School Science Lessons
Please send comments to: J.Elfick@uq.edu.au
Table of Contents
Babbitt's metal, alloy for bearings (Sn 5-90%, Sb 7-10%, Cu 1.5-6%, Pb 5-48%)
Baby powder, talcum powder
See: Bags Ziploc bags, (Commercial)
Bakelite, Prepare Bakelite plastic, phenol / methanal polymerization: 3.4.9
Bakelite, Phenolics, phenolic resins: 3.8.10
bicarbonate of soda, sodium bicarbonate
See: Balances (Commercial)
Ball pen ink, paper chromatography: 3.24.1
See: Balloons (Commercial)
Balsams, Canada balsam mounting solution: 2.4
Banned chemicals, Chemicals NOT permitted in schools: 15.10.0
BANNED = food additive banned in some countries
BAP culture medium, Prepare BAP solution: 9.2.24
Barbaloin, Aloin, C21H22O9
Barber's relaxing fluid, Prepare Barber's insect-fixing fluid solution:
Barbiturates (central nervous system depressants): 188.8.131.52.5a
Barbiturates, Phenobarbital, amylobarbital, pentobarbital, thiopental:
See: Barium Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Barium, baryta, barium oxide or barium hydroxide
Barytes, BaSO4, barite, heavy spar, mineral
Basal agar, Prepare basal agar (microbiology medium): 9.2.14
Basal broth, Prepare basal broth solution (microbiology medium): 9.2.15
Basal salt, Prepare basal salt solutions (biology solutions): 1.8
Basalt: 35.21.1 (Geology)
Base, "Speed" and "base" (abuse of volatile substances): 184.108.40.206
Base (base + acid --> salt + water)
Base units. (SI, The 7 base units): 220.127.116.11
Basic fuchsin, Prepare basic fuchsin (microscopy stain): 3.5.2
Bath salts, Prepare bath salts: 12.1.28
Battery, cells, electric cells, batteries
See: Batteries, (Commercial)
BCDMH, Bromine products, HBrO: 18.7.19
BCIP-dipotassium salt, C8H4BrClNO4PNa2,
bromochloroindolyl phosphate, chromogenic enzyme experiments
See: Beakers (Commercial)
See: Beehive shelf, (Commercial)
Bean curd, Prepare bean curd (tofu, soya bean): 18.104.22.168
Beauty and skin care products: 19.7.0
Beef extract, powder, desiccated beef, culture medium for microbiology,
"Bacto" (not "Bovril", yeast extract)
Beef liver, Hydrogen peroxide with catalase: 22.214.171.124
Beer-Lambert law, Total dissolved solids and suspended solids in water:
See: Bell jar diving bell, (Commercial)
Bell metal, Higher melting point alloys and parts by weight: 5.5.5
Belousov-Zhabotinskii clock reaction, BZ reaction: 17.1.11
See: Bench Mats, (Commercial)
Bendicarb, C11H13NO4, insecticide: 126.96.36.199
Benedict's test: 9.141
Beneficiation (ore --> metal + gangue)
Benomyl, C14H18N4O3, fungicide,
Benlate, DuPont ceased production in 2001
Bentonite: 188.8.131.52 (Geology)
Benylamine alkaloids, Protoalkaloids: 16.3.10
Harmful if ingested, off-white colour, slightly oluble
Benzedrine (trade name for dl-Amphetamines)
"Benzene hexachloride", lindane: 16.3.3
Benzenesulfonic acid, C20H15N3O5S2,
C6H5SO2OH, Harmful if ingested
Benzfuran, coumarone, C8H6O
Benzidine, 4, 4-diamino-biphenyl, Highly toxic by all routes, Not permitted
Benzidine, C12H12N2, Tests for manganese:
Benzine (Petroleum spirit): 184.108.40.206
Benzodiazepines (tranquillizers): 220.127.116.11.5b
Benzofuranoids, benzopyranoids: 18.104.22.168a
Benzoic acid, C6H5COOH
ketone ("gum benzoin", "gum benjamin", but not a polysaccharide "gum")
Benzol, benzene, C6H6
Benzonitrile, C6H5CN, Harmful if ingested
Benzophenome, C13H10O, diphenyl methanone, Harmful
Benzopurpurin 4B, C34H26N6Na2O6S2:
Benzopyrene, C20H12, Reactions of benzene: 16.8.1
Benzoquinone, C6H4O2: 22.214.171.124, Quinones
Benzoyl chloride, C6H5COCl
Benzoyl group C6H5CO-, benzenecarbonyl group
Benzoyl peroxide, C14H10O4
Benzyl, benzyl group C6H5CH2-
Benzyl acetate, C9H10O2
Benzyl alcohol, C6H5CH2OH
Benzyl bromide, Bromomethylbenzene: 12.18.10
Benzyl benzoate, C14H12O2
Benzylamine, C6H5CH2NH2, α-aminitoluene,
Bergamottin, C21H22O4: 16.9.20
Berry juice, Prepare berry juice acid-base indicators: 5.6.8
Beta-sitosterol (C29H50O), phytosterol
Beta radiation, β Radiation: 2.9.0 (See: 2.)
Betalains, betains: 126.96.36.199.0
Betulinic acid, C30H48O3
Beverage can, Beer can
Bextra (Valdecoxib), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, causes skin
reactions, withdrawn in USA
Bezoar, stone from stomach or gall bladder of an animal, set as jewel
BHC, Aromatic halogen compounds: 188.8.131.52.6
BHC, Lindane, gammexane (insecticide): 16.3.3
Bial's reagent (orcinol in concentrated HCl)
Bifenox herbicide, C14H9Cl2NO5:
Biguanides, Galegine drugs to treat type-2 diabetes
Biguanides sanitizers: 18.7.38
Bile salts as an emulsifying agent: 184.108.40.206
Bilin, bilirubin, biliverdin, haeme, Tetrapyrroles: 220.127.116.11.1
Billion, Different measurements, billion, trillion: 6.2.0
Bimetallic, using two metals, Coefficient of thermal expansion: 23.0.0
Bimetalism, using relative values of silver and gold in currency coins
Biochar, carbon to increase water capture, pH balance, soil microbe content
Biochemistry experiments: 9.109.1
See: Biochemistry (Commercial)
Bioflavonoids (Flavonoids): 18.104.22.168.0
Biology chemicals: 1.0.0.
