohr's salt: Iron ammonium sulfate
Ferrous ammonium phosphate (FAP), iron fortification of foods
Goethite, FeO(OH), hydrous iron oxide: 35.20.17
Greigite, Fe3S4, iron (II, III) sulfide
Hematite, haematite, iron glance, Fe2O3: 35.20.20
Hydrolysis of iron (III) chloride: 12.10.5
Iron (0) pentacarbonyl, C5FeO5
Iron (II) ammonium citrate, ferrous ammonium citrate, Toxic if ingested
Iron (II) ammonium sulfate, Fe(NH4SO4),
IIron (II) bromide, Br2Fe
Iron (II) chloride, FeCl2
Iron (II) diiron (III) oxide, Fe3O4, ferrosoferric oxide, triiron tetroxide, black magnetic iron oxide, ferric oxide, magnetite
Iron (II) ethylenediammonium sulfate tetrahydrate, C2H10N2O4S.FeSO4.4H2O
Iron (II) lactate hydrate, C6H10FeO6.xH2O
Iron (II) nitrate, Fe(NO3)2, ferrous nitrate, oxidant, Fe(NO3)2, 6H2O
Iron (II) oxide, FeO, ferrous oxide, iron oxide, black oxide of iron, ferrous iron (II) oxide, E172
Iron (II) sulfate
Iron (II) sulfide
Iron (II) trifluoromethanesulfonate, C2F6FeO6S2
Iron (II, III) oxide, Fe3O4 (FeO.Fe2O3), magnetite: 35.20.23
Iron (III) acetylacetonate, C15H21FeO6
Iron (III) ammonium sulfate, iron alum: 12.1.6
Iron (III) arsenide, AsFe
Iron (III) bromide
Iron (III) chloride, FeCl3
Iron (III) chromate, ferric chromate, Toxic by all routes, carcinogenic, avoid inhaling fine particles
Iron (III) ferrocyanide, Prussian blue
Iron (III) hydroxide, Fe(OH)3, ferric hydroxide
Iron (III) nitrate, Fe(NO3)3
Iron (III) oxalate hexahydrate
Iron (III) oxide, Fe2O
Iron (III) perchlorate
Iron (III) phosphate, FePO4, ferric orthophosphate, ferric phosphate, iron (III) orthophosphate, snail bate, Toxic if ingested
Iron (III) phosphate dihydrate, FePO4.2H2O
Iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3, yellow, hygroscopic
Iron (III) sulfate hydrate, Fe2(SO4)3.xH2O, ferric sulfate, hydrated ferric sulfate, Toxic if ingested
Iron (III) sulfate technical, Fe2(SO4), 3.9H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 56 g in 1 L water
Iron (III) sulfate, acid sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3.H2SO4.8H2O
Iron (III) trifluoroacetylacetonate, C15H12F9FeO6
Ilmenite, FeTiO3: 35.20.2
Iodine writes on iron: 12.19.6.12
Iron alum, ferric ammonium sulfate (FAS): 12.1.6
Iron carbide, Carbides (C4-): 16.2.3.1
Iron chromite, Chromite for craft
Iron halide, vapour over hot iron wire: 12.19.2.0
Iron hydroxide, Ferric hydroxide colloid: 7.8.7.2
Iron hydroxide, Prepare iron: 12.1.7
Iron meteorite, iron, iron-nickel alloy, silicates, sulfides minerals
Iron oxide, mixed base, Fe3O4: 14.8.10
Iron oxide, Thermite reaction: 12.1.5
Iron oxide, iron hydroxide, limonite, bog iron ore
Iron oxide, Prepare: 12.1.7
Iron sulfide, FeS, magnetic pyrites: 35.20.34
Iron pyrite, pyrite, iron sulfide, FeS2: 35.20.32
Limonite, FeO(OH), 35.20.17
Magnetite, Fe3O4: 35.20.23
Magnetite is sold as "Ferrosolution", and "Magnetite, Nanoparticles, Ferrosolution"
Marcasite, iron sulfide, FeS2: 35.20.25
Melanterite, Iron (II) sulfate,
Potassium ferrate (VI), FeK2O4
Potassium hexacyanoferrate (II) trihydrate, C6FeK4N6.3H2O
Potassium nitrate, KNO3
Paper clips and rusting: 5.5.13
Prepare ferric tannate with tea leaves: 16.8.2
Prepare iron (II) ammonium phosphate: 12.14.2
Prepare iron (II) ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4.FeSO4.6H2O: 14.8.14
Prepare iron (II) oxide, FeO: 14.8.7
Prepare iron (III) ammonium alum (NH4), 2SO4.Fe2(SO4), 3.24H2O: 12.14.3
Prepare iron (IlI) chloride, FeCl3: 12.19.8.3
Prepare iron (III) hydroxide: 12.1.7
Prepare iron (IlI) oxide, Fe2O3: 14.8.9
Pyrites, Heat iron (II) sulfide: 14.8.8
Pyrites, iron pyrite, fool's gold, FeS2: 35.20.32
Pyrrhotite, FeS, iron sulfide: 35.20.34
Reactions of iron salts, Prussian blue: 14.8.1
Reactions of iron: 7.2.2.21
Reactions of iron, Fe: 14.8.0
Redox titration, iron (II) sulfate: 15.2.4.5
Reduce iron (III) chloride, H2S: 3.43.3
Reduce iron (III) chloride, SO2: 3.51.3
Reduce iron (IlI) salts: 14.8.5
Rusting: 15.3.0
Siderite FeCO3, chalybite, spathose iron
Sodium ferrocyanide, C6FeN6Na4
Sodium hexafluoroferrate (III), F6FeNa3
Sodium nitroferricyanide (III) dihydrate, C5FeN6Na2O.2H2O
Sodium nitroprusside dihydrate, C5FeN6Na2O.2H2O
Tests for iron: 12.11.3.20
Tests for iron in cooking water: 19.3.3a
Tests for oxidizing agents: 15.2.8
Vinylferrocene, C12H12Fe

