School Science Lessons
Food Gardens 6a - Herbs
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Herbs Information and Websites
Table of contents
3.4.0 Plant families, Acanthaceae to Araliaceae (dicotyledons).

Family Acanthaceae, Acanthus family
Acanthus species
Bear's breeches (Acanthus mollis), brank usine, sea dock, oyster plant is a herbaceous perennial with soft hairs, underground rhizome,
the shape of leaf on Corinthian Greek column capitals, invasive species, Africa, Asia and Mediterranean region, Acanthaceae.
Spiny bear's breech (Acanthus spinosus) is a herbaceous perennial, up to 150 cm, with leavs deeply cut and spiny margins, having
long erect racemes of white flowers, maroon bracts.
The decorative spiny leaves and bracts were formerly used to decorate the capitals of Corinthian and Composite columns, Acanthaceae.
See diagram: Acanthus spinosus
Holly-leaved acanthus (Acanthus ilicifolius), sea holly, holy mangrove | Acanthicifoline | used as asthma and rheumatism medicine,
Australia, Southeast Asia, Acanthaceae

King of bitters (Andrographis paniculata), false water willow, flowers in panicles, hardy plant, annual, up to 1 metre, very bitter taste
| from Andrographolide, Apigen 7,4'-dimethyl ether flavone C17H14O | anti-inflammatory and antigastric ulcer medicine, revered in
Ayurvedic and Chinese herbal medicine, digestive, research has found benefits for the immune system, India, Sri Lanka, Acanthaceae.
King of bitters, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Dried herb sold as aerials and aerials powder.

Nerve plant (Fittonia verschaffeltii), painted net leaf, silver net leaf, snake skin plant, creeping groundcover, olive green leaves with deep
pink veins (houseplant), Peru, Acanthaceae.
See diagram: Fittonia verschaffeltii

Mushroom plant (Rungia klossii), perennial, hardy plant, semi-shade, up to 60 cm, easy to grow, deep green crisp oval leaves have
mushroom taste, culinary uses, raw or cooked in salads and stir fries,, mushroom flavour, chlorophyll-rich leaves, herbal medicine, higher
nutritional value and protein content than mushrooms, contains Vitamin A and C, calcium and iron, Papua New Guinea, Acanthaceae.
Mushroom Plant, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Rungia, Daley's Fruit Trees

Actinidia species, Family Actinidiaceae, Chinese gooseberry family
Hardy kiwi fruit (Actinidia aguta), kiwi berry, perennial vine, small version of a kiwi fruit | Actinidine | can be eaten whole, Actinidiaceae.
Actinidia chinensis, dioecious deciduous climber, Actinidin, Actinidiaceae.
Kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa), fuzzy kiwi fruit,
("Chinese gooseberry" because tastes like a gooseberry, but is not in Ribes species),
yangtao, large vine, deciduous, raphides in leaves, fast-growing fruit, medium, ovoid, brown, hairy, sweet green flesh, used fresh, and in
preserves, cooking, propagation from seeds, grafting, flowers dioecious or unisexual, radiating styles, luscious fruit with brown skin and
hairs, Chinese herbal medicine, China, Actinidiaceae.
Actinidia chinensis is similar, but fruit has yellow flesh.
See diagram: Actinidia chinensis.
Kiwi berry (Actinidia aguta), Actinidiaceae
Silver vine (Actinidia polygama) | Actinidine, Iridomyrmecin, Neomatatabiol | Actinidiaceae.
Actinidia species, Daley's Fruit Trees

Family Adoxaceae, Moschatel family
Moschatel (Adoxa moschatellina), muskroot, moschatel, five-faced bishop, town hall clocks, herbaceous perennial, musk-like fragrance
in certain months, Adoxaceae.
See diagram: Adoxa moschatellina.

Sambucus species (elders), elderberry, Adoxaceae
contains | Cyanin | red pigment
American elderberry (Sambucus canadensis), up to 2-3 metres, leaves activate compost, insect repellent spray against aphids and
caterpillars | Cyanin C27H31O16 | herbal medicine, culinary uses, berries and flowers used for tea, wine, cooking (but other parts contain
poisonous | Calcium oxalate crystals) | Adoxaceae.
Elder Flower, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Sambucus canadensis), See text below images.
Dried herb sold as flower heads.
Dried herb sold as berries.
White elderberry (Sambucus gaudichaudiana), understorey shrub in coastal rainforests, white flowers in large clusters, shiny white berries
with pleasant sour taste, Australian native food, Adoxaceae
Elder (Sambucus nigra), common elderberry, elder tree, blue elder, European elder, short-lived shrub, in woodlands, hedgerows, waste land,
leaves for activate compost, insect repellent, spray on aphids and, caterpillars, culinary uses, black berries and flowers as tea, wine, cooking,
| but other parts contain poisonous calcium oxalate crystals | Anthocyanidins | herbal medicine, elder flower tea,
diuretic, treat inflammation, sinusitis, diabetes, elderberries, treat influenza symptoms, boost immunity, source of Vitamins A and C, Adoxaceae.
See diagram: Elder berries

Viburnum species, Adoxaceae.

Family Aizoaceae, fig marigold family, stone plant family, carpet weeds
Carpobrotus species, may be called "pigface", Aizoaceae
Eland's sour fig, (Carpobrotus acinaciformis), Sally-my-Handsome, flowers contain
Betanin, C24H26N2O13, South Africa, Aizoaceae
Sea fig (Carpobrotus aequilaterus), thick fleshy lamina, for water storage, mucilaginous sap containing | Pentosans | Aizoaceae.
Pigface (Carpobrotus glaucescens), angular pigface, succulent, coastal covercrop, hardy plant, groundcover on coastal sand dunes, leaves
used as a salt substitute, stunning purple-pink flowers, red fruit tastes like salted apples or strawberries, but do not eat fruit skin, high
nutritional value, ornamental creeper, plant it in full sun, fertilize with wood ash, dolomite and rock dust, grows from cuttings, herbal
medicine, crushed leaves used to treat sunburn, burns, bites, jellyfish stings, sore throat, laryngitis, South Africa, Australian native food,
Pigface, Daley's Fruit Trees
See diagram: Carpobrotus glaucescens
Hottentot fig (Carpobrotus edulis, sometimes called Mesembryanthemum edule), ice plant, pigface, sour fig, edible leaves, easy to grow,
succulent, groundcover, Betanin, Isobetanin, environmental weed in Western Australia, South Africa, Aizoaceae.
See diagram: Hottentot fig
Sea fig (Carpobrotus chilensis), common on west coast of North America, invasive, South Africa, Aizoaceae.
Karkalla (Carpobrotus rossii), "pig face", succulent groundcover, coastal sand dunes southern Australia, light purple flowers 6 cm diameter,
globular purple / red fruit, fresh and dried fruit edible, perhaps salty leaves eaten, extracts show antioxidant, antiplatelet and anti-inflammatory
activity, Australian native food, Aizoaceae.