Biology experiments and use of live animals: 3.2.5
Biology fixatives, Prepare biology fixatives: 4.0
Biology media and solutions,
Prepare biology media and solutions : 1.0
Bioluminescence, Chemiluminescence, bioluminescence: 14.3.0
Biotin, Lost nutrients in food: 19.3.03
Biotite mica, Mica group: 35.16.0 (Geology)
Biphenyl (1, 1-biphenyl), C12H10, lemonene, xenene, colourless,
most thermally stable organic
Birth stones: 34.9.6 (Geology)
Biuret, Tests for proteins, biuret test: 16.6.5
Biuret, Urea forms biuret, C2H5N3O2:
Black powder, gunpowder: potassium nitrate + sulfur + charcoal
Blackboard chalk, school chalk
Blacklead, Graphite: 35.41.3 (Geology)
Blanching vegetables for food: 19.3.04
Blast furnace, Carbon monoxide, CO, properties: 3.39.0
Blast furnace, Reduce red iron oxide, or rust, to iron: 10.10.3
Blood, Tests for blood: 9.180
Blue bottle experiment, Oxidation of glucose: 22.214.171.124
Blueprints and diazo prints: 2.3
Bluestone, Copper (II)
Body Mass Index (BMI): 9.228
Boiling chips, Anti-bumping granules: 7.9.12
See: Boiling Flasks (Commercial)
Boiling point, BP: 7.5.0
Bomb calorimeter, Energy values of food, Heat of combustion: 22.5.7
Bonds (chemical bonds)
Bone, clcium hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2,
+ other ions
Boracic acid (H3BO3, boric
Borates, Tests for borates: 126.96.36.199
Bordeaux mixture (fungicide): 16.6.2
Boric acid (H3BO3, boracic
Bornite, bournonite, Cu5FeS4: 35.20.6 (Geology)
Borosilicate glass, Pyrex: 7.9.10
Bottle brushes: 1.24
See: Bottles (Commercial)
Bottled gas (compressed gas,
LPG, LP Gas)
Bottles, laboratory bottles: 1.7
Bouin's solution, Prepare Bouin's solution: 4.17
Boyle's law: 20.2.0
See: Boyle's law (Commercial)
BPH, Benign prostatic hyperplasia, noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland
Bread, Use yeast to make bread: 9.207.3
large molecules to small molecules
Breath test, for alcohol, for carbon dioxide
Breccia: 35.22.2 (Geology)
Brewing, Yeasts, 9.206.3
Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction, Hydrogen peroxide clock reaction:
Brightener (optical brightener), Ultraviolet light source: 4.136 (See: 1.)
Brimstone, "fire stone", former word
Brine, NaCl, concentrated
British liquid measures (fl. oz.): 3.5.2
Brittle, Breaking strains, brittleness: 188.8.131.52
Brix, sucrose concentration: 9.145
Bromide ion: Br-
Bromoform, CHBr3, Tribromomethane: 12.18.21
Brookite, Titanium (IV)
Browning: 184.108.40.206 (of fruit, vegetables,
Brownian motion: 3.55
See: Brownian Motion (Commercial)
Bti insecticide: 9.2.0
Bubbles, Soap, soap bubbles
See: Buckets (Commercial)
Bufalin, C24H34O4, cardiac glycoside,
(in toad venom)
See: Buffer Solutions (Commercial)
Builders, Detergents in washing powders: 12.12.04 (See: 4.)
Building up molecules, Prepare polymers and plastics: 3.4.1
Bulk modulus, modulus of incompressibility, K: 34.5.03
Bulking agents, Humectants, bulking agents, food additives: 19.4.20
Bulleyaconitine A, C35H43NO9
Bumping, Anti-bumping granules, Boiling chips: 7.9.12
Bumping, Boiling point of liquids: 7.5.0
Bunsen burners: 22.6.0
Buoyancy, Archimedes' principle, floating: 11.4.0
See: Burettes (Commercial)
Burn, burning, burners
Bustamite, MnCaSiO6: 220.127.116.11
Butan-1-ol, Butan-2-ol, "butanol" refers to either butan-1-ol or butan-2-ol
Butane gas, C4H10
Butanedioic acid, succinic acid: 18.104.22.168.8
Butanedione, diacetyl, CH3COCOCH3: 22.214.171.124
Butanoic acid, C3H7COOH,
Butanol (C4H9OH), butyl alcohol: 16.1.3b
Butene, C4H6, butylene
Butenedioic acid, fumaric acid
Butenolide lactone: 126.96.36.199
Butter, butter oil, clarified butter, ghee: 16.2.3
Butter, Gerber butterfat test: 16.1.7
Butyl, C4H9-, butyl compounds
Butyl glycol (C4H9OCH2CH2OH)
Butyrolactone: 188.8.131.52 GBL, gamma-butyrolactone, 4-butyrolactone
Butylphthalide lactone: 184.108.40.206
Butyric acid, butanoic acid, C3H7COOH.
Baicalein, C15H10O5, flavone, aglycone
of Baicalin, in Baikal skullcap
Baking soda, uses
Prepare baking powder: 19.1.9
Prepare sodium bicarbonate with sodium carbonate: 12.1.27
Prepare carbon dioxide, alum with baking soda: 13.7.9
Prepare carbon dioxide, sodium bicarbonate with vinegar: 19.1.7
Tests for bicarbonates: 220.127.116.11
Formerly, bakers added sodium bicarbonate and sour milk, lactic acid,
to bread dough to make bread rise as carbon dioxide gas
bubbles formed during baking.
Later, dry cream of tartar from the wine industry was substituted for sour
milk to make a dry mixture.
Later, calcium acid phosphate, CaHPO4, was substituted for cream
Nowadays, cornstarch or rice flour is added to keep the mixture dry.
Baking powder is a mixture of sodium bicarbonate with cream of tartar,
tartaric acid, acid phosphate or sodium aluminium phosphate
or any combination of these without any farinaceous (wheat) substance,
so it can be labelled "gluten free".
It must yield >10% of carbon dioxide and may contain permitted colouring
Baking powder contains compounds called food aerators, to be added to dough
to make it rise during cooking as bubbles of carbon
dioxide gas form.
Baking powder can be used as a substitute for yeast, which is used in sour
Phosphoric acid is weakly acidic and has low toxicity, so some baking powders
contain NaH2PO4 and NaHCO3 for the leavening
action of the acid-base reaction between these two ingredients.
The "baking powder" bought in shops often contains
1. A leavening agent as a sources of carbon dioxide (dry solids):
1.1 Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate, NaHCO3)
, that reacts with an acid, e.g. 2-hydroxypropanoic
acid (lactic acid), from sour milk, to form carbon dioxide.
The heat from the oven helps the decomposition of sodium hydrogen carbonate
to form carbon dioxide
1.2 or ammonium hydrogen carbonate.
2. A solid acid that reacts with the sodium
bicarbonate only when moist, e.g. tartaric acid or hydrogen carbonates,
(cream of tartar
potassium hydrogen tartrate, "acid tartrate").
3. Phosphates to replace cream of tartar
3.1 Acid phosphates, e.g. calcium hydrogen phosphate (calcium acid phosphate,
CaHPO4) sodium dihydrogen phosphate V (sodium
dihydrogen orthophosphate, sodium orthophosphate NaH2PO4.2H2O)
3.2 Phosphate aerators, e.g. food additive E450 Diphosphates (Sodium and
potassium phosphates) food additive E541, sodium
aluminium phosphate, basic (emulsifier, acidity regulator)
4. Rice flour or cornflour to keep the mixture
If baking powder contains 36% phosphate aerators it could contain about
Baking powder must be stored dry.
Mix the leavening agent baking soda, sodium bicarbonate, with acidic ingredients
to make it work in cooking.
However, baking powder contains baking soda and a powdered acid, so it
can work without other acidic ingredients.
"Anchor" brand Baking Powder, Fremantle, Western Australia
Ingredients: Wheaten cornflour, baking powder (mineral salts 339, 341,
Baking powder acid components
Baking powders contain a solid crystal acids, baking soda alkali and ground
dry starch desiccant and bulking agent.
The sodium hydrogen carbonate reacts immediately when moist to form carbon
Single acting baking powders contain sodium bicarbonate, and coated MCP.
They are activated by moisture, so bake immediately after mixing.
Double acting baking powders contain sodium bicarbonate, MCP and SAS.
They react in two phases and can stand for a while before baking.
Double action baking powder contains baking soda, a "high temperature acid",
e.g. cream of tartar, and cornstarch or potato starch
Each component acid has a different pattern of carbon dioxide production.
