School Science Lessons
Please send comments to: J.Elfick@uq.edu.au
Chemistry Ca to Ch
Table of Contents
C4 explosive, Nitrosamines: 184.108.40.206.03
C.I. numbers, Pigment names: 8.0
Cacodyl (CH3)2As-As(CH3)2, poison, garlic smell
Cacotheline, C21H21O7N3, test
for tin: 220.127.116.11 (See 2.)
Caesium (Cesium), Cs
Caffeic acid: 18.104.22.168
Calamine, Smithsonite, ZnCO3: 35.20.40 (Geology)
Calcein, C30H26N2O13, green fluorescent dye, determine calcium, label bones
Calcination, Prepare fibrous plaster board with plaster of Paris: 3.2.6
Calcofluor, Prepare calcofluor white solution: 6.1
Calgon, Remove water hardness: 22.214.171.124
Calmagite, water hardness test: 126.96.36.199
Calomel, mercury (I) chloride: 188.8.131.52 (Geology)
calorie, Units of work and energy, joule and calorie, kilowatt-hour:
Calorific value of fuel: 4.38
Calorimeters, Specific heat capacity, calorimeters, heat measuring devices:22.5.0
See: Calorimeters (Commercial)
Can, beverage can, aluminium
can, beer can, "tin" can
Candles (Chemistry): 8.1.1
Candles (Physics): 8.1.1a
See: Candles (Commercial)
Canola oil: 16.14.5
Caoutchouc, rubber, latex
31.8.0 Capacitors, capacitance, farad, energy of a capacitor
184.108.40.206 Capacitors in AC circuits, capacitive reactance, capacitor circuits, power
Capric acid, CH3(CH2)8COOH, Decanoic acid
Caproic acid, CH3(CH2)4COOH
Caprylic acid, CH3(CH2)6COOH
Caprylic alcohol Octanol, CH3(CH2)7OH
Captan (fungicide): 16.6.3
Caramelization, non-enzymatic browning: 220.127.116.11
Carbamide, CO(NH2)2, urea
Carbaryl, C12H11NO2, insecticide: 18.104.22.168 (Agriculture)
Carbazole, C12H9N, Harmful if ingested
Carbazotic acid (NO2)3C6H2OH, Picric acid
Carbides (C4-): 22.214.171.124
Carbinol, CH3OH, methanol or alcohol derived from methanol
Carbetocin drug to control post-partum bleeding
Carbohydrates, carbohydrate acids: 126.96.36.199
See: Carbon, Charcoal Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Carbol fuchsin, Prepare carbol fuchsin (microbiology stain): 3.5.3
Carbol xylol, Prepare carbol xylol (biology solution): 1.4
Carbolic acid, phenol: 16.1.0
Carbon, carbon compounds: Chemistry Carbon
Carbon dioxide, CO2: 3.34
See: Carbon dioxide Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Carbonic acid, soda water: 3.34.3a
Carbonyl, >C=O, Carbohydrate compounds: 188.8.131.52a
Carborundum, SiC, silicon
Carboxyl group, COOH
Carboxylic acids and fatty acids: 184.108.40.206
Carcinogenic substances: 15.2.7
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and (EAR): 9.242.0
Carmine (CI: 75470), microscopy stain: 3.6
Carminic acid, C22H20O13: 3.6
Carnauba wax (non-slip wax)
Carnelian (cornelian), SiO2, Chalcedony, 35.14.4
Carnosine, C9H14N4O3, dipeptide
Carnoy's fluid, Prepare Carnoy's fluid (insect fixing fluid): 4.8
Carotenes (C40Hx): 220.127.116.11.0
Carotenoids, Tetraterpenoids (C40H64): 18.104.22.168.8a
Carthamin, C43H42O22, formerly carthamine
Carving stones, Limestone: 35.22.7
Cassiterite, tinstone, SnO2
Cast iron alloy, steel, wrought iron: 5.5.12
Castor oil, ricinoleic acid: 22.214.171.124
Cat litter, Montmorillonite (smectite): 126.96.36.199
Catenation: Formation of chains of atoms
Cathode & anode, Electrochemical cell, voltaic cell, galvanic cell,
Cathodic protection, Electrochemical prevention of rusting: 15.4.0
Cation exchange capacity soil test (CEC): 6.50.2
Cation, Exchangeable cations soil test: 6.50.3
Cations, Tests for cations, prepare a solution for group analysis: 188.8.131.52
Caustic baryta, Ba(OH)2,
KOH, potassium hydroxide
Caustic soda, NaOH,
Cellotape, Prepare cellotape flags (to identify fungi): 6.2
Cells, electric cells, batteries
Cellulase, Cellulose digestion: 9.214
Celsian, barium feldspar, BaAl2Si2O8
Celsius scale: 184.108.40.206.02
Centrifuge, Separate by a simple centrifuge: 10.11.2
See: Centrifuge (Commercial)
Cereal, Breakfast cereal
Cerussite, lead carbonate, PbCO3, ceruse, white lead:
Cetyl alcohol, Melting point of substances: 220.127.116.11
Cetyl palmitate, spermaceti
wax, Sperm whale oil
CFCs, atmosphere and greenhouse gases: 37.42.1
CFCs, chlorofluorocarbons, "Freons": 18.104.22.168