Mesembryanthemum conspicuum, (Lampranthus conspicuus), Betanin, Isobetanin, Aizoaceae.
Ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum), common ice plant, pigface, prostrate up to 1m wide, robust succulent plant, large
glistening bladder cells, water vesicles, edible leaves, densely papillose with glistening appearance so "ice-plant", edible leaves, Aizoaceae.
Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum, similar to M. crystallinum, but smaller parts, conspicuous bladder cells, Aizoaceae.
(About 10 genera in 3 different families are called "ice plants".)
See diagram Ice plant

New Zealand spinach (Tetragonia tetragonioides), warrigal greens, native spinach, Botany Bay greens, cultivated vegetable, eaten by
mariners to ease scurvy, grows in sun and semi-shade, groundcover, reseeds itself, perennial although slow, grown from seeds or cuttings,
grows naturally on sheltered beaches, if harvested often needs extra nitrogen to support leafy habit, survives frost to -3oC, can be harvested
for most of year, eat new stem, leaves and last 5 cm of growing tip, needs blanching to eliminate | Oxalic acid | but do not reuse this water,
better-flavoured low oxalate forms are being developed to taste like English spinach, herbal medicine, South America, Australian native
food, Aizoaceae.
See diagram: Tetragonia tetragonioides
See diagram: Warrigal greens.
See diagram: Warrigal greens.

Family Alstroemeriaceae
Alstroemeria species contain a red flower pigment, the glucoside of 6-Hydroxycyanidin C15H11O7
Alstroemerias, "Peruvian lilies" are popular ornamental florists' flowers.
Alstroemeria aurea, ligu lily, lily of the Incas, ornamental, perennial, pull "dead head" stems from bottom of plant to initiate new
flowering stems, Chile, Alstroemeriaceae.
New Zealand Christmas Bells (Alstroemeria pulchella), Peruvian lily, lily of the Incas, perennial, up to 1 metre, underground tubers,
ornamental, attractive white and green leaves, which keep well when cut for floral art, striking red / green flowers and seed pods used at
Christmas time, also variegated cultivars, South America, Alstroemeriaceae.
See diagram:
Aloe perryi.

Family Amaranthaceae.
Amaranth family, "Amaranths", e.g. bhajhee, grain amaranth, sambu lettuce, red amaranth, ornamental, grain
amaranth, drooping inflorescence, tap roots difficult to pull out, all parts edible, makes insoluble phosphates available if composted,
seeds gluten-free, folk medicines, longevity, Peru, Amaranthaceae.
Pfaffia paniculata (Hebanthe eriantha), suma, Brazilian ginseng, Amaranthaceae.

Alternanthera species
Alternanthera dentata, alligator weed, joy weed, rabbit meat, sterile alternate anthers, Central America, Amaranthaceae.
Alternanthera ficoidea, Joseph's coat, calico plant, Amaranthaceae.
Alligator weed (Alternanthera phylloxeroides), invasive in many countries, horizontal floating hollow stems form dense mats,
contains the flavone methoxyluteolin rhamnoside, South America, Amaranthaceae.
Purple Mukunuwenna (Alternanthera sessilis), sessile joyweed, dwarf copperleaf, groundcover, ponnanganni, mukunawenna, regarded as food for eyes
and nervous system, culinary uses, weed, Indian, Asian and Indonesia, Amaranthaceae.
Purple Mukunuwenna Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Brazilian spinach (Alternanthera sissoo), sissoo spinach, sambu, samba lettuce, poor man's spinach, low growing, perennial leaf
vegetable, up to 30 cm, round crinkled leaves, semi-shade plant, culinary uses, commonly crunchy raw leaves in salads, leaves contain
| Oxalates | so better cooked in stir-fries or spinach substitute, Amaranthaceae.
Brazilian Spinach, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Red carpet weed (Alternanthera versicolor), perennial, up to 30 cm, purple leaves dainty pink flowers, garnish, culinary uses, herbal
medicine, houseplant, Amaranthaceae.

Amaranthus species
Love-lies-bleeding (Amaranthus caudatus), pendant aramanth | Amaranthin | annual flowering plant, Amaranthaceae
Edible amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor) | Amaranthin | annual flowering plant, Amaranthaceae
Mira, (Amaranthus caudatus 'Mira'), flower gentle, prince's feather, Joseph's coat, annual, colourful salad herb, grain crop, chaff-like spikes of small flowers coloured foliage,
long-lasting flowers, colourful salad vegetable, ornamental, South America, Amaranthaceae.
Purple amaranth, (Amaranthus cruentus), purple flowering spikes, Amaranthaceae.
Green amaranth, ( Amaranthus hybridus), pigweed, Amaranthaceae.
"Prince's feather" (Amaranthus hypochondriacus), Amaranthaceae.
"Pigweed", (Amaranthus palmeri), said to be resistant to glyphosate in Australia, (e.g. "Roundup"), Amaranthaceae.
Edible amaranth, (Amaranthus tricolor) Joseph's coat after Joseph in Bible, C4 carbon fixation plant, South America, world-wide
Amaranth, 'Mira', Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Amaranthus tricolor), See text below images.
Amaranth, 'Edible Red', Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Amaranthus mangostanus), See text below images.
Amaranth, 'Garnet red', Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Amaranthus tricolor), See text below images.

Beta species
Beetroot (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris), "beet", Swiss chard, spinach beet, sugar beet, silver beet, vegetable root of scarcity, mangel,
mangel-wurzel, winter food for cattle, annual or biennial herb, herbal medicine, sucrose is chief food reserve dissolved in cell sap,
E162 Beetroot Red), Amaranthaceae.
Wild beet (Beta vulgaris sub maratima), vegetable, Amaranthaceae.
Perpetual Spinach (Beta vulgaris var. vulgaris cv.): leaf beet, Amaranthaceae.
Perpetual Spinach, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
3.3.0 Beetroot experiments, (Beta vulgaris), Amaranthaceae.