1. Cream of tartar,
potassium hydrogen tartrate, tartaric acid, KC4H5O6
2. Monocalcium phosphate, MCP, Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O
3. Sodium acid pyrophosphate, SAPP, disodium pyrophosphate, disodium dihydrogen
4. Sodium aluminium sulfate, SAS, soda alum, sodium alum, NaAl(SO4)2.12H2O,
5. Sodium aluminium phosphate, SALP, NaAlPO4, E541
6. Dimagnesium phosphate, DMP, MgHPO4.3H2O
7. Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, DCPD, CaHPO4.2H2O,
1. Put baking powder into water and note whether carbon dioxide gas forms.
2. Put sodium bicarbonate into water and note whether carbon dioxide forms.
3. Put baking powder in a test-tube containing vinegar (acetic acid, ethanoic
acid) or lemon juice (citric acid) and note whether carbon
4. Make self-raising flour
Mix two teaspoons of Anchor baking powder to one cup of Anchor Lighthouse
Sift several times.
Use a dry teaspoon.
Baking soda, Experiments
Baking soda is sodium hydrogen carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3,
bicarbonate of soda, "bicarb".
Use baking soda to:
1. Clean baby utensils, barbecue grills, bathtubs, bathroom tiles, coffee
pots, vacuum flasks, refrigerators, stainless
steel sinks, microwave ovens, dishcloths, and laundry towels
2. Remove fruit juice stains, crayon marks, perspiration from cloth, and
cookware burnt-on food.
3. Soften and whiten woollen socks, remove tarnish from silver and coffee
4. As a hair conditioner, to increase strength of liquid laundry detergent
and bleach, and maintain septic tanks.
5. Deodorize cutting boards, carpets diapers, food containers, garbage
disposals, dishwashers, clothes, shoes.
6. Treat rashes, insect bites, sunburn, sore feet and use as toothpaste,
mouth wash, under arm deodorant, and remove vomit odour.
See: Barium Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Barium, Table of Elements
Barium toxicity: 3.6.2
Group 5 tests for Ba2+, Ca2+, Sr2+: 18.104.22.168
Baryta, barium oxide or barium hydroxide
Barytes, BaSO4, barite, heavy spar, mineral
Barium, Ba (Greek barus heavy), alkaline earth metal, Highly toxic
if ingested or by skin contact.
Barium ion, Ba2+, Barium meal, barium sulfate radio-opaque mixture
for X-ray examination of alimentary tract.
Brittle and expensive, used to absorb high energy particles, burns with
green colour in fireworks, in minerals barytes, BaSO4 and
witherite, BaCO3, forms poisonous compounds, oxidizes in air
and reacts with ethanol.
Barium sulfate is used for a contrast medium for X-ray examination of intestines.
Surface coating of barium hydroxide corrosive to the eyes.
The reaction of barium with water produces flammable hydrogen gas.
Barium is very difficult to cut.
Atomic number: 56, Relative atomic mass: 137.33, r.d. 3.51, m.p. = 725oC,
b.p. = 1640oC.
Specific heat capacity: 192 J kg-1 K-1
Confirm by flame test: Light green
Flame test on barium compounds: the flame has flashes of green
Barium and strontium
Organic reagent: Rhodizonic acid, C6H2O6,
1, 2-dihydroxycyclohexene-3, 4, 5, 6-tetrone, dihydrate: C6H2O6.2H2O,
0.1% aqueous solution
Put one drop of test liquid on filter paper then add one drop of reagent.
A red-brown spot indicates the presence of Sr and Ba.
When one drop of dilute HCl is added, a barium spot is intensified and
a Sr spot disappears.
Use Group V precipitate after solution in dilute acetic acid.
Prepare fresh solution of reagent if it has decolorized.
Barium acetate, barium ethanoate, Solution < 1%, Not Hazardous
Barium bromide anhydrous, BaBr2
Barium carbonate, BaCO3
Barium chloride, BaCl2, barium
chloride dihydrate, barium chloride anhydrous
Barium chromate, BaCrO4
Barium cyclohexanebutyrate, [C6H11(CH2)3CO2]2Ba
Barium fluoride, anhydrous, BaF2
Barium hexafluorosilicate, BaSiF6
Barium hydrogen carbonate, Ba(HCO3)2, barium bicarbonate
Barium hydroxide, Ba(OH)2
Barium hydroxide monohydrate, Ba(OH)2.H2O
Barium iodide anhydrous, BaI2
Barium iodide dihydrate Bal2.2H2O
Barium manganate, BaMnO4
Barium metaphosphate, Ba(PO3)2
Barium oxide, BaO, baryta, heavy spar, flux for craft, optical crown glass,
cathode ray tube, lubricating oil
Barium perchlorate, Ba(ClO4)2
Barium perchlorate hydrate, Ba(ClO4)2.xH2O
Barium peroxide, BaO2, barium dioxide,
Barium phosphate, Ba3(PO4)2
Barium-strontium ferrite (Ba, Sr)Fe12O19)
Barium sulfate (VI), BaSO4
Barium sulfide, Harmful if ingested, Solution < 25% Not hazardous
Barium tetrafluorocobaltate, BaCoF4
Barium tetrafluoronickelate, BaNiF4
Barium thiosulfate. Harmful if ingested
Baryta, barium oxide or barium hydroxide
Barytes, BaSO4, barite, heavy spar, mineral
Celsian, BaAl2Si2O8, barium feldspar
Witherite, BaCO3, barium carbonate
Barium carbonate (HARM 1564), BaCO3, witherite, in lead ore
veins, Solution < 25%, Not hazardous
Barium carbonate pigment (White 10) is a pigment of significant toxicity.
Barium carbonate, used for craft, barium oxide flux, Low cost, from pottery
Barium carbonate, Dimorphism, aragonite: 35.33.2
Barium chloride, BaCl2, Harmful if ingested (HARM 1564), barium
Barium chloride dihydrate, BaCl2.2H2O, colourless,
rhombic, odourless crystals or white granules, m.p. 925oC.
Barium chloride, AAS Solution, For 0.1 M solution, 24.4 g in 1 L water
Common ion effect to precipitate barium chloride from solution: 22.214.171.124
Barium chloride, Solution < 1%, Not Hazardous, analytical reagent
1. Add calcium sulfate solution to barium chloride solution.
Heat the solution and leave to cool.
Note the white precipitate of barium sulfate that is insoluble in water.
Ba2+ + SO42- --> BaSO4 (s)
2. Add ammonium carbonate solution to barium chloride solution.
Note the white precipitate of barium carbonate.
Ba2+ + CO32- --> BaCO3 (s)
3. Add ammonium oxalate solution to barium chloride solution.
Note the white precipitate of barium oxalate that is soluble in dilute
hydrochloric acid, but insoluble in acetic acid.
Ba2+ + C2O42- --> BaC2O4
4. Add potassium chromate solution to barium chloride solution.
Note the yellow precipitate of barium chromate.
Ba2+ + CrO42- --> BaCrO4
Barium chromate, yellow powder, S.G. 4.49, insoluble in water, Extremely
toxic if ingested, carcinogenic
Barium chromate, Solution < 1%, Not Hazardous
Barium chromate, for craft, pyrotechnics, paint pigment, corrosion control,
Barium chromate pigment (Yellow 31), extremely toxic and carcinogenic.
