School Science Lessons
Tests
2019-07-27
Please send comments to: J.Elfick@uq.edu.au
Tests

Table of contents
Confirmation tests with original solution or solid: 12.11.3.10
Group tests instructions: 12.11.7.0
Food tests: 9.3.11.0
Test Strips (Commercial)
Tests for all substances: 2.0.0
Tests for an unknown substance, qualitative analysis: 12.11.3.0
Tests for gases and vapours: 1.0.0
Tests for swimming pools: 18.5.0

2.0.0 Tests for all substances
Test strips, chemical tests, (commercial)
Test reagents: 16.7.15 (commercially available)
Multiple reagent strips: 19.1.20.5
Solubility table and solubility rules: 3.71.1
Tests for acetates: 12.11.5.1
Tests for acetic acid in vinegar: 12.11.3
Tests for acetylene (ethyne): 16.1.1.3.2
Tests for acid-base indicators: 3.53.1
Tests for acid radicals in solution: 12.11.5.0
Tests for air and dissolved oxygen in water: 18.3.0a
Tests for air pollution from burning refuse: 18.6.2.1
Tests for albumin and gelatin: 16.6.4
Tests for alcohols, potassium manganate (VII): 16.1.3.1.1a
Tests for aldehydes with Fehling's solution: 9.142.2
Tests for aldehydes, Tollens' test: 16.3.7.3
Tests for aluminium: Tests
Tests for ammonia: 3.33.1
Tests for amylose and amylopectin: 9.132a
Tests for anions: 12.11.5.0
Tests for antimonates, borates, oxalates: 12.11.5.2a
Tests for antimony: 12.11.3.12
Tests for arsenates: 12.11.5.3
Tests for arsenic: 12.11.3.8, (See:Heat with charcoal 2.)
Tests for arsenic, flame tests: 12.11.3.2a (See: Arsenic)
Tests for ash content of plant dry matter: 9.3.16
Tests for aspirin: 12.1.9
Tests for barium: 12.11.3.13
Tests for bicarbonates: 12.11.5.4
Tests for bismuth: 12.11.3.14
Tests for bismuth: 12.11.3.8, (See3.)
Tests for blood: 9.180
Tests for borates: 12.11.5.5
Tests for borax / turmeric adulteration of food: 19.1.20.9
Tests for breakdown of starch to sugars: 6.5.11
Tests for bromides: 12.11.5.6
Tests for cadmium: 12.11.3.8, (See:Heat with charcoal 4.)
Tests for cadmium: 12.11.3.15
Tests for calcium: 16.7.23.1
Tests for calcium, flame test: 12.11.3.16
Tests for calcium carbonate (limestone): 35.31 (Geology)
Tests for carbohydrates, Molisch's test: 9.134
Tests for carbon dioxide: 3.34.1.0
Tests for carbon monoxide with a gas detector: 18.6.3.1
Tests for carbonates: 12.11.5.7
Tests for catalase in yeast: 9.3.12
Tests for cations (group analysis): 12.11.4.0
Tests for cement
Tests for cement bricks strength: 3.66.1
Tests for cellulose, iodine test: 9.135
Tests for cellulose, solubility test: 9.136
Tests for chewing gum quality by comparing bubbles: 16.7.30
Tests for chlorides: 12.11.5.8
Tests for chlorine: 15.5.12a
Tests for chlorine: 3.40.1
Tests for chlorine: 18.7.21.0, (Testkit for swimming pools)
Tests for chlorine: 18.7.4.0, (Free chlorine in swimming pools)
Tests for chromates: 12.11.5.9
Tests for chromium: 12.11.3.17
Tests for cigarette smoke: 16.7.28
Tests for cobalt: 12.11.3.18
Tests for concrete alkalinity: 3.66.3
Tests for copper: 12.11.3.8, (See: Heat with charcoal 5.)
Tests for copper: 12.11.3.19
Tests for copper (II) oxide: 8.2.12, (See: 2.)
Tests for dextrins in toast: 19.3.4.1
Tests for diastase activity: 9.3.10
Tests for dinitrogen oxide, nitrous oxide: 3.45.1
Tests for dissolved oxygen, DO (Winkler method): 18.3.2
Tests for elements (metals), flame tests: 12.11.3.2a
Tests for Faraday's first law: 15.1.1.1
Tests for fats and oils: 9.137
Tests for fats, proportion of fats in foods: 16.4.5
Tests for food, food tests: 9.3.11.0
Tests for gases and vapours: 1.0.0
Tests for glucose: Tests forglucose
Tests for glycerine: 12.7.4
Tests for glycerol: 12.12.3
Tests for Group 1. Ag, Pb, Hg: 12.11.4.1
Tests for Group 2. Bi, Cd, Cu, Sn: 12.11.4.2
Tests for Group 3. Al, Cr, Fe: 12.11.4.3
Tests for Group 4. Co, Mn, Ni, Zn: 12.11.4.4
Tests for Group 5. Ba, Ca, Sr: 12.11.4.5
Tests for Group 6. K, Mg, Na, NH4: 12.11.4.6
Tests for gypsum added to the soil: 6.15.5
Tests for haemoglobin, Hematrace test: 9.184
Tests for halides, Cl, Br, I: 12.11.5.10
Tests for hard water, water hardness: 12.13.03
Tests for hardness of lead, tin, and tin alloys: 3.62.0
Tests for heat: Tests for heat
Tests for hydrogen chloride: 3.42.1
Tests for hydrogen gas: 3.41.1.0
Tests for hydrogen peroxide: 12.12.6
Tests for hydrogen sulfide solution: 3.43.1
Tests for hydrolysis of starch with dilute hydrochloric acid: 9.129
Tests for hydrolysis of starch, iodine test, Fehling's solution: 16.10.1
Tests for hydrolysis of starch by salivary amylase (ptyalin): 9.130
Tests for hydrolysis of sucrose by dilute acids: 9.131
Tests for hydroxides: 12.11.5.11
Tests for hydroxyl ions (hydroxide ions), ammonia solution: 13.6.5
Tests for insoluble solids in rain water: 18.2.1
Tests for iodides: 12.11.5.12
Tests for ions in a water sample: 18.4.0
Tests for iron: 12.11.3.20
Tests for iron in cooking water: 19.3.3a
Tests for ketones: 19.1.20.4.1