Beta vulgaris has 3 subspecies:
Subspecies 1. Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris
Group 1. Sugar beet, roots have high concentration of sucrose --> table sugar
Beet sugar is sucrose extracted from sugar beet.
Group 2. Chard, spinach beet, leafy vegetable
Group 3. Swiss chard, leafy vegetable, ornamental
Group 4. Beetroot, garden beet, root vegetable
Group 5. Mangelwurzel, fodder crop
Beta vulgaris cultivars, are all now included in the Betoideae, a subfamily of the family Amaranthaceae.
Subspecies 2. Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima, sea beet, wild beet, on coastal shores
Subspecies 3. Beta vulgaris s ubsp. adanensis, weed in bare areas, Greece, Turkey

Beta vulgaris components:
| Adipic acid, C6H10O4 | Betagarin, C18H16O6 | Betalamic acid, C9H9NO5 | Betanin, C24H26N2O13 | Betavulgarin, C17H12O6
| Dihydroxycaffeic acid C9H10O4 | Ferulic acid, C10H10O4
| Galactinol C12H22O11, sugar alcohol first found in sugar beet juice, important for carbohydrate metabolism
| Glutaric acid C5H10O4, organic acid used to make polyamides and polyesters | Humilixanthin C14H18N2O7, | Betalain alkaloid, yellow pigment
| Hypoxanthine C4H4N4O, oxypurine, common purine formed from breakdown of nucleic acids | Propanedioic acid, C3H4O4, malonic acid
| Octacosan-1-ol C28H58O, montanyl alcohol, constituent in plant leaves wax | Oleonic acid C36H56O9
| triterpenoid saponin Prebetanin C24H26N2O16S | betanin sulfate | Betalain alkaloid | purple pigment | Skatole C9H9N, odour of faeces
| Betalain alkaloid, yellow pigments

Celosia species
Plumed cockscomb, Celosia, (Celosia argentea), woolflower, wild cockscomb, dense bright-coloured clusters of flowers | Nicotinic acid |
herbal medicine, blood discharge, dysentery, eye inflammation, swellings, invasive weed, Asia, Amaranthaceae.
Cockscomb (Celosia cristata), wool flower, wild cockscomb, bright-coloured deeply
crenated and ruffled flowers, annual ornamental,
flowers | Nicotinic acid | Amaranthin | Betalamic acid | (houseplant), ornamental, Amaranthaceae.
See diagram: Celosia argentea

Chenopodium species
Chenopodium species, Amaranthaceae.
Fat hen (Chenopodium album), lamb's quarters, perennial, hardy plant, up to 1.5 metres, usually a weed, forage for little chickens,
culinary uses, rich in vitamins A and C, nutty flavoured young leaves and flowers, in salads or cooked, Europe, Amaranthaceae.
Chenopodium amaranticolor, used for diagnosis of plant viruses | Amaranthin | Amaranthaceae.
Chenopodium ambrosioides | Ascaridole | Amaranthaceae.
Good King Henry (Chenopodium bonus-henricus), old cultivated species, looks like spinach, up to 60 cm, young leaves cooked like spinach,
cook thoroughly because may contain |Saponins and Oxalic acid | to aggravate rheumatism, arthritis, gout, Europe, Amaranthaceae.
Chenopodium botrys | Sinensetin | Amaranthaceae.
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), ancient pseudograin of Incas, up to 1-2 m, annual, seeds 1-3 mm diameter coated with bitter saponins
to be removed by washing, cuisine, cooked as with rice, ground for bread, gluten-free, easy to digest, folk medicine, antiseptic, South
America, Amaranthaceae.
Chenopodium rubrum | Celosianin | Amaranthaceae.

Dysphania species
Epazote (Dysphania ambrosioides), wormseed, Jesuit's tea, Mexican tea, American wormseed, Californian spearmint, herb sancti mariae,
Baltimore oil, annual or short-lived perennial, up to 1 metre, culinary uses, chicken, mushrooms, Mexican dishes, a small leaf sprig added
to beans when cooking said to render beans gas free, pungent | Terpenes | former medicine, herbal tea but potentially toxic, strong leaves
infusion used as spray for cockroaches, South America, Amaranthaceae.
Epazote, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.

Spinacea species
Spinach (Spinacea oleracea), English spinach, annual, up to 30 cm, simple alternate leaves used as leaf vegetable, raphides, good source of
vitamins and minerals, but high level of | Oxalates | make iron unavailable! China, Amaranthaceae
Spinach, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Dried herb sold as leaf powder.
Super Strong Spinach's, Basilea Living Herbs

Family Anacardiaceae.
Pistacia species, Anacardiaceae
Sumac family, Cashew family, sumac, pistachio, yellow mombin
Cashew nut tree (Anacardium occidentale), cashew apple, gajus, medium tree, up to 15 m, semi-deciduous, slow growing, difficult to grow
in limestone soils, fruit has large apple-like fleshy part, nut hangs from orange pseudo fruit called "cashew apple", cashew fruit and seed
eaten but shell of kernel highly toxic | Anacardic acid | Gallic acid | Salicyclic acid | Tannins | used fresh, drink, preserves, wine, nuts roasted,
| Anacardic acid | Bilobol | Ginkgoic acid | herbal medicine, sap irritates skin, propagation from seeds, grafting, West Indies, Anacardiaceae.
Cashew nut tree, Daleys Fruit Trees

Kaffir plum (Harpephyllum caffrum), small tree, dioecious, evergreen, very ornamental branches brittle in heavy winds, flowers and
fruits from summer to fall, fruit, borne in clusters are red about 2 cm long, thin skin, with pleasantly sour flesh, large seed, propagation
from seeds, fruit used fresh, jellies, jams, preserves, wine, bark used for pink dye, slow growing but long lived tree, plant three trees
for cross pollination, South Africa, Mozambique, Anacardiaceae.
See diagram: Harpephyllum caffrum
Kaffir plum, Daley's Fruit Trees

Mango (Mangifera indica), common mango, Indian mango, large tree, fruit medium to large, variable colour, good flavour, used fresh,
preserved, frozen, propagation from seeds, grafting | Aurosperone | Butin | Carotene epoxide | Resorcinol-based molecules | Mangiferin |
Rubrofusarin | Violaxanthin | herbal medicine, Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka, Anacardiaceae.
Dried herb sold as mango fruit chips.
Kwini (Mangifera odorata), kuwini, large tree, evergreen, easy to grow, large, oval fruit, green skin, sweet orange aromatic, pulp, used
fresh, propagation from seeds, grafting, Guam, Anacardiaceae.
See diagram: Mangifera indica
Mangifera species, Daley's Fruit Trees

Poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) | Urushiol | Anacardiaceae.
Sumac (Rhus chinensis)
Toxicodendron capense | Tutin | Anacardiaceae.
Toxicodendron globosum | Mellitoxin | Anacardiaceae.