CGS (cgs) units (centimetre, gram, second): 3.9.0
(II) sulfate, CuSO4.5H2O (mineral)
Chalcocite, Cu2S, 35.20.11a,
Chalcopyrite, CuFeS2: 35.20.9
See: Chalk rock mineral, (Commercial)
Chamazulene , C14H16
Change of state: 24.0
11.0 Charcoal, Activated charcoal
See: Carbon, Charcoal Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Charles's law, Constant gas pressure (Gay-Lussac's law): 20.1.0
See: Charles's Law (Commercial)
See: Charts (Commercial)
Chavicol, C9H10O: 22.214.171.124
Cheese, Cheese-making: 16.2.4
Chemiluminescence, bioluminescence: 14.3.0
Chevibetol, C10H12O2: 126.96.36.199
Chewing gum, Glass transition temperature (Tg): 3.4.02
Chewing gum, Tests for chewing gum quality by comparing bubbles: 16.7.30
Chile saltpetre, sodium
Chilli spray: 16.9.1
Chloral, CCl3CHO: 188.8.131.52
Chloramines in swimming pools: 18.7.23
Chlorate ion: ClO3-
Chlorates, Decomposition of chlorates (potassium chlorate): 3.30.11
Chlorates, hazards (potassium chlorate): 3.7.2
Chlordane, C10H6Cl8, pesticide: 16.4.01 (Agriculture)
Choleretic, substance which increase bile from the liver
Chloric acid, HClO3, Not permitted in schools
Chloride ion: Cl-
Chlorides, List of chlorides: 1.9
See: Chlorine (Commercial)
Chloro-compounds, List of chloro-compounds: 1.10
Chloroacetic acid, CH2ClCOOH
Chlorofluorocarbons, CFCs, "Freons": 184.108.40.206
CHCl3, Not permitted in schools
Chloroform, Prepare trichloromethane: 16.1.14
Chlorogenic acid, C16H18O9
Chloromethane, CH3Cl, methyl chloride
Chlorophenol red, C19H12Cl2O5S: 9.0 (indicator)
Chlorophyll, chloroplasts: 6.5.2
Chloroplatinic acid, H2PtCl6.6H2O
Chlorothalonil fungicide, C8Cl4N2: 16.6.5,
Chocolate, Commercial chocolate: 27.0
Chocolate wrapper (aluminium), cell in the mouth: 33.3.6 (biology)
Chromatography, Separation by chromatography: 10.2.0
See: Chromatography (Commercial)
Chroming, "huffing" (inhalant abuse): 11.11.1
Chromium oxychloride, CrO2Cl2
Chromate ion: CrO42-, dichromate ion Cr2O72-
Chrysanthemic acid, C10H16O2,
Chrysoberyl, alexandrite, Al2BeO4
Chrysolaminarin, β-1, 3-glucan, in phytoplankton
Cadmium Table of Elements
Cadmium properties: 220.127.116.11
Reactions of cadmium sulfate solution: 12.3.1
Heat substances with charcoal and fusion mixture: 18.104.22.168 (See: 4. Test for cadmium.)
Tests for cadmium: 22.214.171.124.
Cadmium, Cd (Latin cadmia calamine mineral,
a zinc ore), lumps, rods, AAS solution, granular, powder
Highly toxic, Not permitted in schools, toxic at low concentrations.
Cadmium metal is soft silver-white or blue-white colour, shiny metal,
usually found combined with other elements, e.g. cadmium
chloride, cadmium oxide, cadmium sulfite.
As fine powder burns to release toxic fumes of cadmium oxide.
Cadmium can replace zinc in body proteins causing cadmium vapour poisoning,
itai-itai bone-softening disease in Japan.
Cadmium is used in solders and electroplating.
Cadmium, blue-white, occurs in sphalerite, zinc sulfide, crystal deposits,
zinc ores, resembles zinc, a rare element that occurs in the
mineral sphalerite, zinc sulfide, is used for cadmium plating against
corrosion, in nuclear reactors and in films sensitive to ultraviolet
light, reference voltage in a Western Standard cadmium cell, Cd / Zn alloys
in low melting point solders and aluminium solders, Ni-Cd
batteries (Nicad) phosphorescent coating of TV tubes.
The artist's paint, cadmium sulfide can be green, yellow and orange is
an artist's paint.
Cadmium looks like zinc but make a crackling sound like tin when bent.
Oysters in polluted water may accumulate cadmium.
In former Communist countries that practised collection of "night soil"
as a fertilizer, cadmium pollution of low-lying agricultural soil has
Cadmium is toxic because it competes with Zn and Ca.
Cadmium can deprive the body of zinc by binding with proteins instead
Cadmium vapour is poisonous.
Large concentrations cause painful bone ailments and bone porosity in
Japan, called itai-itai.
Our body gets rid of excess Cd by deposition in the kidneys and liver.
Atomic number: 48, Relative atomic mass: 112.41, r.d. 8.64, m.p. = 321oC,
b.p. = 765oC.