Tests for lactic acid solution: 12.7.11
Tests for lead
Tests for lemon juice effect on apple browning: 19.3.4.2.2 (Cooking)
Tests for lignin: 9.145
Tests for lignin, Microscope staining techniques: 9.61 (See: 3.)
Tests for limestone: 35.31 (Geology)
Tests for lipase activity in milk: 9.3.14, (See: 2. Milk)
Tests for magnesium: 12.11.3.8, (See 7.)
Tests for magnesium, cobalt nitrate, titan yellow: 12.11.3.22
Tests for magnesium in compounds: 12.4.12
Tests for manganese: 12.11.3.23
Tests for melting point of lead, tin, and lead-tin alloys: 3.63
Tests for metallic radicals: 12.11.6.0
Tests for metals with borax beads: 12.11.3.1a
Tests for metals with flame tests: 12.11.3.2a
Tests for methane gas, burn methane: 16.5.1.2
Tests for milk: 16.0.0
Tests for moisture content of plant organs: 9.3.15
Tests for multiple reagents: 19.1.20.5
Tests for natural fabrics, burning tests: 4.2.0
Tests for nickel: 12.11.3.24
Tests for nitrates / nitrites with dipsticks: 19.1.20.6
Tests for nitrates: 12.11.5.13
Tests for nitrogen content in food, Kjeldahl method: 16.6.9
Tests for nitrogen content in food, soda lime test: 9.138
Tests for nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide): 3.45.1
Tests for organic acids and alcohols: 16.4.1.0
Tests for organic compounds: 16.4.5.0
Tests for oxalates: 12.11.5.14
Tests for oxidase and peroxidase in plant tissues: 9.3.11
Tests for oxidation of glucose: 16.3.7.2
Tests for oxidizing agents
Tests for oxygen absorption during plant respiration: 6.6.7
Tests for oxygen content of water (dissolved oxygen): 18.3.2
Tests for oxygen gas: 3.49.1
Tests for oxygen gas, electrolysis: 15.5.12
Tests for pectin in jelly and jam: 16.7.9.0
Tests for pH: 18.1.0
Tests for phosphate ions in water: 18.4.1
Tests for phosphates: 12.11.5.15
Tests for phosphorus and phosphates: 12.13.0
Tests for photosynthesis: 6.5.7
Tests for plastics, natural fibres and synthetic fibres: 3.102
Tests for plastics, burning tests: 4.1.0
Tests for polymers: 4.0.0
Tests for potassium, sodium perchlorate: 12.11.3.25
Tests for potassium, tetraphenylborate: 11.3.1.1
Tests for proteins, Albustix test strips: 16.6.8
Tests for proteins, biuret test: 16.6.5
Tests for proteins, Millon's test: 16.6.7
Tests for proteins, ammonia or amino acids with ninhydrin: 10.2.2.5a
Tests for precipitates, acids with lead (II) nitrate: 3.71.4
Tests for precipitates, mix salt solutions: 3.71.3
Tests for rain water (soluble solids): 18.2.3
Tests for reducing sugars in urine, Benedict's solution: 9.141.2
Tests for reducing sugars, Fehling's test: 9.142.0
Tests for respiration of soaked peas with lime water, respiration apparatus: 9.155
Tests for saponins: 16.3.5.1.6b
Tests for saturated hydrocarbons, bromine water: 16.4.7.0
Tests for silver: 12.12.11.3.8, (See 8.)
Tests for silver: 12.11.3.26
Tests for sodium hydroxide, soapy feel: 12.1.15
Tests for sodium bicarbonate in a stomach powder: 12.1.20
Tests for sodium, uranyl magnesium acetate: 12.11.3.27
Tests for soils, Soil tests: 6.40
Tests for solubility, for group analysis: 12.11.3.3
Tests for solubility of salts in water: 3.71.2
Tests for soluble solids in rain water: 18.2.3
Tests for starch, iodine solution: 1.6
Tests for strength of mud, clay and sand bricks: 3.65
Tests for strength of plaster of Paris bricks: 3.67
Tests for strontium: 12.11.3.28
Tests for substances with dilute hydrochloric acid: 12.11.3.5
Tests for sucrose with Fehling's solution: 9.142.5
Tests for sugars: 6.5.12
Tests for sugars in plant parts, Fehling's solution: 9.142.7
Tests for sulfates: 12.11.5.16
Tests for sulfates in groundwater: 18.2.2.3
Tests for sulfides: 12.11.5.17
Tests for sulfites: 12.11.5.18
Tests for sulfur dioxide: 3.51.1
Tests for sulfur in proteins: 16.6.11
Tests for swimming pools: 18.5.0
Tests for synthetic fibres, burning tests: 4.3.0
Tests for thermometer calibration: 22.7.3
Tests for tin: 12.11.3.8 (See: Heat with charcoal 9.)
Tests for tin: 12.11.3.29
Tests for unknown substances: 12.11.3.0
Tests for unsaturation: 16.4.9.0
Tests for urea, urea forms biuret: 16.6.13
Tests for urine, reagent dipsticks: 19.1.20.12
Tests for urine, urine tests: 9.5.10
Tests for vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid): 9.143
Tests for water, copper sulfate: 3.30.6
Tests for water, Drinking water test media: 18.7.1
Tests for water hardness: 12.13.03
Tests for water, heat copper sulfate crystals: 8.2.1
Tests for water pollution: 18.8.0, (Environmental chemistry)
Tests for water samples: 18.5.3
Tests for water, standing water: 18.5.0, (Environmental chemistry)
Tests for water testing, chemicals: Water testing Commercial
Tests for water to form lather: 12.13.1
Tests for water with cobalt (II) chloride: 8.2.2
Tests for wood: 9.144
Tests for zinc: 12.11.3.8, (See:Heat with charcoal 10.)
Tests for zinc: 12.11.3.30
Tests for zymase and catalase in yeast: 9.3.12