Family Annonaceae, Custard apple family.
Annonaceae plants contain flavonoids, alkaloids, acetogenins, e.g. Annonacin, in seeds and other parts, also leaves and bark may be
insecticidal | Terpenoids, mainly Diterpenes | essential oils, mainly Monoterpenes and Sesquiterpenes, and Isoquinoline alkaloids|.
Annona species, Daley's Fruit Trees
Annona bullate | Bullatacinine | Annonaceae.
Cherimoya (Annona cherimoya), evergreen, semi-deciduous, slow-growing, small tree or shrub, similar to custard apple, fruit, large
sweet, delicious white flesh, used fresh, propagation from grafting, seeds, Peru, Ecuador, Annonaceae.
Cherimoya, Daley's Fruit Trees
Ilama (Annona diversifolia), small tree, deciduous, fruit excellent but shy bearer, fruit, large, pink or white, used fresh, ice cream,
propagation from seeds, grafting, Mexico, Annonaceae.
Pond apple (Annona glabra), alligator-apple, monkey-apple, small tree, medium large, yellow, barely edible, deciduous, propagation
from seeds, rootstock for other annonas | Cassythicine | Reticuline | Florida, Tropical America, Annonaceae.
Mountain soursop (Annona montana), small tree, deciduous, fast growing, fruit, large, yellow, poor flavour, used in drinks, propagation
from seeds, West Indies, Annonaceae.
Rollinia (Anona mucosa, Rollinia deliciosa), Rollinia, biriba, wild sugar-apple.
Rollinia, Daley's Fruit Trees
Soursop (Annona muricata), guanabana, "graviola", small tree, deciduous, fast growing, fruit, large, green, soft spines, caffeine,
hydrocyanic acid, myricyl alcohol, slightly "sour" taste, used drink, ice cream, propagation from seeds, grafting | p-Coumaric acid |
Epoxymurin-A | herbal medicine, boils, skin diseases, tropical America, Annonaceae.
Dried herb sold as leaf powder.
See diagram: Annona muricata
Soursop, Daley's Fruit Trees
Soncoya (Annona purpurea), small tree, deciduous, fast growing, fruit, large, brown, orange aromatic pulp, used fresh, propagation from
seeds | Purpureacin-1 | Mexico, South America, Annonaceae.
Custard apple (Annona reticulata), bullock's heart, small tree, deciduous, fast growing, sap from cut branches injures eyes, large fruit
are almost smooth, seed kernels very toxic, used fresh, all parts used for insecticides | Annonaine | herbal medicine from leaves and bark,
propagation from seeds, Tropical America, Annonaceae.
See diagram: Annona reticulata
Custard apple, Daley's Fruit Trees
Cawesh (Annona scleroderma), poshte, slow growing, up to 20 m, creamy flesh fruit, very tough skin, Central America, Annonaceae.
Poshte, Daley's Fruit Trees
Sugar apple (Annona squamosa), sweetsop, small tree, up to 4 m, deciduous, fast growing, fruit, scaly, large, heart-shaped, segmented,
white creamy pulp, used fresh, ice cream, propagation from grafting, seeds | Asimicin | Squamocin | Tropical America, Annonaceae.
See diagram: Sugar apple
Sugar apple, , Daley's Fruit Trees
Atemoya (Annona x atemoya) ( Acacia squamosa X A. cherimoya), not "custard apple", small tree, deciduous, fast growing, fruit,
large, smooth to segmented, soft white flesh, sweet, used fresh, drink, ice cream, propagation from grafting, Tropical America,

North American pawpaw (Asimina triloba), "common pawpaw", large edible fruit | Annolobine | Asimicin | Eastern North America,
See diagram: Asimina triloba (In Australia, Carica papaya is called a "pawpaw".)
North American pawpaw, Daley's Fruit Trees

Ylang ylang (Cananga odorata), kenanga, perennial, village tree, evergreen tree for very warm sheltered position, drooping branches,
flowers produce perfumed oil in glands near the base, the extracted oil, Macassar oil from flowers, used in aroma therapy, perfume
and food flavouring, herbal medicine, asthma, itch, scabies, stomach ache, traditional Asian aphrodisiac, essential oil contains:
Ylang ylang essential oil may contain | Isoeugenol | Isosafrole | sesquiterpenoid alpha-Ylangene, C15H24 | Malaysia, Annonaceae.
See diagram: Cananga odorata
Cananga latifolia | p-Coumaric acid | Annonaceae.

Family Apiaceae, Carrot family
Carrot "seeds" are small dried fruits in pairs in a husk for protection, which are removed before spice is sold, ridges on fruits have canals
underneath containing aromatic oil, e.g. ajowan, arracacha, carrot, cnidium, mitsuba, monsterio, parsnip, sweet cicely, Thai coriander,
Ground elder (Aegopodium podagraria), herb gerard, goutweed, goat herb, English masterwort, perennial, in shady places, spring leaf
vegetable, herbal medicine, supposed to cure gout, ornamental, weed, underground rhizomes so hard to eradicate, Europe, Apiaceae.
See diagram: Goutweed, Aegopodium podagraria

Dill (Anethum graveolens), Apiaceae, perenial herb but grown as an annual, soft delicate feathery green leaves, tough stalks, needs warm
to hot summers, full sun, rich well-drained soil, oil of dill, annual, up to 1 metre, companion plant for brassicas, attracts beneficial insects,
small yellow flowers, digestive, store in freezer, culinary uses, seeds more strongly scented than feathery leaves, used to flavour "dill pickles",
dips, cucumber, cabbage, potato, cheese, white sauces, egg dishes, seafood, vinegar and root as vegetable,
Dill leaf oil: Anethofuran (dill ether) | Myristicin
Dill seed oil: alpha- and beta-Phellandrene (8%), Dill ether (3.5%), also Limonene | Carvone | Pinene, herbal medicine, dill oil is antifungal,
southwest Asia, India, Apiaceae.
Dill, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Indian dill (Anethum graveolens, var. sowa), use as seed and as vegetable, Apiaceae.
Leaves are often called "dill weed" to distinguish from seeds.
The "dill water", distilled from dill, is supposed to be carminative and relieve flatulence, but little medical evidence.
A "dill pickle" is a kind of cucumber flavoured with dill flower heads, Apiaceae.
Seeds and flower heads used to make "dill vinegar".
Angelica species, Angelica, Apiaceae.
Angelica (Angelica archangelica), Apiaceae, garden angelica, Norwegian angelica, annual in sub-tropics or biennial flowers in second
year, up to 2 metres, similar to some poisonous plants, source of germanium, unique perfume, deeply-divided leaves on thick round,
hollow stems, many small yellow or green flowers in large umbels, pale yellow, oblong fruits, seed viable for only one year so store
in the refrigerator, culinary uses, leaves and seeds as flavouring, garnish, and crystallized candied stalk used in cakes, biscuits, marmalades,
oil of angelica root in absinthe, gin and "bitters", flavour of Benedictine liqueur, aromatic stalks candied for confectionery, used to make
cosmetic "Angel water" taste from Angelica lactone | also: | Angelicin | Archangelicin | Apterin | Coumarin | Limonene | Osthol
| Phellandrene | Pinene | Tiglic acid | Umbelliferose | Xanthotoxin | Xanthotoxol | in herbal medicine as
angelical root, used to treat indigestion and spasms, infusion used to treat flatulence. northern Europe, Apiaceae.
Dried herb sold as angelica root pieces and root powder.
Angelica, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Angelica archangelica), See text below images.