Iron (II) ammonium sulfate
Fe(NH4SO4), 2.6H2O, NH4)2SO4.FeSO4.6H2O, FeH8N2O8S2
Mohr's salt, ferrous ammonium sulfate, ammonium iron (II) sulfate, ammonium ferrous sulfate hexahydrate, ammonium iron sulfate
pale blue-green, monoclinic crystals or granules
in air slowly oxidizing and efflorescent, r.d. 1.86, store in dark place.
Ammonium iron (II) sulfate, For 0.1 M solution, 39.2 g in water, add 5 mL concentrated H2SO4 in 1 L water
Ammonium iron (II) sulfate, Secret writing inks: 3.2.5.5
Prepare ammonium iron (II) sulfate, Mohr's salt: 12.14.3
Prepare iron (II) ammonium sulfate: 14.8.14
Weight of iron in iron (II) ammonium sulfate: 17.6.1
For 0.5 M solution, 196 g in 1 L water + 10 mL concentrated H2SO4, dilute to 1 litre
0.1 M solutions are used to test cations,
iron (II) compounds can be oxidized by air, but acidified solutions are stable.

Iron (II) chloride, FeCl2, iron chloride, ferrous chloride, deliquescent
Pass chlorine through iron (II) chloride solution: 13.4.13
Iron (II) chloride (hydrated), FeCl2.2H2O, green
Iron (II) chloride tetrahydrate, FeCl2.4H2O, blue-green, iron chloride, ferrous chloride
Iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeCl3.6H2O, ferric chloride hexahydrate (FeCl3, ferric chloride anhydrous), iron chloride, iron
trichloride, flores martis, black-brown, catalyst, 20% solution used for printed circuit board etchant but use eye protection and gloves,
iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, 0.1 M electrochemistry solution, harmless.