1.0.0 Tests for gases and vapours
Tests for acetylene: 16.1.1.3.2
Tests for ammonia: 3.33.1
Tests for carbon dioxide: 3.34.1.0
Tests for carbon dioxide in the breath with lime water: 6.6.10
Tests for carbon monoxide with a gas detector: 18.6.3.1
Tests for chlorine: 3.40.1
Tests for chlorine levels in swimming pools, test kit: 18.7.21.0
Tests for gases collected in a respirometer: 6.6.12
Tests for gases from burning hydrocarbons: 16.4.6.0
Tests for gases with hot concentrated sulfuric acid: 12.11.3.6
Tests for gases: Lighted splint tests
Tests for hydrogen chloride: 3.42.1.0
Tests for hydrogen gas: 3.41.1.0
Tests for hydrogen sulfide solution: 3.43.1
Tests for methane gas, burn methane: 16.5.1.2
Tests for nitrous oxide, dinitrogen oxide: 3.45.1
Tests for oxygen absorption during plant respiration: 6.6.7
Tests for oxygen gas: 3.49.1
Tests for sulfur dioxide: 3.51.1
Tests for water with cobalt (II) chloride: 8.2.2

3.71.1 Solubility table and solubility rules
1. All ethanoates (acetates) are soluble, but the Ag salt is slightly soluble.
2. All carbonates are insoluble, except the Na, K and NH4 salt.
3. All chlorides are soluble, except the Ag and Hg salts.
The Pb2+ salt is slightly soluble, but more soluble in hot water.
4. All hydroxides are insoluble, except the Na, K and NH4 salt.
The Mg2+ and Ca2+ salts are slightly soluble.
5. All nitrates are soluble.
6. All phosphates are insoluble, except the Na, K, NH4 salts and some acid phosphates.
7. All common sodium, potassium and ammonium salts are soluble.
8. All sulfides are insoluble, except the Na, K, NH4, Mg2+, Ca2+and Ba2+ salts.
9. All sulfates are soluble, except the Ba2+, Pb2+, Ca2+ and Hg2+ salts.
The Ag2+ salt is slightly soluble.
10. All salts of silver are insoluble, except silver nitrate and silverchlorate.

3.71.2 Tests for solubility of salts in water
Silver ethanoate (silver acetate) and silver sulfate are slightly soluble.
Test if a salt is soluble in water.
Select salts from the laboratory, e.g. ammonium chloride, barium chloride, barium sulfate, calcium sulfate, copper nitrate,
copper (II) carbonate, copper (II) sulfate, lead (II) nitrate, potassium nitrate, potassium chloride, potassium sulfate, sodium chloride,
sodium ethanoate (acetate) sodium sulfate, sodium carbonate.
Put 5 g of each salt in a test-tube.
Note the room temperature.
Add 10 mL of water and stir or shake vigorously.
Note whether the temperature of the mixture changes.
Classify each salt as soluble or slightly soluble or insoluble.
Check whether the results agree with the solubility rules.