Purple stem angelica (Angelica atropurpurea), great angelica, masterwort, American angelica, native herbal medicine,
North America, Apiaceae.
Purple stem angelica, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.

Ashitaba (Angelica keiskei koidzumi), fast growing after injury, folk medicine, pasture, Japan, Apiaceae.
Ashitaba, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.

Shiny-leaved angelica (Angelica pachycarpa), Portuguese angelica, Angelica shiny leaf, jade-green glossy leaves, large umbels, white
flowers, cuisine, attractive leaves used for chocolate moulds in deserts, Apiaceae.
Shiny-leaved Angelica, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.
Chinese angelica (Angelica sinensis), popular Chinese herbal medicine "dong quai or dang gui", Apiaceae
Dried herb sold as root..

Chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium), garden chervil, French parsley, salad chervil, low-growing herb, up to 30 cm, delicate annual, white
flowers, sweet-scented ferny foliage, grow in containers in cool conditions in shady area, store in crush in a mortar before use,
culinary use of oily seed, flavour soups, eggs, chicken, fish, sources and salads, chervil soup, mild taste like aniseed or parsley,
common on French menus as "cerfeuil" | Peucedanin | | Anethole | Estragole | herbal medicine, raw leaves to
Wild chervil (Anthriscus sylvestris), wild chervil, cow parsley, common European plant but not used in gardens | Cyanidin
galactoside | Deoxypodophyllotoxin | Apiaceae.
Chervil, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.

Black cumin (Bunium bulbocastanum), Apiaceae.
blackseed, black caraway, Earth nut, great pignut, mainly Indian dishes, seeds have smoky earthy taste and used as garnish, tuber-like
root tasted like chestnuts, India, Apiaceae.
Kalazira (Bunium persicum), black cumin, cuminaldehyde, cymene, used in Indian cuisine, herbal medicine, Iran, Apiaceae.

Caraway (Carum carvi), caraway, meridian fennel, Persian cumin, biennial, up to 60 cm, full sun, feathery foliage, grow from seed,
umbels of small white flowers, culinary uses, in cabbage and pork dishes, breads, with parsnips, turnips, peas, baked apples, caraway
"seed" used in cakes and biscuits, distilled to make German liqueur Kummel, Scandinavian alcoholic drink Aquavit, | Anethofuran
(dill ether) | caraway flavour from Carvone | lemon flavour from Limonene | Cuminaldehyde | herbal medicine, sold as caraway oil,
ground caraway, annual from central Europe, biennial form eastern Mediterranean, Apiaceae.
Dried herb sold as whole seed or dried fruit, not suitable for planting, chewed seed said to stop smell of garlic on the breath!
Caraway essential oil is used in pharmacy, perfumery, food and dried fruit for spasmodic gastrointestinal complaints, flatulence,
irritable stomach, indigestion, lack of appetite and dyspepsia in adults.
Caraway, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Carum copticum | Cymene | Terpene | Apiaceae.

Apium species, Apiaceae.
"Wild celery" (Apium australe), New Zealand, Apiaceae.
"Wild celery" (Apium filiforme) , New Zealand, Apiaceae.
Wild celery (Apium graveolens) ("wild celery" if growing wild in damp places, before modern cultivars, celery was
thin-stalked, pungent bitter herb called "smallage"), ache des marais, persil des marais, growing in salt marshes of Europe, Apiaceae.

Celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce), celery for cutting, garden celery, stalk celery, sweet celery, cultivated variety of celery,
blanched celery, aromatic biennial garden herb, grown for crunchy thick stalks or hypocotyl, mild taste, eaten raw or cooked by
steaming, simmered with other vegetables for sauces, anti-inflammatory, antioxidants, little nutritional value (celery seed essential oil,
pale yellow, very fluid strong celery aroma, contains mainly: | Apiin | Phthalides lactone | also: Apiol | Butylphthalate lactone
| Chrysoerial | Columbianetin | Guaiacol | Heniarin | Limonene | Malonic acid | Myristicin | Sedanolide lactone | beta-Selinene
| Trimethylpsoralin | Xanthotoxin | α- and β- Selinene | herbal medicine, diuretic, aphrodisiac, used to treat arthritis, liver disorders,
cystitis, chilblains, but some people are allergic to raw and cooked celery and celery seed oil, Europe, Apiaceae.
Dried herb sold as leaves and seed, not suitable for planting.
Celery salt is salt with ground celery seeds.
Celery for cutting, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.

Chinese celery (Apium graveolens var. secalium), cutting celery, leaf celery, soup celery, Chinese kintsai (grown for its leaves), Apiaceae.
Apium graveolens var. secalium, Chinese celery, leaf celery, cutting celery, smallage, Apiaceae.

Celeriac (Apium graveolens var. rapaceum), "celery root" (grown for bulbous root, sold with leaves removed), garden herb, large
taproot as a vegetable, leaves as seasoning, sold as "celeriac salt", Apiaceae.

Flinders Island celery (Apium insulare), herb of Bass Strait islands, Lord Howe Island, Australian native food, Apiaceae.

Lebanese cress (Apium nodiflorum), fool's watercress, perennial, up to 30 cm, hardy plant, groundcover, sprawling, lush, attractive
fern-like leaves with pleasant, mild carrot-like flavour, wonderful in salads or as garnish, made into pesto, rich in vitamins and minerals,

Sea celery (Apium prostatum), Apiaceae
Sea parsley, native parsley, wild celery, groundcover, salt marches, stout, clusters of white flowers, leaves with toothed leaflets,
smells like celery, deep taproot, leaves collected in New Zealand by Captain Cook 1769 to prevent scurvy, used in soups and sauces,
diuretic, herbal medicine, Australian native food, New Zealand, Apiaceae.
Apium prostratum var. prostratum, headland sea celery, broad leaves, grows on coastal dunes, Apiaceae.
Apium prostratum var. filiforme, mangrove sea celery, upright, fine leaves, grows in swamps, Apiaceae.

