School Science Lessons
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1.0 Biology classification, diversity
Table of contents
Algae, algae classification
32.0 Amphibia (amphibians)
1.1.0 Archaea, Archaebacteria
36.0 Aves (birds)
1.2.0 Bacteria classified by phylum
39.0 Class Mammalia (mammals) Fruit classification, (Angiosperms)
9.207 Fungi classification
7.01 Kingdom Chromista
1.0.1 Kingdom Protista
2.0.0 Kingdom Animalia (animals)
9.4.0 Levels of organization, Biosphere to atomic particle
9.208 Lichens, Ascomycota
9.0.3 Phylum Heterokontophyta
42.0 Phylogenetic classification
9.2.1 Plant classification, (files in this website)
9.2.2 Plant classification, "An integrated system of classification of flowering plants"
34.0 Reptilia (reptiles)

Living things
Eucaryota, Eukaryota
1.0.0 Algae classification
1. Archaeplastida
9.0.2 Green algae, Phylum Chlorophyta, Class Chlorophyceae
9.0.14 Red algae, Phylum Rhodophyta
9.0.15 Glaucophyta, Glaucocystis, Cyanophor
9.0.3 Charophyta, stoneworts, Chara
2. Rhizaria
9.0.13 Cercozoa, amoebae, flagellates, common in soil
9.0.12 Phylum Foraminifera, amoeboid, common marine benthos
9.0.11 Radiolaria, amoeboid, common marine plankton
3. Heterokonts
1.0 Diatoms, Phylum Bacillariophyta
7.0 Brown algae, Class Phaeophyceae
2.0 Golden-brown algae, Class Chrysophyceae
8.0 Class Raphidophyceae
3.0 Yellow-green algae, Class Xanthophyceae
9.0.5 Cryptomonads, Phylum Cryptophyta, Class Cryptophyceae
9.0.6 Dinoflagellates, Class Dinoflagellata, Class Dinophyceae
9.0.4 Phylum Haptophyta. Prymnesiophyta (Haptophytes) Class Haptophyceae (unequal flagellae), Pavlova, Isochrysis
Pseudoisochrysis, Dicrateria, Chrysophyceae, Monochrysis, Prasinophyceae, Tetraselmis (Platymonas), Pyramimonas,

9.0.9 Euglenoid flagellates, Phylum Euglenophyta
9.0.3 Phylum Heterokontophyta (protist)
1.3.6 Oomycota, water moulds

Not algae
9.0.1 Cyanophyceae, Phylum Cyanobacteria Phycobilin, phycocyanin, phycoerythrin, Cyanobacteria, Rhodophyta Phycobiliproteins, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, Anabaena azollae
Kingdom Protista

1.0.1 Kingdom Protista
Kingdom Protista (Kingdom Protoctista), protists
A protista has such simple cellular organism that it is not classified as a plant, animal or fungus.
Most are unicellular with some multicellular algae without specialist tissues, and live in water or water soil or are parasitic.
All have a nucleus so are eukaryotic.
May be heterotrophic or autotrophic, i.e. chemotrophic or phototrophic.
Classification by means of movement
1. Ciliates have cilia
2. Sarcodines have extension of cytoplasm as pseudopodia
3. Sporozoans do not move
4. Zooflagellates have flagella

9.0.20 Phylum Acrasiomycota
9.0.11 Phylum Actinopoda
9.0.16 Phylum Amoebozoa (Phylum Rhizopoda), Amoeba, Entamoeba Amoeba proteus Entamoeba coli, E. coli Entamoeba histolytica
9.0.7 Phylum Apicomplexa
9.0.13 Phylum Cercozoa, amoeboids and flagellates, "slime mould", Plasmodiophora brassicae club root fungus of crucifers, e.g. swede
9.0.18 Phylum Choanozoa
9.35 Phylum Ciliophora, Succession in a pond community, hay infusion cultures, Protozoa
9.0.5 Cryptomonads, Phylum Cryptophyta, Class Cryptophyceae
9.0.9 Euglenoid flagellates, Phylum Euglenophyta
9.0.6 Dinoflagellates, Class Dinoflagellata, Class Dinophyceae
9.0.12 Phylum Foraminifera
9.0.15 Phylum Glaucophyta Phycobilin, phycocyanin, phycoerythrin, Cyanobacteria, Rhodophyta Phycobiliproteins, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, Anabaena azollae
9.0.4 Phylum Haptophyta, Prymnesiophyta (Haptophytes)
9.0.19 Phylum Metamonada
9.0.17 Phylum Myxomycota
9.0.10 Phylum Percolozoa
9.0.21 Phylum Prasinophyta