Specific heat capacity: 230 J kg-1 K-1.
Cadmoselite, rare cadmium mineral containing cadmium (II) selenide, CdSe
Nickel-cadmium battery, NiCad battery: 15.6.14
Reactions of cadmium sulfate solution: 12.3.1
Weston Standard Cell, "Cadmium cell": 33.3.01.
Most cadmium compounds are not permitted in schools
Cadmium used in metal plating and battery-industry stabilizing agents
in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products, alloyed with copper for
automobile radiators, component of petrol, diesel fuel and lubricating
Cadmium and its compounds are stable, some compounds soluble, e.g. cadmium
chloride, other compounds insoluble, e.g. cadmium
Cadmium acetate dihydrate, C4H6CdO4.2H2O
Cadmium acetylacetonate, C10H14CdO4
Cadmium bromide tetrahydrate, Br2Cd.4H2O
Cadmium carbonate, CCdO3, Not permitted in schools
Cadmium copper, copper containing about 1% cadmium, used in telephone
Cadmium chloride, AAS Solution, cadmium
chloride std, Not permitted in schools
Cadmium chloride anhydrous, CdCl2, cadmium chloride hydrate,
Cadmium chloride used in the dyeing and printing of fabrics, in electronics
component manufacture and in photography.
Cadmium disulfide, photosensitive semiconductor
Cadmium hydroxide, H2CdO2
Cadmium iodide, CdI2, white lustrous, flaky odourless crystals
becoming yellow in light and air.
Cadmium molybdate, CdMoO4
Cadmium, Nickel-metal hydride battery, NiMH battery: 15.6.14
Cadmium nitrate, AAS std
Cadmium nitrate tetrahydrate, CdN2O6.4H2O
Cadmium oxide: CdO, monteponite, "probable carcinogen", Not permitted
Cadmium oxide is used in electroplating, in semiconductors, and in glass
and ceramic glazes.
Cadmium perchlorate hydrate, CdCl2O8.xH2O
Cadmium (II) selenide, CdSe, cadmium (II) selenide, cadmoselite mineral,
cadmium red, craft overglaze, "pigment red 108"
Cadmium (II) selenide, transparent to infrared light, photosensitive
Cadmium (II) selenide, cadmoselite is a rare cadmium mineral containing
cadmium (II) selenide, CdSe
Cadmium sulfo-selenide (cadmium red, red 108) Not permitted in schools.
Cadmium sulfate, CdO4S, Highly
toxic, Not permitted in schools
Cadmium sulfate (cadmium yellow, yellow 37), Cadmium sulfate hydrate,
Reactions of cadmium sulfate solution: 12.3.1
Cadmium sulfide, CdS, craft yellow overglaze, cadmium yellow, pigment
yellow 35, 36, semi-conductor, in light detectors
Cadmium sulfide (cadmium orange, orange 20, cadmium vermilion red), most
colours except blue
Cadmium sulfide used in the electronics industry for photocells and light
emitting diodes, curing agent in tires.
Cadmium sulfide, greenrockite mineral, hawleyite mineral, insoluble in
Cadmium telluride thin films in solar cells to replace silicon panels
Cadmium tungstate, CdO4W
Zinc cadmium sulfide pigment, fluorescent orange.
See: Caesium Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Caesium Table of Elements
Caesium (Cesium) Cs (Latin caesious blue-green, refers to spectral
lines), caesium ion Cs+,
Caesium melts in boiling water, caesium minerals, most electropositive
and alkaline metal, MP 301.65 K
Caesium 133 used for very accurate atomic clocks, define the atomic second,
in GPS technology
Caesium has "sky blue" lines in its spectrum, Latin: caesium, colour
of the sky
Discovered with spectroscope by Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff in
Caesium reacts explosively with water and may shatter the container.
2Cs + 2H2O --> 2CsOH + H2
caesium + water --> caesium hydroxide + hydrogen gas.
Cesium acetate, C2H3CsO2
Cesium bromide anhydrous, BrCs
Cesium carbonate, CCs2O3
Caesium chloride, CsCl, cesium chloride, Harmful if ingested
Caesium chloride model, (Scientrific)
Cesium fluoride, CsF
Cesium fluoroaluminate, AlCs2F5
Cesium formate, CHCsO2
Cesium hydrogen carbonate, CHCsO3
Cesium methanesulfonate, for patch clamps, CH3CsO3S
Cesium nitrate, CsNO3
Cesium pivalate, C5H9O2Cs
Caesium sulfate, Cs2SO4.
Caesium sulfate, Cs2SO4, cesium sulfate, dicesium
sulfate, white pellets, large crystals, powder chunks, water soluble,
prepare dense aqueous solutions, Harmful if ingested
Cesium triiodide, CsI3.
Californium, Cf, Table of Elements, first made at "California University", radioactive, metallic actinide series.