Sickle-leaved hare's-ear, Chinese thoroughwax (Bupleurum falcatum), Apiaceae.

Gotu kola (Centella asiatica), Apiaceae.
Indian pennywort, Asian pennywort, pegaga, spadeleaf, perennial, graceful, hardy plant, small annual
garden herb, groundcover, traditional Asian food / herb, 2-5 leaves a day regarded as brain and body food,
| Asiaticoside | Asiatic acid | herbal medicine, tonic, improve mental sharpness,
temporary relief, arthritis, pain, skin disorders fluid retention, allergies, nervous tension, arthritic pain
("chemical cocktail"), culinary uses, India, Apiaceae.
Dried herb sold as leaves .
See diagram: Gotu kola.

Hemlock (Conium maculatum), great hemlock, tall clusters of white flowers, noxious weed, poisonous Coniine, bruised plant has
pungent mouse-like smell, young tap root may be mistaken for carrot and seeds often mistaken for caraway seeds, Apiaceae.

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), cilantro, Chinese parsley, frost- hardy annual or biennial, up to 50 cm high x 30 cm wide, delicate
plant, small white flowers attract beneficial insects, use leaves, stems and roots, distinctive flavour which some people find unpleasant,
culinary uses, leaves as garnish, with fish, cauliflower, beetroot, celery, Asian dishes, seeds ground and used in curries, curry powder,
pickled fruit, gin flavouring, American hot dogs | Camphor | Citral | Decenal | herbal medicine (essential oil: Anethole | Borneol |
Geraniol | Linalool | Pinene | the "seed" has ribbed seed coats containing two achene fruits, digestive stimulant Carvone, Mediterranean
region, West Asia, Apiaceae.
Dried herb sold as coriander / cilantro leaf, coriander seed, coriander seed powder.
Fruit oil has floral lemon flavour quite different to leaf flavour, but both used in combination with other herbs and spices.
European type coriander has small fruits with high essential oil content in contrast to Indian type coriander with larger fruit and less oil.
Coriander seed is purchased whole with dry fruits still enclosed in a husk, which can be ground ad used as a sauce thickener,
Perennial Coriander (Eryngium foetidum), culantro, Apiaceae.
See diagram: Coriander schizocarp.
See diagram: Coriander

Rock samphire (Crithmum maritimum), sea fennel, perennial, up to 50 cm, hardy plant, edible wild plant, attractive leaves | Apiole
| Dillapiole | herbal medicine, digestive aid, rich in vitamin C, culinary uses, rare flavouring garnish, condiments, pickles, Apiaceae.
Rock samphire, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.

Mitsuba (Cryptotaenia japonica), Japanese parsley, large leaves taste like chervil, Japanese cooking, soups, salads, garnish, miso
soup, sushi, sprouts | Carvacrol | Elemene | Farnesene | Germacrene | Selinene | North America, Africa, east Asia, Apiaceae.

Cumin (Cuminum cyminum), Roman caraway, Mediterranean area, curry powder, essential oil, Cuminaldehyde, also
| Caryophyllene | Cymene | Farnesene | Limonene | Myrcene | Phellandrene | Pinene | Terpinene | East Mediterranean region, India, Apiaceae.
Dried herb sold as seed powder.
Black cumin (Cuminum nigrum), Kashmiri cumin, taste sweeter than cumin and less Cuminaldehyde | also: Carvone | Limonene,
used in savoury meat dishes in North Africa, India, Apiaceae.

Culantro (Eryngium foetidum), Thai coriander, spirit weed, saw tooth coriander, perennial coriander, Mexican coriander,
low growing, rosette growth habit, stiff long deeply-toothed leaves, spiky flowers up to 40 cm, hardy plant, annual to
perennial if flower stem kept nipped out, leaves deeply toothed, serrated leaves, spiky flower heads, retains flavour when dried,
culinary uses, aromatic leaves in salads, Asian curries, chutneys stronger flavour than coriander, herbal medicine Apiaceae.
See diagram: Thai Coriander
Culantro, Perennial Coriander, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Sea holly (Eryngium maritimum), seaside eryngo, herbacious perennial, pale blue-green spiky leaves, very small flowers,
naturally grows on sand dunes, up to 60 cm, culinary, young leaves and shootes with unopened flowers
boiled or steamed, herbal medcine, root extracts for healing and soothing, Mediterranean region, Apiaceae.

Asafoetida (Ferula assafoetida) (Latin foetidus smelling fetid), gum asafetida,
devil's dung, food of the gods, giant fennel, monoecious perennial, up to 2 m, dried oleoresin latex from ducts in cortex of wounded rhizome
and thick taproot, mainly used in Indian cooking, gives onion and garlic taste lentil curries, strong offensive taste, sold in sealable airtight
containers as a brown powder with gum arabic and wheat starch to be dusted over roasting food, antimicrobial, possibly antiviral | taste from
Umbelliferone, di-tri-tetra-Sulfides,
essential oil contains 2-butlpropenyl disulfide (often adulterated) | Isopimpinellin | Umbelliferone | Visnadin | folk medicine, digestive disorders,
used to treat many disorders, used as a bait and in magic spells, Iran, Apiaceae.

Foeniculum species, Apiaceae.
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), sweet fennel, perennial, yellow flowers, up to 1 metre, feathery leaves, bees love it, strong aniseed flavour,
store in freezer, culinary uses, fresh leaves and seeds, soups, with fish, cottage cheese, bread, cakes, pot herb, salads, fish sauces,
cheese, in absinthe, eaten raw or cooked, very tasty but hard to peel, high nutritional value, used in Asian cooking | mainly Anethole |
Fenchone | Sesalin | Myristicin | (fennel seed Anethole | Limonene | Pinene | bitter varieties contain Fenchone | herbal medicine, fennel tea to
treat digestion problems and flatulence, seed infusion to treat constipation, ground fennel or pollen used as sprinkling garnish, Mediterranean, Apiaceae.
See diagram: Fibrous leaf stalks
Bronze fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), Apiaceae.
Fennel bronze, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.
See diagram: Fennel bronze
Dried herb sold as seed.