Barium hydroxide octahydrate, barium hydroxide hydrated, Ba(OH)2.8H2O,
baryta water, caustic baryta,
Harmful if ingested
Barium hydroxide, Solution < 1%, Not Hazardous
Ba(OH)2, barium hydroxide solution (baryta water).
Barium hydroxide preparation: Carbon dioxide into barium hydroxide solution.
Ionization of barium hydroxide, 126.96.36.199
Barium nitrate, Ba(NO3)2, nitrobarite, Oxidizing,
white solid, toxic, accelerates burning of combustinle materials, may explode
Barium sulfate (VI), BaSO4, barytes, barite, heavy spar, blanc
fixe pigment extender in paints
Barium sulfate (VI), barium white, blanc-fixe, fixed white, permanent white,
barytes, heavy spar,
Barium sulfate, almost insoluble in water, heavy white precipitate, X-ray
contrast meal, soil analysis, lake paint
Barium sulfate pigment (White 21) is a pigment of significant toxicity.
Acids and metals or insoluble base, prepare salts: M2
Bases, alkalis: 12.7.0
Bases, soaps, water hardness: 12D
Bases and nonmetallic oxides, prepare salts: M5
Prepare dilute bases: 5.3.2
Prepare acids and bases: 7.0
Prepare acids, dilute acids and bases (Safety instructions): 3.4.3
A base or an alkali is a good electrolyte, that
turns red litmus blue and has a slippery feel.
Bases with water form hydroxide ions, OH-.
Bases react with hydrogen ions, H+.
A base is a proton acceptor (H+). (Bronsted-Lowry definition).
Basic oxides are oxides of metals
Basic oxides are usually insoluble in water
Soluble basic oxides + water --> alkaline solution.
Basic oxides do not react with bases.
Basic oxides + acid --> salt + water
MgO (s) + H2SO4 (aq) --> MgSO4 (aq)
+ H2O (l)
Acids and metals or insoluble bases, prepare salts: M2
Alkalis with basic oxides, copper oxide: 12.7.5
Copper (II) oxide (copper oxide), basic oxide (metal oxide): 12.17.2
Oxides, acidic, basic, amphoteric, neutral and mixed oxides: 12.17.0
Separate to metals by reduction of metal oxides, charcoal blocks: 10.10.0
See: Charcoal, charcoal blocks, acrylic block, (Commercial)
Bauxite digestion: 12.1.9
Aluminium, properties: 188.8.131.52
Aluminium oxide, Al2O3,
Aluminium hydroxide (1-water), bauxite (antacids) 500 g,
E173 Aluminium (from bauxite) (colour: metallic) (Banned in some countries),
Portland cement: 3.66.6
Yeast, fermentation, brewing: 16.7.11
1 barrel (beer cask) = 32 imperial gallons
Beverage can, Beer can
Fermentation: 2.1.1 (Safety)
Ginger beer "plant": 9.212
Isohumulone, C21H30O5: 184.108.40.206
Pasteurization and UHT (Ultra High temperature) of milk: 19.3.12
19.1.4 Prepare vinegar from wine
Smilax regelii, Smilacaceae, sarsaparilla, Honduras sarsaparilla,
(sarsaparilla soft drink and root beer), herbal medicine
Sodium metabisulfite, sterilizing Campden tablets, home beer-making and
wine-making, food preservative
4.14 Prepare sugaring mixture, insect-fixing fluid
Quillaja saponaria, quillaia, Rosaceae.
See: Refractometers Testing Beer, (Commercial)
19.3.1 Taste, smell, flavour (See: Bitter)
9.3.10 Tests for activity of diastase
3.6.13 Vinyls, vinyl polymers
See: Bees beeswax (Commercial)
Beeswax, Local Purchase, used for best quality wax candles and applications
See: Bees, honeybee, (Commercial)
See: Candles, (Commercial)
9.1.6 Bees, honeybee
5.04.8 Creams and ointments
9.30 Egg preservation (See 8.)
16.6.2 Fixed oils
19.4.19 Glazing agents, food additives
8.1.11 Prepare beeswax candles
31.1.02 Triboelectric series, electrostatic
series, ranking of insulators (See Positive polarity +, 23)
Benzaldehyde, C6H5CHO, benzenecarbaldehyde, Harmful
by all routes
Aromatic aldehydes and ketones: 220.127.116.11.10
Benzaldehyde, Solution < 25%, Not hazardous
Cyclic aldehydes, Prefix: formyl-, Suffix: -carbaldehyde, attached to benzene:
Cinnamic acid, C9H10O2
Aromatic, aromatic compounds: 18.104.22.168
Benzene, C6H6, benzol, benzine, Extremely toxic
by all routes, carcinogenic, Not permitted in schools
Benzene ring: See diagram 22.214.171.124
Benzene, C6H6 (and other arenes), ligands, benzene-1, 4-diol,
C6H4(OH)2, hydroquinone, quinol
Benzene-1, 3-diol, Benzene-1, 2-diol, Benzene-1, 3-diol resorcinol, 1, 3-dihydroxybenzene
Benzene: See diagram 16.1.1h: Octane number
Benzene-1, 2, 3-triol, pyrogallol, pyrogallic acid, 1, 2, 3-trihydroxybenzene
Benzene-1, 3, 5-triol, phloroglucinol,
Benzene-1, 2-dicarboxylic acid, phthalic acid,
Benzene-1, 2-dicarboxylic anhydride, phthalic anhydride
Benzene, Arenes: 126.96.36.199
Halogenation of benzene: 188.8.131.52
Lindane (Benzene hexachloride, BHC): 16.3.3
Reactions of chlorine with benzene: 13.4.6
Reactions of benzene: 16.8.1
Size of stearic acid molecule: 3.3.3
Benzoic acid, C6H5COOH
Benzoic acid, Chemistry, food preservation
Aromatic acids: 184.108.40.206.11
Crystal growth with overhead projector: 24.1.17
E210 Benzoic acid, preservative, Harmful if ingested
Extraction of caffeine and benzoic acid from soft drinks: 16.8.3
Isolation of benzoic acid in lemonade: 220.127.116.11
Preservatives or antimicrobials in food: 19.3.10
Styrax benzoin, gum benjamin
Benzoyl chloride, C6H5COCl, benzenecarbonyl chloride,
Highly toxic by all routes, flammable, highly corrosive
Benzoyl chloride, reacts violently with some metals, e.g. iron
Benzoyl peroxide, C14H10O4, dibenzoyl
peroxide, Harmful skin contact, flammable, Not permitted in schools
Benzoyl peroxide, Solution < 20%, Not hazardous
Benzyl acetate, C9H10O2, ester frombenzyl
alcohol +acetic acid, in essential oils of | Jasmine | Ylang ylang | used in cosmetics,
bees, organic solvent
Benzyl alcohol, "BnOH", C6H5CH2OH, phenylmethanol,
phenyl carbinol, colourless, solvent, pleasant odour
Benzyl alcohol, Harmful if ingested
Benzyl alcohol, Solution < 20% Not hazardous
Benzyl bromide, α-bromotoluene, Highly toxic by all routes, bromotoluene,
Benzyl bromide, Solution < 20% Not hazardous
Benzyl chloride, α-chlorotoluene, Highly toxic by all routes
Benzyl chloride, Solution < 20% Not hazardous
Benzyl penicillin sodium salt, penicillin G, antibiotic
Berkelium, Table of Elements
Berkelium, Bk (Berkeley University, USA, where first made), radioactive
Beryllium Table of Elements
Beryllium, Be (Greek bērullos beryl), (glucinium), lightest
alkaline earth metal
Pure beryllium is a hard, brittle, silvery metal.