Canada balsam from balsam fir, contains
Pinene, C10H16, monoterpene
2.4 Prepare Canada balsam mounting solution.
Carbamates, polyurethane resins, cyanides, imidesisocyanates, quinines
Carbamates are esters of carbamic acid NH2COOH, [H2NC(=O)OH]
Carbamates, carbamate R-O (C=O)N-R, R: 126.96.36.199a
See diagram 16.13.7: Carbamates, carbaryl,
See diagram 16.13.8: Deet, DMP dimethylphthalate
Ammonium carbonate, smelling salts: 188.8.131.52
Carbamide (urea), [CO(NH2)2], CO(NH2)2
Deet, N, N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide, C12H17NO
Ethyl carbamate, C3H7NO2, blood flow
in a fish: 9.217
Ethyl carbamate, Urethane, carbamate esters: 184.108.40.206
Mancozeb (fungicide): 16.6.13
Maneb (fungicide): 16.6.14
Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides: 16.2.2, (Use prohibited in schools)
Thiocarbamate R-O (C=S)N-R, R
Urethane, carbamate esters
= urethanes, [R2NC(=O)OR', where R' not = H, R= ethyl].
One type of carborane called o-Carborane, C2B10H12,
1, 2-Dicarbadodecaborane(12), in heat-resistant polyhedra clusters, causes
convulsions, medical applications, carboranes are heteroboanes which
have "organomimetic" properties.
Carotenes, carotenoid pigments
Carotenes, C40Hx: 220.127.116.11.0
Carotenoids, Tetraterpenes C40 (eight isoprene units), Tetraterpenoids:
Antioxidants, vitamin E: 18.104.22.168
Boiling, test the cooking water of boiled vegetables: 19.3.3 (See 1., and 6.)
Cells, plant cells, Elodea: 9.9.0
Chromatography of chlorophyll pigments: 6.5.5,
(See 1. and 3.)
Food colouring and ADHD: 19.9.1
Separate by chromatography, pigments from green leaves: 3.24
Vitamins in canned food: 19.3.05
Vitamin A: 16.4.1.01
Vitamins: 5.4.0 (See 2. Pigs, Vitamin A, carotene).
β-Carotene, Type I, synthetic, 93% (UV), powder,
β, β-Carotene, Provitamin A, C40H56, commercial
β-Carotene, Type II, synthetic, 95% (HPLC), crystalline, β, β-Carotene,
Provitamin A, C40H56, commercial
E160a Carotenes (from carrots and orange to yellow fruit and vegetables,
γ-carotene) (colour: orange
yellow) (becomes vitamin A)
E161g Canthaxanthin (a xanthophyll) (from β-carotene or animals, e.g.
crustaceans) (Banned in some countries) (colour: pink),
(Health risk, vision and skin colour problems).
Casein and caseinates: 16.2.6
Fibrous proteins and globular proteins: 22.214.171.124.2 (See 2. Globular proteins)
Prepare casein plastic from milk: 3.100
Size of colloidal particles: 126.96.36.199
Tests for plastics, natural fibres and synthetic fibres: 3.102.
Hydrogen peroxide on cut skin: 188.8.131.52
Hydrogen peroxide on cut potato:
Hydrogen peroxide with catalase enzyme in raw beef liver, Disproportionation:
Tests for catalase in yeast: 9.3.12.
Catalase is a common enzyme
in animal and plant cells that catalyses the decomposition of hydrogen
peroxide to water and oxygen.
Catalysis, catalysts: 17.3.0
Alumina as a catalyst in the cracking process: 12.1.10
Browning reactions of fruits and vegetables: 184.108.40.206.1
Bleaches in washing powders: 12.12.03.4
Burning sugar cube, combustible cube: 220.127.116.11
Catalysts and rate of reaction: 3.94
Catalytic conversion of nitric oxide: 3.44.1
Catalytic converter in a motor vehicle: 18.104.22.168
Catalytic cracking of kerosene: 10.6.4
Cracking, Thermal cracking,
Catalytic oxidation of ammonia, with oxygen gas: 17.3.12a
Catalytic oxidation of ammonia, with red-hot platinum wire: 22.214.171.124
Catalytic oxidation of ammonia, with chromium (III) oxide: 126.96.36.199
Catalytic oxidation of methyl alcohol: 17.3.12
Enzymes and biological catalysts: 17.4.0
Metals, non-metals, transition metals: 7.3.0,
(See: 3. Transition metals)
Prepare oxygen gas with hydrogen peroxide: 3.49.0
Prepare sodium polyacrylate gels (ghost crystals): 188.8.131.52.1
Propane (C3H8) (catalytic cracking): 184.108.40.206.
220.127.116.11 Catalytic converter
in a motor vehicle
See 18.6.3: Danger of vehicle exhausts,
A catalytic converter reduces emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen
oxides and hydrocarbons from motor vehicles, usually with a
three-way catalyst of platinum, palladium and rhodium on a ceramic base.
Carbon monoxide is oxidized to carbon dioxide.
Hydrocarbons are oxidized to carbon dioxide and water.
Nitrogen oxides are reduced to nitrogen gas.
If the catalytic converter uses an oxidation catalyst, it cannot reduce
the oxides of nitrogen, which must be lessened by engine design.
A caustic substance is very alkaline, with pH approaching 14.