9.0.3 Heterokontophyta
Phylum Heterokontophyta, [Some Classes or species also classified in Kingdom Chromista]

1.0 Diatoms, Phylum Bacillariophyta
2.0 Golden-brown algae, Class Chrysophyceae
4.0 Class Dictyochophyceae, Actinochrysophyceae, Silicoflagellates, (axodines), Dictyocha
5.0 Class Eustigmatophyceae, Nannochloropsis, mostly soil algae, some very small marine
5a.0 Class Hyphochytridiomycetes (Phylum Hypochytridiomycota), zoospores with just one anterior flagellum
10.0 Class Opalinea, Opalina in frogs, Protoopalina
7.0 Brown algae, Class Phaeophyceae
11.0 Oomycetes (water moulds), not photosynthetic, rusts, egg "fungi", not a fungus but similar to brown algae.
The zoospores have two cilia.
Phytophthera infestans, late blight of potatoes
[Also classified in Kingdom Chromista],
Class Raphidophyceae, unicellular, one apical flagellum
3.0 Yellow-green algae, Class Xanthophyceae
9.1.8 Vaucheria disperma

1.0.0 Algae classification
Simple classification of algae
9.0.2 Green algae, Phylum Chlorophyta, Class Chlorophyceae
3.0 Yellow-green algae, Class Xanthophyceae
1.0 Diatoms, Phylum Bacillariophyta
7.0 Brown algae, Class Phaeophyceae
9.0.14 Red algae, Phylum Rhodophyta
2.0 Golden-brown algae, Class Chrysophyceae
9.0.9 Euglenoid flagellates, Phylum Euglenophyta
9.0.5 Cryptomonads, Phylum Cryptophyta, Class Cryptophyceae
9.0.6 Dinoflagellates, Class Dinoflagellata, Class Dinophyceae
Cyanophyceae, Phylum Cyanobacteria, "blue-green algae"

The term "algae" is still used but it is not so popular nowadays.
Classify most of the types of algae within the Protista because they are largely single-celled organisms, diatoms, chrysophytes,
or if multicellular they show little differentiation of cell types.
Being photosynthetic no longer determines whether you classify an organism as a plant.
The following may be classified as "photosynthetic protists".
1.0 Diatoms, Phylum Bacillariophyta
2.0 Golden-brown algae, Class Chrysophyceae
3.0 Yellow-green algae, Class Xanthophyceae

1.0 Diatoms, Phylum Bacillariophyta
Class Bacillariophyceae (Diatomophyceae) (Phylum Bacillariophyta), diatoms, plankton, diatomaceous earth, silica shells (silica cell
walls), photosynthesis.
Diatoms are unicellular microscopic with a silica wall and occur as plankton and fossil forms, e.g. diatomaceous earth.
The word diatom means "cut in two".
Diatoms occur as single cells, colonies or filaments, are yellow to light brown colour, with cell walls consisting of overlapping
silica cells, each like a petri dish.
Odontella, marine diatom
Melosira, radial symmetry
Navicula, boat-shaped
Pinnularia, bilateral symmetry
Didymosphenia geminata, didymo, rock snot
Skeletonema, Thalassiosira, Phaeodactylum, Chaetoceros, Cylindrotheca, Bellerochea,
Actinocyclus, Nitzchia, Cyclotella

2.0 Golden-brown algae, Class Chrysophyceae
Unicellular flagellates, mostly freshwater, pigment fucoxanthin
Single cells, colonies, filaments yellow, golden-brown.
Motile cells with two unequal anterior flagella.
, Dinobryon, Chrysamoeba
Golden-brown algae, Class Chrysophyceae (Phylum Chrysophyta)
3.0 Yellow-green algae, Class Xanthophyceae
Xanthophytes with the single cells or filaments green or yellow-green. Motile cells with two unequal anterior flagella.
Phylum Tribophyta, xanthophyceae (xanthophytes)
Olisthodiscus, Chlorophyceae, Carteria, Dunaliella
9.41.1 Vaucheria