Beryllium metal exposed to air forms a protective oxide coating, similar
Beryllium reacts with strong acids and strong bases, and forms shock sensitive
mixtures with chlorinated solvents,
e.g. carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene.
Beryllium metal, flakes, powder, Highly toxic,
Not permitted in schools
Beryllium slowly oxidizes in air, tastes like sugar, beryllium powder destroys
lung tissue, toxic compounds
Beryllium chunks, Beryllium standard for AAS, Beryllium ICP/DCP standard
poisonous if inhaled
Beryl (Latin: aqua water, marine sea) blue-green
colour of the sea
Beryl, Be3Al2(SiO3)6, beryllium
ore, green beryl is emerald and blue-green beryl is aquamarine, cyclosilicates
natural emeralds always contain inclusions, but not if produced from seed
Beryllium chloride, fluoride, nitrate, phosphate, and sulfate all soluble
insoluble: e.g. beryl, beryllium oxide
Beryllonite mineral, beryllium sodium phosphate
Beryllium-copper alloy has high strength, and good thermal and electrical
Beryllium chloride, BeCl2, white
to faintly yellow powder, deliquescent, Toxic, Not permitted in schools
Beryllium fluoride, glassy, hygroscopic solid
Beryllium hydroxide, Be(OH)2, amphoteric
Beryllium nitrate, white to slightly yellow crystals
Beryllium Organo Metallic Solution
Beryllium oxide, BeO, beryllia, bromellite, white powder, very good heat
conductor and good electrical insulator
Beryllium sulfate, beryllium sulfate tetrahydrate
Bessemer process converts
pig iron from a blast furnace into steel by blowing air or pure oxygen
into the molten impure metal to
convert impurities into a separating slag.
Birdlime, bird lime, comes from the inner bark of holly mistletoe or elm
branches, boiled, then evaporated, to form a sticky substance,
used to trap small birds.
Its use is illegal in many countries.
Birdlime is not "lime", calcium oxide.
The latex of breadfruit was formerly used as birdlime to catch birds by
people in the South Pacific region.
See: Bismuth Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Bismuth, Table of elements
Bismuth (properties) 18.104.22.168
Hydrolysis of bismuth chloride: 22.214.171.124
Radioactive decay of Bismuth-214: 7.2.5
Reactions of bismuth compounds: 12.2.4
Tests for bismuth, Heat: 126.96.36.199.8, (See 3.)
Tests for bismuth, Thiourea: 188.8.131.52
Bismuth, Bi (Latin bismutum), bismuth
mineral, natural bismuth has, cubic crystals, most common isotope (Bismuth-209)
and has one of the longest half-life, harmful if ingested, shot, granular,
fine particles easily ignited, red-white, easily fusible natural bismuth,
"hopper crystals" in staircase crystalline patterns are iridescent artificial
bismuth crystals with a hollow centres, m.p. 271oC, pink-white
metallic crystals, from bismuthinite mineral Bi2S3
and niccolite, cobaltite, but rare in the earth, very diamagnetic so may
strong magnets, low thermal conductivity, high electrical resistance, burns
in air with blue flame and emits yellow fumes, expands when
freezes, used in low melting point alloys for fire safety equipment, thermocouples,
magnetic flux measurement, liquid metal coolant for
nuclear reactors, low toxicity so in cosmetics and medicines, e.g. bismuth
subsalicylate active ingredient in "Pepto-Bismol", and bismuth
carbonate for peptic ulcers, in paints, dyes, pewter, and "dragon's eggs"
fireworks, posible non-toxic alternative to leadgeology.
Atomic number: 83, Relative atomic mass: 208.98, r.d. 9.78, m.p. = 271.3oC,
b.p. = 1560oC.
Specific heat capacity: 123 J kg-1 K-1
Bis(acetato-O) triphenylbismuth (V), C22H21BiO4
Bismuth (III) acetate, C6H9BiO6
Bismuth aluminate hydrate, Al6Bi2O12.xH2O
Bismuth (III) bromide, BiBr3
Bismuth (III) carbonate, basic, CBi2O5
Bismuth carbonate, bismuth subcarbonate, Harmful if ingested
Bismuth (III) chloride, BiCl3,
bismuth chloride, bismuth trichloride, Harmful if ingested
Bismuth chloride, For 0.17 M solution, 53 g in 1 litre of dilute HCl, 1
part concentrated HCl to 5 parts water
Bismuth chloride oxide, bismuthyl chloride
Bismuth (III) citrate, C6H5BiO7
Bismuth (III) fluoride, BiF3
Bismuth (V) fluoride, BiF5
Bismuth (III) gallate basic hydrate, C7H5BiO6.xH2O
Bismuth glance, bismuthinite mineral
Bismuth (III) iodide, BiI3
Bismuth lead strontium calcium copper oxide
Bismuth (III) molybdate, Bi2Mo3O12
Bismuth neodecanoate, C30H57BiO6
Bismuth (III) nitrate pentahydrate, BiN3O9.5H2O
Bismuth nitrate, Bi(NO3)3.5H2O
See: Bismuth Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
For 0.083 M solution, 40 g in 1 litre of dilute HNO3, 1 part
concentrated HNO3 to 5 parts water
Bismuth oxide, Bi2O3, bismuth (III) oxide, bismuth
(V) oxide, bismite mineral, bismuth ochre, Harmful ingested
Bismuth (III) oxide nanopowder, 90-210 nm particle size, Bi2O3
Bismuth (III) oxide powder, Bi2O3
Bismuth oxychloride, BiOCl, pearl white pigment
Bismuth (III) oxyiodide, BiIO
Bismuth oxynitrate (compounds containing Bi3+, nitrate ions
and oxide ions)
Bismuth (III) phosphate, BiO4P
Bismuth (III) subsalicylat, C7H5BiO4
Bismuth trichloride, BiCl3
Bismuthine, BiH3, gas
Bismuthinite, bismuth trisulfide, bismuth sulfide crystal, mineral
Bismutite, bismuthyl carbonate, bismuth subcarbonate, Bi2(CO3)O2,
Bismuth (III) trifluoromethanesulfonate, C3BiF9O9S3
Bismuth tungsten oxide, powder
Sodium bismuthate, ACS reagent, BiNaO3
Bleach flowers with sulfur dioxide: 3.51.4
Bleaches, disinfectants, deodorizers: 12.12.11
Bleaches in washing powders: 12.12.03.4
Bleaching agents, food bleaching agents & additives: 19.4.11
Bleaching powder: 13.4.4
Detergents in washing powders, Bleaches in detergents: 12.12.04
Hydrogen peroxide bleaching action: 12.12.8
Prepare chlorine with bleaching powder or bleach solution: 184.108.40.206
Prepare oxygen gas with bleach: 3.49.3
Reaction of acetone with bleaching powder: 220.127.116.11
Reaction of ethyl alcohol with bleaching powder: 18.104.22.168
Sodium chlorate, NaClO3
Sodium hydrogen sulfite,
sodium bisulfite, NaHSO3
Tests for chlorine: 3.40.1 (See: 1.
Bohrium Table of Elements
Bohrium Bh (Neils Bohr, 1885-1962, Denmark), radioactive, transuranic,
from high energy atomic collisions
Single bond, --, double bond =, triple bond, e.g. carbon monoxide, C≡O.