It can dissolve skin and fat to form soap, e.g. caustic soda NaOH, caustic
Semipermeable membrane: 9.165.
"Cellophane" is the
proprietary name for a glossy transparent wrapping material.
Modified cellulose (cellophane is a trade name name from: cellulose +
diaphane (French: transparent)
cellulose + alkali + carbon disulfide --> viscose through sulfuric
acid and sodium sulfate --> cellulose + glycerine --> cellophane rayon.
Cellophane is used in food and cigarette packages, "Sellotape", "Scotch
Tape", dialysis tubing (Visking tubing)
Cellophane absorbs moisture, used in "Fortune Telling Fish" (Commercial).
See: Cellulose (Commercial)
Cellulose (C6H10O5)n, cellulose
ashless, cotton wool, hemicellulose, lignin
Cellulose digestion: 9.214 (Biology)
Cellulose, hemicellulose: 18.104.22.168
Micro-organisms and cellulose: 4.3.10
Tests for cellulose, Fehling's solution: 9.142.6
Tests for cellulose, iodine tests for cellulose: 9.135
Tests for cellulose, solubility tests for cellulose: 9.136
Tests for wood: 9.144.
Celluloid film (cellulose nitrate + camphor)
Cellulose acetate: 3.5.8
Cellulose acetate sheet: 31.1.23
Cellulose nitrate (nitrocellulose, guncotton)
Cellulose nitrate: 3.5.9
Collodion, cellulose nitrate: 3.5.10
Cellulose propionate, cellulose butryate, ethyl cellulose
Chemical sources of polymer materials: 3.4.02
Triboelectric series, electrostatic series, ranking of insulators: 31.1.02 (See 17. Cellulose acetate)
Ethyl cellulose, burning test for synthetic fibres: 4.3.6
Prepare rayon, basic copper carbonate with ammonia solution: 22.214.171.124
Prepare rayon, copper (II) sulfate with ammonia solution: 126.96.36.199
Tests for plastics, natural fibres and synthetic fibres: 3.102
Tests for polymers: 4.0.0.
Tests for cement brick strength (contents): 3.66.1
Tests for cement brick strength (water content): 3.66.2
Tests for cement change in weight when setting: 3.66.4
Cementite, iron carbide Fe3C: 188.8.131.52.
Cerium, Table of Elements
Cerium, Ce (Ceres asteroid discovered just before Ce discovered
by Jacob Berzelius, Sweden), most abundant rare earth, but future
supply shortfall, found with Lanthanum.
Cerium is used in cast iron, steel, aluminium alloys.
Cerium-iron alloy, "Auermetall", mischmetal cigarette lighter ignition
Cerium, in mischmetal (German: mixed metal), cigarette lighter ignition
Cerium components of rare earth elements mixture
Cerium oxide, jeweller's rouge gemstone abrasive, sweet tasting cerium
salts formerly in anti-emetic medicines, cough mixtures, now
used in diesel fuel, film set lights
See: Cerium sulfate (Serrata)
Cerium (III) sulfate, Ce2(SO4)3, ceric
sulfate, also hydrated forms, yellow to orange solid / crystals
Cerium (IVI) sulfate, Ce(SO4)2, ceric sulfate,
also hydrated forms, yellow solid / crystals
Cerium (IV) ammonium sulfate.
Cerium chloride, CeCl3
Cerium chloride, cerium (III) chloride heptahydrate, Harmful if ingested
Cerium sulfate, Harmful if ingested
A chain reaction is where one chemical reaction causes further chemical
Neutrons from an atom collide with other atoms to break them up and emit
more neutrons, leading to atomic explosion
Chain reaction, Sodium acetate heat pack: 14.1.11
Chain reaction, DNA and RNA: 4.4.0.
Chelates, sequestrant: 184.108.40.206
Chelating agents, sequestering agent: 18.7.57 (Swimming pools)
Diaminoethane, ethylene diamine, C2H4(NH2)2,
ligand, chelating agent, Toxic by all routes, Corrosive
Ethylenediamine (en), bidentate ligand
Tests for metal ions in water, EDTA, chelates: 12.13.11.
See: Chemistry (Commercial)
Abbreviations, chemistry: 1.0 (Table)
Biology chemicals: 1.0.0
Chemical bonds: 3.01.0
Chemical bonds: Single bond, --, double bond =, triple bond, e.g. carbon monoxide, C≡O.