Carosella (Foeniculum vulgare, subsp. piperitum),
wild form growing in southern Italy and California, sharp taste for cooking meat and fish, Apiaceae
Florence Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum), large leaf-stalk base used as vegetable, Apiaceae.
Florence Fennel, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Sweet Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare, subsp. vulgare), usual cultivated form, sweet aroma from Anethole, Apiaceae.

Lovage (Levisticum officinale), old English lovage, Italian lovage, maggi herb, smellage, Cornish lovage, Ligurian celery, perennial,
up to 60 cm, large lobed leaves, store in freezer, culinary uses, soups, stews, salads, savoury dishes, beef dishes, tomato sauces |
| mainly Phthalides lactone | Bergapten
| Carvacrol | Rosmarinic acid | Terpineol | herbal medicine, west Asia, Germany, Apiaceae.
Lovage, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as root.
Levisticum scoticum | Myristicin | Apiaceae.

Water dropworts (Oenanthe species), aquatic or live in marshes, Apiaceae.
Oenanthe aquatica | Phellandrene | Apiaceae.
Hemlock water dropwort (Oenanthe crocata), yellow juice from cut stem and root, celery-like leaves, flowers in large umbels may be
mistaken for wild celery or wild parsley or parsnips, plant contains poisonous oenanthotoxin, "the most poisonous plant in the
UK", riverbanks, fleshy tubers called "dead man's fingers" | Falcarinol | Hentriacontane | herbal medicine, poultices, common in England,
Java waterdropwort (Oenanthe javanica), water celery, Chinese celery, Japanese parsley, perennial, hardy plant, grow in wet areas
or in pots, beautiful leaves of pink, cream, green and white, culinary uses, stems and leaves for celery flavour salads and cooked,
herbal medicine, Asia, Apiaceae.

Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), ("rock celery"), common parsley, garden parsley, annual, aromatic and attractive leaves tripinnate
leaves used as garnish, root parsley in soups, strong parsley aroma when mature, smaller leaves, store in freezer, culinary uses, in
bouquet garni, fresh leaves make any dish attractive, crisp fast when fried, essential oil from seed | Apiol | Apigenin glucoside
| Apiin | Apiole | Apiose | Bergapten | Hydroquinone | Menthatriene | Myrcene | Myristicin | Petroselenic acid | Phellandrene
| Phenethyl alcohol | herbal medicine, chewed raw or juice sipped as breath deooriser, but do not drink large amount of juice
if you have kidney disease, Mediterranean region, Egypt, Italy, Apiaceae.
Dried herb sold as leaves, leaf powder and parsley root.
("Chinese celery" also Apium graveolens var. secalinum).
See diagram Parsley

Italian parsley, continental parsley, flat-leaved parsley (Petroselinum crispum variety), preferred parsley because easier to cultivate,
and more tolerant of rain and sun, has a stronger flavour, strong parsley flavour when young, used green freshly chopped as soup topping
for soups, salads flavouring for many dishes, attracts beneficial insects, Apiaceae.
Italian Parsley, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.

Curley parsley, curled parsley (Petroselinum crispum variety), most commonly used in western cuisine, easy to grow in pots near the
kitchen door, biennial plant so it flowers in second years and then should be replaced, used as garnish and to enhance flavours,
e.g. scrambled eggs, attracts beneficial insects, Apiaceae.
Curled Parsley, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.

Turnip-rooted parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. tuberosum), Hamburg rooted parsley, enlarged edible root, for soups and stews,
edible leaves, Apiaceae.

Alexanders (Smyrnium olusatrum), horse parsley, soups and salads, herbal medicine, ornamental, Apiaceae.
See diagram Alexanders

Anise (Pimpinella anisum), aniseed, sweet cumin, black caraway, great burnet saxifrage, culinary uses, fresh leaves in salads, steamed
vegetables, shellfish, aniseed in biscuits and apple pie, used in Greek cuisine for meat and tomato sauce, many health benefits recorded
for essential oil, herbal medicine, sedative, antirheumatic, antiseptic, sleeplessness (in the Bible, "anise" is probably Dill), used to make
arak, ouzo and Pedrnod | high content of phenolic compound Anethole | Anisaldehyde | Cresol | Hydroquinone | central Asia, Apiaceae.
Dried herb sold as seed and seed powder.
Anise, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Pimpinella saxifraga | Pimpinellin | Apiaceae.

Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi), ajowan caraway, carom, ajuan, omum, bishop's weed, leaves and fruit bitter pungent taste of essential oil,
small brown oval schizocarp fruits look like caraway, roasted or fries, not eaten raw, used in Indian cooking | essential oil contains mostly
| Thymol | also: Cymene | Pinene | Terpinene | many terpenoids | herbal medicine, treat stomach disorders, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial,
antioxidant, India, Apiaceae.
Dried herb sold as seeds.
See diagram Ajwain umbel

Family Apocynaceae, dogbane family
Plants of this family may contain the poisonous cardiac glycoside thevetin B, C42H66O18.
Allamanda (Allamanda cathartica), "Schotti", golden trumpet, ornamental shrub, evergreen shrub, ornamental, sprawling climber,
simple opposite leaves or whorls of 3-4, large, yellow, showy, trumpet-like flowers, white milky sap | Allamandin | herbal medicine, purgative,
induce vomiting | Allamandin | toxic, tropical America, Apocynaceae.
See diagram Allamanda
Purple allamanda (Allamanda blanchetii), purple flowers, ornamental, Brazil, Apocynaceae.
Allamanda nerifolia | Eucommin A | Apocynaceae.

Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), amy root, Indian hemp, Canadian hemp, hemp dogbane, perennial, up to 50 cm, aromatic
leaves, companion plant, use under citrus fruit trees to deter dogs and cats, supposed to be poisonous to dogs | Cymarin, | Aposinin
| Hydroxyacetophenone | herbal medicine, hemp used by Native Americans, North America, Apocynaceae.
Dogbane, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Apocynum androsaemifolium | Aposinin | Apocynaceae.

Asclepias species, milkweed family, Apocynaceae.
All species: | Aspecioside |
Spider milkweed (Asclepias asperula), green-flowered milkweed, antelope horns, poisonous, Cardiac glycosides,
North America.
Bloodflower (Asclepias curassavica), tropical milkweed, tropical milkweed, poisonous sap, calotropin, herbal medicine,
expectorant and diuretic, ornamental, Apocynaceae.
Milkweed (Asclepias fructicosa), African milkweed, broadleaf milk weed, butterfly milk weed, swan plant,
herbaceous perennial, herbal medicine, herbal medicine, pleurisy root, fibre used by Red Indians, bitter poisonous sap, steroid
glycosides, South Africa, New Zealand, Apocynaceae.
See diagram Asclepias fructicosa ( Gomphocarpus fructicosus)
Milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), common milkweed, broken parts leak white latex | Nicotine | Aspecioside | Vaccenic acid | Canada,
Butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), pleurisy root, yellow milkweed, chiggerflower, up to 1 m, hairy stems not
milky when broken, Cardiac glycosides, North America, Apocynaceae.
Dried herb sold as root.
See diagram Butterfly weed (Photo by Derek Ramsey).