Chemical bonds: 3.01.0
Bond energy (bond strength): 3.01.8
Liquids with different viscosity, hydrogen bonds: 3.2.1
Borax: 22.214.171.124 (Geology)
Bases in the kitchen and laundry: 19.6.2
Bath cleaning: 19.6.4
Glycerine with borax solution, colour change: 12.7.5
Inorganic chemical insecticides: 16.2.3
Prepare soap, household soap: 19.6.6
Sucrose with borax: 12.7.19
Tests for borax / turmeric adulteration of food: 126.96.36.199
Tests for metals with borax beads: 188.8.131.52a
borax decahydrate, sodium tetraborate decahydrate, sodium borate decahydrate,
Borax is soluble in water and glycerol, very slightly soluble in alcohol
and insoluble in acids
Sodium tetraborate decahydrate, Na2B4O7.10H2O,
Borax, Na2B4O7.10H2O, disodiumetraborate-10-water,
E285, sodium tetraborate decahydrate, but borax is sold as partially
dehydrated di-sodium tetraborate, colourless mineral, white powder, odourless,
monoclinic crystals or granules, r.d. 1.73, m.p. 75oC,
efflorescent in dry air, anhydrous at 320oC, mildly toxic so
avoid ingesting and skin contact.
Borax is used in buffer solutions, fire retardants, metallurgy flux, washing
powders (laundry booster), bath cleaning, fungicide, insecticide,
Borax used a lot in the furniture industry as a polish.
Sodium tetraborate borax preservative is not allowed in most countries
because it is toxic and may cause skin problems.
Borax and sugar mixture is used with cut lemon over ant trails to deter
Borax di-sodium tetraborate (III)-10-water Local Purchase.
E285 (preservative, not allowed in most countries), Harmful if ingested
Sodium tetraborate decahydrate, For 0.1 M solution, 38 g in 1 L water
Low cost: from supermarkets as borax, borax-bead test preparations for
Clean silver plate with borax and soap solution.
Boric acid, ionization reaction: 12.10.0
Decomposition of boric acid: 3.30.9
Boric acid, H3BO3, boracic
acid, Toxic if ingested
Boric acid, H3BO3, boracic acid, orthoboric acid,
trioxyboric (III) acid, colourless, odourless, white to transparent, triclinic
m.p. about 160oC, if heated decomposes to anhydride B2O3,
occurs near fumaroles (sold in pure form as a powder as eye medicine,
disinfectant, insecticide), E284.
Use boric acid to prepare children's clothing flame retardants.
Common names: Boric acid, "cockroach killer".
See: Boron Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Boron Table of Elements
Boron (properties): 184.108.40.206
Boron and boron deficiency symptoms: 1.1.0,
Boron deficiency: 13.8 (in Papaya)
Boron toxicity: 3.6.3
Boron, B (Persian būra borax), non-metallic,
occurs as brown amorphous powder or black crystals
Highly toxic by all routes, keep demonstration lump, not powder, keep specimen
in sealed glass container
Pure boron prepared by pyrolysis of boron hydrides and halides,
or reduction of boron chloride or bromide with hydrogen.
Boron is inert in its crystalline form, unaffected by boiling hydrochloric
acid or hydrofluoric acid.
Finely powdered boron is slowly oxidized by hot concentrated nitric acid.
Other hot concentrated oxidizing agents only very slowly attack boron.
Not an abundant element, does not occur in nature, mainly found in borates,
e.g. borax and kernite, a non-metal or metalloid,
yellow-brown network solid, brown amorphous form and black metallic form,
has metallic lustre, very hard (9.3 Mohs' scale) and
strong semiconductor, found in minerals, e.g. tourmaline, and associated
with volcanic activity as borates, used in control rods for
nuclear reactors and in green flares.
In heat-resistant glassware (Pyrex), soap, pesticides, cosmetics, leather
products, cement products.
Atomic number: 5, Relative atomic mass: 10.81, r.d. 2.34 (amorphous form),
m.p. = 2300oC, b.p. = 2550oC.
Specific heat capacity: 123 × 103 J kg-1 K-1
Boric acid, H3BO3, boracic
acid, Toxic if ingested.
Borosilicate glass, Pyrex: 7.9.10
Prepare boric acid crystals: 12.10.1
Prepare standard buffer solutions: 39.0
Thermal decomposition of acids: 8.2.4
Tests for borates: 220.127.116.11
2, 4, 6-Triphenylborazine
Ammonium tetraphenylborate, C24H24BN
Borosilicate, silica SiO2 + boric oxide B2O3
Boron carbide does not mix with water and it is highly resistant to most
chemical action including attack by hot hydrofluoric, nitric or
chromic acids, decomposed by molten alkalis at red heat, not burn in oxygen
Boron nitride, BN, white solid material, in hot produced hot pressed form
low porosity, easily machined, anisotropic electrical and mechanical properties
because of its platy hexagonal crystals and their hot press orientation,
high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, high electrical resistance,
easily machined, chemically inert, insoluble in water.
Used in electronic parts, microwave tubes, low friction seals, high temperature
furnace fixtures and supports,
BN is stable in inert and reducing atmospheres up to 2000oC,
and in oxidizing atmospheres to 850oC.
Pure BN material contains no binders and is used for extremes of temperature
and where purity is important.
Boron oxide, B2O3, boron trioxide, crystals, slightly
soluble cold water, soluble hot water, finely ground reacts vigorously with
water to form boric acid,
amorphous form soluble in alcohol, glycerol and acids, prepared by fusing
Boron tribromide, BBr3, decomposed by water or alcohol to produce
Boron trichloride, BCl3, decomposed by water or alcohol to produce
hydrochloric acid and oily liquids with powerful irritant and
Boron trichloride methyl sulfide, C2H6BCl3S
Boron trifluoride, BF3 reacts with water, ethers, alcohols and
Boron trifluoride acetic acid, C4H8BF3O4
Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, BF3.C4H10O
Boron trifluoride dihydrate, BF3.2H2O
Boron trifluoride methyl etherate, BF3.C2H6O
Boron trifluoride methyl sulfide, C2H6BF3S
Boron trifluoride phenol complex, BF3.2C6H5OH
Cesium dodecafluoro-closo-dodecaborate, B12Cs2F12
Cesium tetraphenylborate, C24H20BCs
Gadolinium boride, B6Gd
Hafnium boride, B2Hf
Lanthanum boride, B6La
Lithium tetraphenylborate tris(1, 2-dimethoxyethane), C36H50BLiO6
Molybdenum boride, BMo
Potassium dodecafluoro-closo-dodecaborate, B12F12K2
Potassium tetraphenylborate, C24H20BK
Rubidium tetraphenylborate, C24H20BRb
Sodium tetraethylborate, C8H20BNa
Sodium tetraphenylborate, C24H20BNa
Tetraacetoxy diboroxane, C8H12B2O9
Use boracic acid and sugar mixture to kill cockroaches
7.9.10 Borosilicate glass,
Addition of borate allows the formation of a glass that melts at a lower
temperate than silica, and expands less on heating than soda
glass, as well as more plastic over a wider temperature range, e.g. Pyrex
and glass wool.
So borosilicate glass has a very low coefficient of thermal expansion and
a softening temperature above 800oC.
The composition may be 70% silica, 10% boron oxide and some sodium, potassium
and calcium oxides.
The chemical composition of the Pyrex used in laboratory glassware may
be different from the Pyrex used in kitchenware, sold as:
Mixing bowls, Pyrex, glass 1 litre
Casserole dish, freezer and dishwasher safe, 2 litre.