Chemical changes and physical changes: 7.1.6
Chemical compounds: 7.0.0
Chemical equilibrium: 17.5.0
Chemical fertilizers, fertilizer trial: 6.17.0
Chemical fertilizers: 6.34 (Primary)
Chemical potential energy, enthalpy: 220.127.116.11
Chemical potential energy, Enthalpy of reaction, heat of reaction: 14.1.0
Chemical reactions: Chemical reactions
Chemical reagents, Prepare reagents: Table 10.0
See: Chemical reagents (Commercial)
Chemical sources of polymer materials: 3.4.02
Chemical terminology: 7.9.0
Chemical vapours and smelling chemicals: 3.4.8
Chemical weathering reactions: 35.22.4.01, Geology)
Chemicals safety: 3.4.0
Chemicals Not permitted in schools: 15.10.0
Chemicals spill kit: 3.4.12
Chemicals standards: 38.0
Chemicals swallowed: 3.4.7
Chemicals used in swimming pools: 18.1.0
Chemistry of natural products: 16.3.0
Chemistry (Primary): 6.0
Lists of chemicals: 5.0
Low-cost chemicals and common substances: 15.0.4
Pigment names, C.I. numbers (Table): 8.0
Prepare.html#PrepareH">Prepare chemical substances
3.0.0 Prepare gases
10.0 Prepare reagents
5.2.0 Prepare serial dilutions
5.4.0 Prepare solutions of known concentration:
5.3.0 Prepare stock solutions>
Quantity of chemical to be used in experiments: 3.4.2
Storing chemicals: 3.4.13.
Reactions of: (chemicals)
Chemical reactions, types of chemical reactions: 12.2.0
Common ion effect, sodium ethanoate and ethanoic acid: 17.5.2
Concentration and temperature, cobalt (II) chloride-6-water: 17.5.1
CP (Chemically Pure), general applications, chemicals standard
Disposal of waste chemicals: 3.4.11
Effect of temperature on chemical equilibrium: 18.104.22.168
Energy from chemical reactions: 3.80
Functional groups: 2.0
Handling and transferring chemicals: 3.4.10 (safety)
Hazards (chemicals classification)
Health effects of chemicals: 3.0
Health hazards: 5.0.0
High toxicity chemicals: 15.6.0
Household chemicals, chemicals in the home: 19.1.0
Laboratory safety and hazardous chemicals: 4.0
Lists of chemicals: 5.0
Physical hazards: 4.0.0
Prepare reagents: 10.0
Prepare solutions of known concentration: 5.4.0
Prepare stock solutions: 5.3.0
Quantity of chemical to be used in experiments: 3.4.2.
3.4.01 Glass transition temperature (Tg), chewing gum, cotton
23.6.2 Latex plants
22.214.171.124.9 Polyterpenes (many isoprene units)
16.7.30 Tests for chewing gum qualityby comparing bubbles.
Actinomycetes, Phylum: Actinobacteria, Order: Actinomycetales: 4.17
Insect body, cockroach or grasshopper: 9.9.0.
Chloric acid, HClO3
Chloric acid, HClO3, chloric (V) acid, Harmful if ingested,
explosive with organic compounds, Not permitted in schools
Chloric acid, dangerous powerful oxidizing agent. Conc. sulfuric acid
+ (potassium chlorate + sucrose) --> chloric acid
Chloric acid, HClO3, chloric (V) acid, or any of the oxyacids
of chlorine, including the following:
Chlorous acid, HClO2, chloric (III) acid
Hypochlorous acid, HOCl, chloric (I) acid
Perchloric acid, HClO4, chloric (VII) acid.
Chloroacetic acid, chloroethanoic acids, mono-, di- and tri-, Toxic,
vapour highly irritant to lungs, skin
Chloroacetic acid, chloroethanoic acid, monochloroacetic acid (use small
quantities < 10 mL)
Chloroacetic acid, solution < 0.2%, Not hazardous
Organic builders in washing powders: 12.12.03.2b
Oxyacids, oxoacids: 13.3.6
Saturated carboxylic acids: 126.96.36.199.
Chlorophenol red (acid-base indicator): 9.0
See diagram 188.8.131.52: 2, 4, 6 trichlorophenol
There are 19 different chlorophenols.
On combustion chlorophenols form toxic and corrosive gasses.
Upon heating, toxic fumes are formed.
Chlorophenols reacts violently with strong oxidants.
The following chlorophenols are solids usually as needles and flakes,
have a strong medicinal taste and odour, melting temperatures
increase with the number of chlorine atoms: dichlorophenols 50C, trichlophenols
70C, tetrachlorophenols 110C., 2, 4-dichlorophenol,
2, 4, 5-trichlorophenol, 2, 3, 4, 5-tetrachlorophenol, 2, 3, 4, 6-tetrachlorophenol,
2, 3, 5, 6-tetrachlorophenol,
2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol is found most frequently in water near hazardous
In sewage plants, chlorophenols are usually broken down by the bacteria.
Exposure to concentrated forms of these compound include severe irritation
and burns of the skin.
Some chlorophenols are carcinogens.
Chloroplatinic acid, hexachloroplatinic acid hexahydrate, H2PtCl6.6H2O,
or [H3O]2[PtCl6]4H2O, [platinic chloride PtCl4] (dust may trigger
asthma, skin sensitivity)
Chloroplatinic acid hydrate, platinic chloride, H2PtCl6.xH2O.