Iron (II) sulfate, FeSO4
Iron (II) sulfate-7-water, iron (II) sulfate heptahydrate, FeSO4.7H2O, Harmful
Iron (II) sulfate, ferrous sulfate, Toxic if ingested
Iron (II) sulfate, FeSO4.H2O, white solid
Iron (II) sulfate-7-water, FeSO4.7H2O, iron sulfate, hydrated ferrous sulfate, melanterite mineral
Iron (II) sulfate-7-water, FeSO4.7H2O, iron (II) sulfate 7H2O, iron (II) sulfate heptahydrate, hydrated
ferrous sulfate, Harmful
Iron (II) sulfate-7-water, iron (II) sulfate (VI)-7-water, green vitriol, copperas, blue-green, melanterite
Heat iron (II) sulfate-7-water crystals: 3.2.2
Iron (II) sulfate-7-water, For 0.1 M solution, 27.8 g in 1 L water + 1 mL conc. H2SO4 to clear
Iron (II) sulfate oxidation to iron (III) sulfate: 12.1.3
Iron (II) sulfate with sodium carbonate: 12.1.1
Iron (II) sulfate with ammonia: 12.1.2
Iron (III) sulfate reduction to iron (II) sulfate: 12.2.8
Prepare iron (II) sulfate crystals with iron filings: 12.1.5
Prepare sulfuric acid with iron (II) sulfate: 12.2.4
Redox titration for weight of iron (II) sulfate in capsule of iron supplement: 15.2.4.5
Tea with iron (II) sulfate: 12.10.1.

Iron (II) sulfate, Iron (II) sulfate heptahydrate, FeSO4.7H2O, ferrous sulfate heptahydrate, green vitriol, copperas, wood preservative,
inks, green crystals, dissolve in water to form neutral solution, crystals turn brown if exposed to air when oxygen of the air converts
iron (II) sulfate into brown sulfate of iron, iron (III) sulfate, ferric sulfate.
Keep crystals stored in a sealed container.
The same change when a solution iron (II) sulfate is heated.
Prepare a solution of iron (II) sulfate by shaking the powdered crystals with cold water.
Green vitriol was used in industry to make ink.

Iron (II) sulfide, FeS2
Iron (II) sulfide, pyrite, iron pyrite, iron sulfide: 35.20.32
Heat iron (II) sulfide: 14.8.8
The 1-3% "sulfur" in coal is usually iron (II) sulfide (pyrite): 12.6.0.2.

Iron (II) sulfide, Toxic if ingested (with acids forms toxic hydrogen sulfide), FeS
Iron (II) sulfide with hydrochloric acid will form the poisonous gas, hydrogen sulfide, H2S, odour of rotten eggs.

Iron (III) chloride, FeCl3
Iron (III) chloride, ferric chloride anhydrous, ferric chloride hexahydrate, Toxic by all routes,
Ferric chloride 43% solution, Ferric chloride 60% solution
Iron (III) chloride, For 0.1 M solution, 27 g in 1 L water + 20 mL HCl
Iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeCl3.6H2O, iron (III) chloride 6H2O, ferric chloride hexahydrate, Toxic
Etchants: 7.9.20.1 (See: 3.).

Iron (III) chloride, Iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeCl3.6H2O, ferric chloride hexahydrate (FeCl3, ferric chloride anhydrous), iron
chloride, iron trichloride, flores martis, black-brown, catalyst, 20% solution used for printed circuit board etchant but use eye
protection and gloves, iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, 0.1 M electrochemistry solution, harmless.
Iron (III) chloride, like common alum, it may be used for stopping bleeding from small cuts.

Iron (III) ferrocyanide, Prussian blue
Lapis lazuli: 35.20.55
Prepare crystal blossoms: 3.54.9
Prussian blue as a semipermeable membrane: 9.168
Reactions of iron (II) salts and iron (III) salts, Prussian blue: 14.8.1 (See: 3.).

Prussian blue, iron (III) ferrocyanide, ferric ferrocyanide, Iron (III) ferrocyanide, C18Fe7N18, Fe7(CN)18(H2O)14-16, Turnbull's blue,
paint pigment, engineer blueprint, laundry blue, Perls' Prussian Blue, dark blue synthetic pigment, colloidal or water-soluble form,
histology stain for iron, sequestering antidote for some heavy metal poisons, e.g. thallium and caesium radioisotopes.
Prussian blue as "washing blue" is added to clothes washingto to make yellowing cotton sheets appear white and as a blue rinse to dye
the hair of old ladies.
Prussian blue as a dye is made by oxidation of ferrous ferrocyanide salts, by adding iron (II) sulfate to potassium ferrocyanide, with the
later addition of iron (III) chloride.
Prussian blue can be distilled to yield prussic acid, hydrocyanic acid, HCN, which is very poisonous.