Sodom apple (Calotropis procera), gigantic swallowwort, "Dead sea fruit", kapok tree, madar, oschur, fruit may burst to liberate
toxic milky steroidal sap and fibres, if eaten "turns to ashes in the mouth", Calotropin | Calactin | Calotropin | Uscharidin | herbal medicine,
antitumor effect, India,
See diagram Calotropis procera.

Sea mango (Cerbera manghas), suicide apple, toxic glycosides, coastal, cardiac poison, ceberin glycoside, light wood, ornamental,
Seychelles Islands, Apocynaceae.
Pong-pong (Cerbera odollam), suicide tree, grey bark, dark green spirally -arranged leaves, cluster of white flowers with yellow
eye, white latex, single large round green fruit turns pink then black, white poisonous kernel turns black when exposed to the air,
thevetin B, C42H66O18, cardiac glycoside, used for murder | Cerberoside | herbal medicine, purgative, emetic, south Asia, Apocynaceae.
See diagram Red pong-pong tree.
Cerbera dilata | Cerbertin | Apocynaceae.
Cerbera floribunda | Cerbertin | Apocynaceae.

Gymnema sylvestre, miracle fruit, cowplant, Gymnemic acid, supresses sweetness taste | Gymnemic acid | Viburnitol | herbal medicine, India,
Dried herb sold as leaves.
See diagram Gymnema.

Thevetia nereifolia, thevetin A and B, West Indies, Apocynaceae
Thevetia peruviana, yellow oleander, thevetia, ornamental shrub, hazardous plant, all parts are poisonous, herbal medicine, Apocynaceae.
See diagram Thevetia peruviana.

Periwinkles, Vinca species, Apocynaceae.
Greater periwinkle (Vinca major), blue leaf periwinkle, pink periwinkle, large periwinkle, perennial, evergreen, pairs of glossy dark
green leaves, taller stems spread rapidly, from rooted runners, groundcover under trees, weed, herbal medicine, astringent, former
laxative, poisonous, Southern Europe, Apocynaceae.
Lesser periwinkle (Vinca minor), not so tall, perennial, groundcover, herbal medicine, source of Vincamine, Bulgaria, Apocynaceae.
Dried herb sold as aerials.
Madagascar periwinkle (Vinca rosea, Catharanthus roseus), pink periwinkle, rosy periwinkle, sadaphuli, old maid, ornamental
perennial, up to 60 cm, glossy leaves with prominent white vein, pair of slender pods with many seeds | Ajmalicine | Alstonine
| Catharanthine | Catharine | Norharmane | Leurosine | Loganin | Secologanin | Vinblastine | Vincristine | Vindoline
| more than 66 alkaloids, | herbal medicine, diarrhoea, induce abortion, diabetes, said to destroy the excessive white blood cells
of leukaemia, noxious weed in Australia, Madagascar. Apocynaceae.
See diagram Vinca rosea.

Holly family Aquifoliaceae.
Ilex species, Aquifoliaceae.
Ilex species: Poisonous berries, Aquifoliaceae.
Holly (Ilex aquifolium), common holly, English holly, perennial, hardy plant, upright small tree, leaves and berries in floral art, crafts,
favoured Northern Hemisphere Xmas decoration because evergreen bright green leaves and red berries, herbal medicine, England,
See diagram English holly.
Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), Brazilian holly, Paraguay tea, Jesuit's tea, yerba de mate, perennial, hardy plant, more
than 3 metres, attractive, leaves and red berries, culinary uses, the most drunk beverage as tonic tea in South America, no undesirable
stimulant effects, honey or sugar or lemon may be added | Caffeine | herbal medicine, digestive, rich in vitamins and minerals, theobromine,
caffeine alkaloids, Aquifoliaceae.
Yerba mate, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images
Ilex pubescens | Ilexolide | Dihydroxyacetophenone | Aquifoliaceae.
Black alder (Ilex verticillata), Aquifoliaceae.
Yaupon (Ilex vomitoria), Aquifoliaceae.
Highclere holly (Ilex X altaclarensis), Aquifoliaceae.

Family Araliaceae, Ivy family
Japanese angelica tree (Aralia elata), devil's walking stick, woody deciduous shrub, up to 10 m, Araloside, herbal medicine, possibly
anti-ulcer, Araliaceae.
Woolly Yarrow
, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Aralia spinosa, devil's walking stick, USA.

Hedera species, ivy plants, Araliaceae. , Ivy (Hedera helix), English ivy, common ivy, poisonous berries and leaves | Scopolin | Falcarinol
| Hederagenin glucoside | beta-Hederin | Araliaceae.
Canary Island ivy (Hedera canariensis), self-clinging climber, slightly lobed leaves with white margins (houseplant), Araliaceae.
Ginseng usually refers to Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius, Araliaceae.
Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus), bristly shrub, deciduous, more than 2 m, eleutheroside saponins | Acanthoside |
Ginsenosides | Sesamin | Perlolyrine | Valinnic acid | herbal medicine, treats
stress, anti-stress "adaptogen", may improve memory, contains eleutherosides not eugenosides, China, Araliaceae.
Dried herb sold as root and as root powder.
(It is illegal to sell Siberian ginseng as a "ginseng" because different genus, i.e. not Panax ginseng.)
Panax species, Araliaceae.
Chinese ginseng (Panax ginseng), true ginseng, Korean ginseng, "ren shen", roots looks like human body, herbal
medicine, anti-stress "adaptogen", energy tonic, diabetes, respiratory infections stress | contains Ginsenoside RG1 | .
Dried herb sold as root and root powder.
Sanchi ginseng (Panax notoginseng), notoginseng, tienchi ginseng | Notogensenoside | Araliaceae.
Dried herb sold as root and root powder.
Panax pseudoginseng | Ginsenoside | Araliaceae.

American ginseng, (Panax quinquefolius), slow-growing shrub, up to 50 cm, | Ginsenoside RG1 | fleshy root popular herbal medicine,
rare in wild so now cultivated, North America, Araliaceae.
Do not use if you have high blood pressure, and it may cause irritability