See: Cholesterol (Commercial)
Cholesterol and fat in eggs: 22.21
Cholesterol, saturated fats and heart disease, alternative views: 184.108.40.206.1
Glycaemic index (GI): 4.2.11
Phytosterols, plant sterols: 220.127.116.11
Statins, cholesterol-lowering drugs: 16.9.18
Choline chloride (CH3)3N(Cl)CH2CH2OH
Enjoy eggs every day!: 22.15
Fish smell, trimethylamine: 18.104.22.168
Nutritional value: 22.20 (Eggs)
Lipids, fats and oils, fatty acids, glycerides: 22.214.171.124
Phospholipids (phosphoglycerides): 126.96.36.199.1
Chondroitin sulfate, acidic mucopolysaccharides, glycosaminoglycans are
long unbranched polysaccharides, repeating disaccharide units
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans = protein core + chondroitin sulfate
in cartilage, may relieve osteoarthritis.
Commercial: Chondroitin sulfate sodium salt from bovine cartilage.
See: Chromium Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Chromium, Table of Elements
Chromium (properties): 188.8.131.52
Chromium plating, electroplating: 15.1.3
Chromium toxicity: 3.6.5
Reactions of chromium compounds: 12.5.0
Tests for chromium: 184.108.40.206
Tests for chromates: 220.127.116.11.
Chromium, Cr (Greek khrōma colour, from
coloured compounds), white, hard, lustrous and brittle metal that is extremely
ordinary corrosive agents.
It is a reactive transition metal but forms protective oxide layer in
air that prevents further oxidation and forms hard alloys with Ni or Fe.
Chromium is available as technical grade chromium, is extracted from chromite
(Fe(CrO2)2) and is used for chromium plated metal,
hard plating Cr2O3, catalysts, in stainless and
heat resistant steel.
Strong reducing agent Cr2+ salts blue in aqueous solution,
Cr3+ salts green in aqueous solution.
CrO42- salts yellow, e.g. potassium chromate, K2CrO4,
and strong oxidizing agent Cr2O72-, orange,
e.g. potassium dichromate K2Cr2O7.
Chromium deficiency reduces tolerance to glucose.
Chromium, Cr, metal, AAS Standard, lumps, coating grit, chips, powder
Chromium-151, reactor-produced medical radioisotope, half-life 27.7 days,
used to label red blood cells
Chromium (II), Cr2+, strong reducing agent, blue salts in aqueous
Chromium (III), Cr3+, green salts in aqueous solution
Atomic number: 24, Relative atomic mass: 51.996, r.d. 7.19, m.p. = 1890oC,
b.p. = 2482oC.
Specific heat capacity: 448 J kg-1 K-1.
Chromium (III) compounds, very small quantities of chromium (III) compounds
are essential for health and well-being.
Chromium (VI) compounds are usually highly toxic, soluble in water and
solutions are powerful oxidizing agents in acidic conditions,
but less oxidizing under alkaline conditions
Calcium chromate, CaCrO4, yellow powder, slightly soluble
Chromium salts, Chromium, chromic acid toxicity: 3.6.5
Chromous salts are chromium salts in the (II) oxidation state, form blue
Barium chromate, BaCrO4
Chrome alum, K2SO4.Cr2(SO4)3.24H2O
Chrome iron ore, FeCr2O4,
Chrome red, PbO.PbCrO4,
basic lead chromate
Chrome yellow, PbCrO4,
lead chromate pigment
Chromic (III) sulfate
Chromic nitrate, chromic nitrate hydrated, chromium (III) nitrate nonahydrate
Chromium hexacarbonyl, C6CrO6
Chromium (II) acetate, dimer monohydrate, C8H16O10Cr2
Chromium (II) chloride, chromic chloride, Cl2Cr
Chromium (II) oxide, CrO, insoluble black powder
Chromium (III) acetate, chromium (III) ethanoate, chromic acetate, chromium
acetate, Harmful if ingested
Chromium (III) chloride, Cl3Cr
Chromium (III) chloride hexahydrate, Cl3Cr.6H2O
Chromium (III) hypochlorite
Chromium (III) nitrate nonahydrate, CrN3O9.9H2O
Chromium (III) oxide
Chromium (III) phosphate, CrH8O8P, Chromium (III)
Chromium (III) potassium sulfate dodecahydrate, CrKO8S2.12H2O
Chromium (III) sulfate
Chromium (IV) oxide, CrO2, insoluble
Chromium (VI) oxide, chromium trioxide,
Chromium potassium sulfate
Copper-chromium alloys: 5.5.14
Oxidize chromium compounds to chromates, CrO42-:
Prepare potassium dichromate, K2Cr2O7:
chromium sulfate, KCr(SO4)2.12H2O
Reactions of chromates, CrO42-: 12.5.4
Reactions of chromium, Cr, and chromium compounds: 12.5.1
Reactions of dichromates, Cr2O72-, potassium
Chromates, -CrO42-, usually yellow salts
Chromates, dichromates, hazards: 3.7.4
Movement of copper and chromate ions: 33.89
Reactions of chromates: 12.5.4
Tests for chromates: 18.104.22.168.
Chrome alum, K2SO4.Cr2(SO4)3.24H2O,
Prepare chrome alum: 22.214.171.124
Chrome alum (properties): 126.96.36.199
Chrome alum, chromium (III) potassium sulfate, potassium chromium sulfate,
chromium potassium sulfate dodecahydrate, potassium
chromium (III) sulfate dodecahydrate, used for tanning, mordant, photography.
purple or violet-red octahedral crystals.