Iron (III) hydroxide, Fe(OH)3
Antimony, Reactions: 12.2.1
Ferric hydroxide, iron (III) hydroxide: 7.8.7.2
Group III Insoluble hydroxides: 12.11.7.3
Hydrolysis of iron (III) chloride: 12.10.5
Iron (II) sulfate with ammonia: 12.1.2
Prepare iron (III) hydroxide: 12.1.7
Reactions of iron (II) salts and iron (III) salts, Prussian blue: 14.8.1.

Iron (III) nitrate, Fe(NO3)3
Iron (III) nitrate nonahydrate, Fe(NO3)3.9H2O, oxidizing, Toxic, skin irritant, explosive with combustibles
Iron (III) nitrate, nonahydrate, ferric nitrate (nonahydrate), For 0.1 M solution, 40.4 g in 1 L water.

Iron (III) oxide, Fe2O3, ferric oxide, iron (III) oxide hydrated, Fe2O3.xH2O, dust may be toxic, iron sesquioxide, ferric sesquioxide,
rust, red iron oxide, red ferric oxide, red ferric oxide, red iron oxide, haematite, hematite, magnetite, brown red powder, yellow-brown
pigment, red ochre, burnt ore, burnt ochre, jewellers rouge polish, Venetian red, crocus powder, source of iron, mixed with red clay
for liver function.
Iron (III) oxide hydrated, Fe(OH)O, ferric hydroxide oxide, catalyst.

Iso compounds
iso compounds, "Iso" shows that the compound is an isomer
Isoamyl acetate, amylacetic ester, Toxic by all routes
Isoamyl alcohol, 3-methylbutanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, isopentyl alcohol (CH3)2CHCH2CH2OH, Toxic
Isoamyl nitrite
Isobutane, methyl propane, methylpropane, C4H10
Isobutanol
Isobutyl acetate
Isobutylamine
Isobutyraldehyde, C4H8O, 2-methylpropionaldehyde, Isobutanal, methyl propanal, methylpropional, 2-methyl-1-propanal, Highly
flammable
Isobutyric acid, 2-methylpropionic acid (CH3)2.CH.COOH
Isobutyryl chloride
Isocaproic acid
Isocyanates
Isocyanuric acid
Isocyanurates, stabilized chlorine: 18.7.2.3
Isohumulone, C21H30O5: 16.7.11.1
Isoleucine (Table of amino acids)
Isoleucine, Genetic code, DNA codons
Isooctane
Isopentane
Isopentanol, isoamyl alcohol
Isopentyl alcohol
Isophtalic acid
Isoprene, Isoprene units (C5H8): 16.3.5.02
Isopropanol, isopropyl alcohol
Isopropyl amine, isopropylamine
Isopropyl bromide, 2-bromopropane, Toxic by all routes
Isopropyl chloride
Isopropylcyclohexane: See diagram 16.1.1h octane
Isopropyl ether (CH3)2CHOCH(CH3)2, diIsopropyl ether, Highly flammable, Harmful
Isoquinoline group of alkaloids: 16.3.4a
Isothiocyanates: 16.2.8.1
Isovaleric acid
Isovaleryl chloride
Isothiocyanate (isothiocyanato), N=C=S-, monodentate ligand.

Isobutanol, isobutyl alcohol
Isobutyl alcohol: See diagram 16.0.1
Isobutyl alcohol, Solution < 25%, Not hazardous.

Isocyanuric acid
Isocyanuric acid, swimming pool chlorine stabilizer, sodium dichloroisocyanurate, granules, trichloroisocyanuric acid tablets
Isocyanuric acid, tricarbamide, s-triazinetriol, C3H3N3O3, is a chlorine stabilizer for swimming pools, administered as sodium
dichloroisocyanurate granules or trichloroisocyanuric acid tablets.

Isorhamnetin
Isorhamnetin, C16H12O7, flavonol, O-methylated flavon-ol, in Mexican tarragon.