Copper, Cu, natural copper (brass, bronze): 35.20.11 (Geology)
Copper-aluminium alloys, bronze: 5.5.8
Copper-zinc alloys, brass: 5.5.6
Copper-tin alloys, bronze: 5.5.7
Copper, brass and bronze alloys: 5.5.3
Corrosion of alloys, restore bronze coins: 15.3.14
Brass is mainly alloys of Cu and Zn, but Al,
Fe, Mn, Ni, Sn, and Pb may be added.
Brass filings Local Purchase
A brass worker, or a heating pan containing hot coals, called a brazier.
Bronze, Copper-tin alloys for coins, bells, gears Low Cost
Bronze is mainly alloys of copper and tin, but some bronze may not contain
tin, e.g. aluminium bronze, manganese bronze, and the
bronze in "copper" coins.
The first bronze made in the ancient world was probably copper combined
with arsenic, and may have been quite toxic.
Breakdown large molecules
to small molecules
Breakdown ethanol to ethene (ethylene): 3.96
Breakdown polymers to small molecules: 18.104.22.168
Breakdown of polymers with heat: 3.97
Breakdown starch during germination: 9.112
Breakdown starch to sugars: 3.95
Elements in foods: 3.98
Prepare gases from wood: 3.99
Tests for hydrolysis of starch, iodine test, Fehling's solution: 16.10.1
E300 Ascorbic acid (in fruit and synthetically from glucose) (vitamin
C) (antioxidant, preservative) (in breakfast cereals)
Energy from breakfast cereal: 22.214.171.124
Iron from breakfast cereal: 16.7.18
Use breakfast cereal powder for itching, moisturizing facial paste, chapped
hands, baked chicken coating.
Breath test for alcohol,
for carbon dioxide
Breath test for alcohol using breath
analyser ("breathalyser"): 15.2.12
Breath test for alcohol using potassium dichromate: 15.2.11
Tests for carbon dioxide in the breath with lime water: 6.6.10
Tests for cement brick strength (contents): 3.66.1
Tests for cement brick strength (water content): 3.66.2
Tests for strength of mud, clay, sand bricks: 3.65
Tests for strength of plaster of Paris bricks: 3.67
Brilliant blue (CI: 42655)
Brilliant blue G (CI: 42655)
Brilliant blue R (CI: 42660)
Brilliant cresyl blue (CI: 51010)
Brilliant crystal scarlet (CI: 26905)
Brilliant green (CI: 42040)
Brilliant red (CI. 18105)
Brilliant yellow (CI. 24890): 4.0 (indicator)
Synthetic food colours approved for use in Australia: 19.4.1
E133 Brilliant blue FCF (Banned, some countries) (colour: blue) (Health
risk, asthma, hyperactivity) (in dairy products, sweets as
aluminium solution or ammonium salt)
Brilliant Blue, FD and C Blue No. 1, commonly used blue dye, in food, textiles,
leathers, and cosmetics in USA, can enter the
bloodstream via the skin or through the digestive tract and may inhibit
Burn, burning, burners
See: Burners (Commercial)
Burn: 5.0 (Primary)
Burn aluminium in oxygen: 12.1.4
Burn butane bubbles: 126.96.36.199
Burn candles in closed containers: 6.35
Burn magnesium ribbon in oxygen: 13.3.4
Burn magnesium and weigh the products: 188.8.131.52
Burn methane, Tests for methane gas: 184.108.40.206
Burn money (Monopoly, fake money):
Burn naphthalene crystals: 12.8.2
Burn substances in chlorine: 13.4.8
Burn steel wool, change in weight: 12.1.2
Burn steel wool and burn iron filings: 13.3.3
Burn steel wool and weigh the products: 220.127.116.11
Burn sulfur in oxygen: 13.3.2
Burning candle, rising water: 8.1.14
Burning sugar cube, combustible cube: 18.104.22.168
Burning tests for plastics: 4.1.0
Burning tests for natural fabrics: 4.2.0
Burning tests for synthetic fibres: 4.3.0
Butadiene, 1, 3-Butadiene, C4H6, CH2:CHCH:CH2,
vinyl ethylene, colourless gas, mild aroma like petrol, not soluble in
is soluble in most organic solvents (conjugated diene, cis form in Diels-Alder
reaction), from petroleum processing of petroleum, used
for production of synthetic rubber, plastics, acrylics in automotive tyres,
hoses, belts, seals, gaskets, fungicides, latex adhesives, nylon
carpet backing, pipes, conduits, electrical components.
Butane gas, C4H10
Butane (C4H10): 22.214.171.124
Burn butane bubbles: 126.96.36.199
Combustion of butane: 188.8.131.52
Density of gases, Butane (Table)
See diagram 16.1.2: Butane isomers
See diagram 16.1.1h: Octane ratings (Table)
Prepare butane: 184.108.40.206
Butane gas, C4H10, n-butane,
gas (in cigarette lighters and portable gas appliances), Highly flammable
Butane gas, 93.2 MJm-3, a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG),
liquefied gas, bottled gas, is liquefied butane, Calor gas.
Butane isomer is 2-methylpropane, CH3CH(CH3)CH3
, formerly called "isobutane".
Packaging gases: E943a Butane (propellant, solvent)
A mixture of butane and 2-methylpropane is used in disposable cigarette
2C4H10 (g) + 13O2 (g) --> 8CO2
(g) + 10H2O (g).
cis-butane-1, 4-dioic acid, maleic acid
cis-butane-1, 4-dioic anhydride, maleic anhydride
trans-butane-1, 4-dioic acid, fumaric acid
Butanoic acid, Butyric
Butyric acid: 220.127.116.11.6
Butanoic acid, Solution <5%, Not hazardous
Butyric acid (COR 2820), n-butyric acid, butanoic acid, ethylacetic acid,
Butyric acid fermentation: 6.6.19
Butanone, C4H8O, CH3COC2H5,
ethyl methyl ketone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), sweet odour, Toxic, Flammable,
Butanone and acetone, CH3COCH3, are the simplest
saturated ketones (R1COR2)
from some trees, car exhausts, irritant, used as a solvent
Butanone, Solution < 20% Not hazardous
Butenedioic acid, C4H4O4, fumaric acid,
trans-butenedioic acid, HOOC-CH=CHCOOH, cis and trans forms
Butenedioic acid, cis form, maleic acid, cis-butenedioic acid, cis-butane-1, 4-dioic
acid, HOOCCH=CHCOOH, Toxic if ingested
Butenedioic acid, trans form: trans-butenedioic acid, fumaric acid, Toxic
Butenedioic acid, Solution < 20% Not hazardous
Colorless crystalline solid, dicarboxylic acid, in Krebs cycle, cancer
causing metabolite, threat to environment, combustible but difficult
to ignite, used in paints, plastics, food processing and preservation
Maleic acid, C4H4O4
1. Maleic acid, HOOCCH:CHCOOH, cis-butenedioic acid, malenic acid, toxilic
acid, cis-butane-1, 4-dioic acid
Heated maleic acid forms maleic anhydride, C4H2O3,
Poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride), maleic copolymer (4:1 mole ratio of
styrene: maleic anhydride ).