Chromic acid, H2CrO4,
Not permitted in schools
Do not prepare or use in a school science laboratory!
Cleaning agents, "chromic acid": 2.20.3
Ionization reaction, H2CrO4: 12.5.7
Chromic acid, H2CrO4, exists only as salts, e.g.
lead chromate, barium chromate, or in solution
Chromic acid, H2CrO4, Highly toxic if ingested,
Not permitted in schools
Chromic salts are green-violet chromium salts in the (III) or (VI) oxidation
Chromic acid, very reactive (conc. sulfuric acid + dichromate -->
formerly used as a glass cleaning solution).
Chromium (III) oxide,
Cr2O3, chromium oxide, chromium trioxide, chromic
oxide, chrome green, chromia, green chromium oxide
Chromium (III) oxide, chromium sesquioxide, an amphoteric oxide (C.I.
pigment Green 17), Highly toxic if ingested, used for craft.
Catalytic oxidation of ammonia, with chromium (III) oxide: 188.8.131.52.
Chromium (VI) oxide,
Prepare chromium trioxide, CrO3: 12.5.2
Storing chromium (VI) oxide: 184.108.40.206
Chromium (VI) oxide, Not permitted in schools, Highly toxic if ingested, carcinogenic.
Chromium (VI) oxide, chromium trioxide, CrO3,
(chromic acid anhydride), Toxic, dark red powder.
Chromium (VI) oxide was formerly a glass cleaning solution called "chromic
acid", prepared by mixing a metal chromate or dichromate
with concentrated acid in a chromate salt solution.
However, this solution is dangerous and other glass cleaning detergent
solutions should be used.
Chromium (VI) oxide, forms explosive mixtures with combustibles or organic
Chromic trioxide is a powerful oxidizing agent.
Commercial: Chromic acid, polymer-supported.
Do NOT use chromic acid for glass cleaning in school science laboratories.
Chromium (VI) oxide, CrO3, chromium trioxide, chromic acid
anhydride, strong oxidizing agent
Chromium (VI) oxide, chromic anhydride, glass cleaning solution,
Chromium trioxides are soluble in alcohol, ethanol, sulfuric acid, and
nitric acid; when heated to decomposition,
chromium trioxides emit smoke and irritating fumes.
Chromium trioxide, Jones reagent, chromium trioxide in dilute sulfuric
acid for oxidation of organic substances.
Chromium (VI) oxychloride, dichlorochromium (VI) oxide, chromyl chloride,
Highly toxic by all routes, strong red oxidizing liquid,
Not permitted in schools
Chromyl chloride, Solution < 1%, Not hazardous.
Chromium (III) sulfate, chromium sulfate, chromic sulfate, Harmful if
Chromium sulfate, Cr2(SO4)3, Cr2O12S3,
dark green to violet crystals, , used in paints, inks, ceramics, dyeing,
envirnmental damage if released
Chromium (III) sulfate, Cr2(SO4)3.x(H2O),
violet-green "basic chromium sulfates"
Chromite, FeCr2O4, iron chromium oxide, iron chromite,
chrome iron ore, chromium ore, chrome iron ore, chromium ore, in basic
igneous, metamorphic, e.g. serpentine and sedimentary rocks, dark grey
to black colour, metallic lustre, specific gravity 4.0 to 5.1,
Mohs scale hardness 5.5 to 6, brown streak, slightly magnetic so may be
confused with magnetite, only economic ore of chromium,
magnesium substitues for iron iin molecule in significant amounts
Chromium in Cr (III) form, as mineral chromite, FeCr2O4, iron chromium oxide, iron chromite, chrome iron ore.
Chrysin, C15H10O4, flavone, in:
| Passion Flower
| German chamomile
| Midnight horror tree.
3.71.5 School chalk, blackboard chalk, safety
The chemicals in blackboard chalk, mainly gypsum, CaSO4.2H2O,
are harmless if ingested.
However, chalk dust may cause respiratory problems in children with asthma,
and in teachers after exposure for many years.
The new product called "dustless chalk" is chemically the same but the
chalk dust it produces consists of much heavier particles that
quickly drop down instead of being suspended in the air.
Chalk dust should be regularly cleaned out of the classroom .
Chalk dust may damage electronic equipment, e.g. computer motherboard
and playback heads of VCRs.
Yellow chalk on a green "blackboard" may be more visible to most students
but may cause problems for colour-blind students.
3.71.6 Solubility of school
chalk, blackboard chalk, in water
Shake powdered blackboard chalk (school chalk), mainly gypsum, CaSO4.2H2O,
with water in a test-tube.
Filter the mixture and collect the filtrate in an evaporating basin.
Evaporate the water by heating the evaporating basin over a beaker of
Examine the inside surface of the basin.
If any residue is found, then some chalk is soluble in water.
3.71.7 School chalk, blackboard
chalk with weak acids
Put three sticks of blackboard chalk, mainly gypsum, CaSO4.2H2O,
in beakers partly filled with water, lemon juice, vinegar, so that
about half of each stick is still dry.
Observe the chalk sticks over the next days.
The chalk sticks dissolve in the weak acids.