Isopropyl alcohol
In "Density Tubes Kit" (needs isopropyl alcohol), miscible / immiscible
Isopropyl alcohol, isopropanol, 2-propanol, propan-2-ol (CH3)2CHOH, Toxic by all routes, Flammable, irritating pungent odour,
rubbing alcohol (IPA) (conc. from 70% to 99%), in skin cleaning swabs, chromatography solvent or reactant, alcohol burner fuel,
car fuel additive "ISO-HEET"
Propanol, isomers: propan-1-ol, propan-2-ol: 16.1.3.A.

Isotopes
Astatine, Halogens, Group 17: 1.6.0
Atomic mass, atomic weight: 5.1.01
Deuterium: 3.6.1
Mole, amount of substance: 5.1.0
Properties of elements: 7.2.2.1.

Jasmone, C11H16O
Jasmone, C11H16O, cis-jasmone, pale yellow liquid, the volatile part of jasmine flower oil, two isometric forms: cis-janmone from
natural oil and trans-jasmone from synthetic oil, distinctive exotic smell, in citrus, peppermint oil, green tea, Bergamot orange.

Jelly
Jelly, gels
Jelly beans, Separate food colours in coloured sweets, e.g. jelly beans, "Smarties": 10.2.2.7
Gelatin, gelatine
Make jelly with fresh pineapple and tinned pineapple: 19.2.9.1
Paraffin, kerosene
Prepare glycerine jelly: 2.1
Tests for pectin in jelly and jam: 16.7.9.0
"Vaseline"

Keratin
Keratin
Hair and hair products, keratin: 19.7.3 (Cosmetics)
Fibrous and globular proteins: 16.3.6.0.2.

Keratan sulfate
Keratan sulfate, Acidic mucopolysaccharide, glycosaminoglycan, long unbranched polysaccharides, repeating disaccharide unit,
"poly β-galactose--β-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfate", sulfated glycosaminoglycan in cornea, bones, cartilage
Keratan sulfate proteoglycan is obtained from bovine cornea.

Ketones
Ketones (=CO) (-one), e.g. propanone (acetone) (CH3C=OCH3)
Ketones have a carbonyl group (C=O), bonded to two carbon atoms in the form R2C=O, but neither R may be H.
Ketones contain the ketone group (-CO-).
It is a carbonyl group with two single bonds to other carbon atoms.
Propanone (acetone, CH3COCH3), and butanone (CH3COC2H5, methyl ethyl ketone), are the simplest saturated ketones (R1COR2).
Ketone names end with "-one".
Ketones cannot be detected with Tollens' test or Fehling's test.
Ketones have a hydrogen atom attached to the carbon atom attached to the carbonyl group, C=O.
Butanone, CH3COC2H5
Cyclohexanone, C6H10O, 2, 4-DNP Hydrazone, Toxic by all routes, flammable
Ethyl isobutyl ketone, C7H14O, 5-methyl-3-hexanone, volatile organic compound, in human body solutions and faeces
Heptanone, C7H14O,
Jasmone, C11H16O
Methyl isobutyl ketone (CH3)2CHCH2COCH3, 4-methylpentan-2-one, hexone, solvent, Toxic, Flammable
Pentan-2-one, methyl propyl ketone, Toxic by all routes, Highly flammable
Pentan-3-one, diethyl ketone, Toxic by all routes, Highly flammable.

Acetone, CH3COCH3, O=C(CH3)2 (2-propanone, dimethyl ketone), Harmful, highly flammable
Ketones group, Suffix: -one
Ketone test
Multiple reagent strips
Tests for ketones: 19.1.20.4.1
Tests for aldehydes with Fehling's solution: 9.142.2.

Krypton, Kr
See: Krypton Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Krypton Table of Elements
Krypton, Kr (Greek kruptos hidden), non-metal, colourless, odourless, noble gas, at room temperature and pressure.
Kr2 extracted from liquid air, 0.0001% of the air, in photoionization detector (PID) lamps and mixed with other inert gases in
fluorescent lamps.
Krypton forms few compounds.
Atomic number: 36, Relative atomic mass: 83.80, r.d. 2.16 (121 K), m.p. = -157oC, b.p. = -152oC.
Specific heat capacity: 247 J kg-1 K-1.