2. Trans-isomer of butenedioic acid, Fumaric acid, HOOCCH:CHCOOH (in Krebs
cycle), fumaric acid (fumarates), fruity taste,
food acid E297, in Fumaria officinalis, mushrooms, lichens.
butyraldehyde, colourless, liquid, Toxic by all routes, Highly flammable
CH3(CH2)3-, from butanes
Dibutyl benzene-1, 2-dicarboxylate
1. n-butyl, or butyl, [CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-]
n-butyl bromide, 1-bromobutane
n-butyl iodide, 1-iodobutane.
n-butyl amine, 1-aminobutane, butyl amine, n-butyl amine, Harmful by all
routes, highly corrosive, flammable
n-butyl amine, Solution <20%, Not hazardous
tert-butylbromide, 2-bromo-2-methyl propane
2. sec-butyl, or 1-methylpropyl, [CH3-CH2-CH(CH3)-]
3. isobutyl, or 2-methylpropyl, [(CH3)2CH-CH2-]
4. tert-butyl, or t-butyl, or 1, 1-dimethylethyl, [CH3)3C-]
tert-butyl alcohol (CH3)3COH, 2-methyl-2-propanol,
tert-butanol, 2-methylpropan-2-ol, Harmful, Flammable
tert-butyl alcohol, t-Butyl alcohol, tertiary butyl alcohol.
tert-butyl alcohol, Solution <25%, Not hazardous
Butyl acetate, butyl ethanoate, C6H12O2
Butyl alcohol, Butanol (C4H9OH): 16.1.3.B
Butyl bromide, Bromobutane: 12.18.4
Butyl butanoate, n-Butyl butanoate, butyl butyrate, C8H16O2,
Butyl glycol (C4H9OCH2CH2OH):
Butyl methanoate, butyl formate, n-butyl formate, C5H10O2,
(formic acid butyl ester), Highly flammable
Butyl propanoate, butyl propionate, C2H5CO2(CH2)3CH3,
(1.) n-Butyl amine, n-butylamine, 1-aminobutane, butyl amine, "butylamine"
Butyl amine, Solution < 20%, Not hazardous
(2.) sec-Buty lamine, sec-butylamine
(3.) tert-Buty lamine, tert-butylamine
(1.) n-Butyl chloride, 1-chlorobutane
(2.) tert-Butyl chloride, 2-chloro-2-methylpropane
(3.) sec-Butyl chloride, 2-chlorobutane
(4.) Isobutyl chloride, 1-chloro-2-methylpropane
Butyl chloride rainbow reactions: 12.1.11
mono-butyl phthalate (phthalic acid butyl ester), mono-n-butyl phthalate,
dibutyl phthalate, DBP, C16H22O4 n-butyl
phthalate (phthalic acid dibutyl ester), C6H4-1, 2-[CO2(CH2)3CH3]2
Butyl phthalate (1, 2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid dibutyl ester)
Benzyl butyl phthalate, 2-[CH3(CH2)3O2C]C6H4CO2CH2C6H5
3.55 Brownian motion
See: Brownian Motion (Commercial)
Brownian motion experiments
1. Brownian motion (Brownian movement) was named after Robert Brown (1773-1858,
Scotland), the botanist employed by Sir
Joseph Banks (1743-1820), on the voyage of the Investigator to Australia
Robert Brown published his observations in 1827.
He had noticed the jittery random movement of pollen grains thought to
be caused by the pollen grains themselves.
However, he showed that similar random movement could also be seen if any
solid material of similar size was observed.
This random movement of microscopic particles suspended in a liquid or
gas is caused by an instantaneous imbalance of combined
impact forces of solution molecules on much larger irregularly-shaped solute
In 1905 Albert Einstein was fascinated by this movement.
He wrote: "The existence of a never diminishing motion seems contrary to
all experience. This difficulty was splendidly clarified by the
kinetic theory of matter."
His statistical calculations of the mass and number of molecules involved
lead to the final acceptance of the atomic theory by scientists.
2. In investigating the pollen of different
plants Rober t Brown observed that this became dispersed in water in a
great number of small
particles, which were perceived to be in uninterrupted and irregular "swarming"
As the phenomenon repeated itself with all possible kinds of organic substances.
He believed that he had found in these particles the "primitive molecule"
of living matter.
He found later that the particles of every kind of inorganic substance
presented the same phenomenon, so that he drew the conclusion
that all matter was built up of "primitive molecules."
3. Albert Einstein's "simple theory of this
phenomenon" was to review from consideration of:
3.1 diffusion and osmotic pressure,
3.2 diffusion and irregular motion of molecules, and movement of the single
molecules, using van 't Hoff's law, Maxwell's law of
distribution of velocities and Stokes' law (Zeit. f. Elektrochemie,
14, 1908, pp. 235-239).
Before Einstein's mathematical treatment of the problem, different scientists
noted that the motion was caused by irregular heating,
incident light; persisted unchanged for a whole year when the liquid was
sealed up between two cover glasses; is most rapid with the
smallest particles, is increased ultraviolet light and heat rays; has its
origin in the impacts of the molecules of the liquid on the particles;
is the more lively the smaller the viscosity of the liquid; is caused by
the thermal molecular motions of the liquid; the velocity of the
movement decreases with increase of size of the particles and increases
with rise of temperature.
Also, the motion is not caused by forces exerted by the particles on one
another, temperature differences, evaporation, electrical forces
intensity of illumination, strong electromagnetic fields.
4. Einstein explained that the pollen grains
are buffeted by collisions with molecules of water moving randomly in all
Einstein's theory and Perrin's observations showed that the mean distance
travelled by a pollen grain is subject to random collisions
increases as the square root or time.
distance x time t, whereas in straight line motion, x t.
5. To give direct confirmation of Einstein's
formula photographs of cinnabar particles at intervals of 0.1 second showed
that the average
displacement was inversely proportional to the viscosity.
Jean Baptiste Perrin, 1870-1942, France, and his students verified Einstein's
explanation of this phenomenon.
The method was to prepare a suspension of gamboge or mastic with particles
of exactly equal to be enclosed in a microscopic chamber.
The distribution in height of the particles was determined, after equilibrium
had been established, by counting in the microscope the
particles in different layers above the bottom of the chamber.
A small screen in the ocular of the microscope allowed only a few particles
in the field of vision, so a great number of observations were
arranged for different sizes of particles.
With the acceptance of the explanations for Brownian motion the existence
of atoms and molecules became accepted.
Also, Perrin calculated the value for Avogadro's number, the number of
atoms in a mole.
Brownian motion experiments
1. Put a drop of toothpaste on a microscope slide and stir water into it
until it is almost colourless.
Put a coverslip over the drop and examine it with a microscope under high
power with the stage illuminated from the side.
Pay attention to one particle.
At first it appears to stay in one place.
Later you can see that it is moving with an irregular jerky movement in
The irregular movement is caused by molecules of water hitting unevenly
on the sides of the particle.
This experiment does not work with the modern "gel" type of toothpaste.
2. Make a model using a tray containing many
small, light beads and one large marble.
The small beads represent molecules of water and the large marble represents
a particle of suspended graphite.
Shake the tray and note how the small beads hit the marble from all directions.
The forces tend to cancel so the large marble may just make very small
irregular movements but returns to the same place.
3. Observe dirty water in sunlight.
Fill a beaker with tap water and focus sunlight into the beaker with a magnifying
You may see the motions of suspended particles of solid matter.
4. Observe smoke in still air.
The smoke particles suspended in the air show Brownian movement.
Use a microscope to observe the movement of particles in a smoke cell
5. Use a microscope to observe the movement
of particles in a smoke cell.