7.0 Brown algae, Class Phaeophyceae, kelp
Ascophyllum nodosum (only species), rockweed, knotted kelp, Norwegian kelp, knotted wrack, egg wrack, cold water seaweed, (garden fertilizer), Fucaceae, North Atlantic Ocean
Dried herb sold as "frond powder" and "flakes".
Cladophora, kelp, brown algae, Phaeophyceae
Cutleria multifida, Family, Cutleriaceae, has 48 chromosomes
Desmarestia, Himantothallus, Phaeurus, Family Desmarestiaceae, Antarctica
Dictyota dichotoma, Order Dictyotales, kelp, doubling weed, Florida, rapid asexual reproduction from fragments
Durvillea potatorum, bull kelp, brown algae (garden fertilizer), Phaeophyceae
Composting, Liquid Seaweed, Tasmanian bull kelp
9.1.6 Ecklonia, Sargassum, brown algae, brown seaweed, kelps, Phylum Phaeophyta
Ectocarpus silicosis, Family Ectocarpaceae, leather kelp, hair-like, found everywhere
9.1.9 Fucus, Ecklonia, brown seaweed, kelp
Halimeda tuna, green macroalgae, thallus is calcified green segments
Hormosira banksii, Neptune's necklace, sea grapes or bubble weed, intertidal zone, kelp, brown algae, Phaeophyceae
9.1.8 Laminaria species, Laminariaceae Phycocolloids, Polysaccharide gums
9.1.7 Hormosira, Cladophora, Dictyota
Sargassum, Order Fucales, kelp, large brown seaweed, pelagic, floats near surface, tropical areas, drifts in Sargasso Sea.
Undaria pinnatifida, Order Laminariales, wakame, miyeok, large brown edible seaweed, in miso soup

Bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus), kelp, seaweed (buoyancy bladders) (chlorophyll and yellow fucoxanthin), herbal medicine,
Dried herb sold as seaweed frond pieces.
Toothed wrack (Fucus serratus), serrated wrack, olive-brown, dichotomous branching, discoid holdfast, north Atlantic Ocean
Wracks are brown algae that, when exposed by the tide, exude a sticky brown gel to avoid desiccation.
Other wracks include Fucus spiralis.

Phaeophyceae, Phaeophyta, (mostly marine, seaweeds)
Class Phaeophyceae, brown algae, rock weed, kelps, brown algae, rock weed, kelps
Chondrus, Cladophora, Cutleria, Desmarestia, Dictyota, Ecklonia, Ectocarpus, Fucus, Himantothallus, Hormosira,
Laminaria, Macrocystis, Nereocystis, Phaeurus, Sargassum, Undaria
The phaeophyta are almost entirely marine, with brown to yellow-brown filaments, and have motile cells with two unequal anterior
Alginates (alginic acid, algin) are produced from brown algae, kelp.
Examine filaments under low power, then examine a cell in detail under high power.
Look also for oogonia and antheridia.
Examine a prepared slide showing dwarf males.

9.1.8 Laminaria species, Family Laminariaceae
Ascophyllum nodosum Oarweed (Laminaria digitata), kombu, kelp horsetail, laminarin, laminaran, harvested offshore for making alginic acid used in cosmetics, fertiliser, extract potash and of iodine, traditional medicine abortifacient, inducing labour, Europe, Morocco, Laminariaceae.
Dried herb sold as frond powder.
Laminaria japonica, formerly the source of MSG, monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate, MSG
Bull kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera), giant kelp, kelp forests, alginates, algin, thickens ice cream, edible, North America, Laminariaceae
Bladder wrack (Nereocystis luetkeana), bull kelp, giant kelp, up to 36 m, north-east coast of North America, Laminariaceae
7.01 Chromista
Kingdom Chromista (Kingdom Stramenopiles), Heterokontophyta, heterokonts, haptophytes, cryptomonads,
Chromista have tinsel-type flagella with brush-like extensions
7.0 Division Oomycota (oomycetes), biflagellate zoospores, one anterior and one posterior flagellum
7.1 Diatoms, SiO2 in cell walls, Synedra, Navicula
7.2 Ectocarpus silucosis, filamentous brown alga
7.3 Fucus spiralis, large brown alga with air bladders
7.4 Water moulds, saprophytic in wet soils, downy mildew plant parasites, Phytophthora infestans, parasite of potato,
Phytophthora cinnamomi, cinnamon fungus cause dieback in forests
7.5 Division Hypochytriomycota, one anterior flagellum, chytrids, Allomyces arbuscula

8.0 Raphidophyceae
Class Raphidophyceae (raphidophyte)
The raphidophytes are similar to the Phylum Tribophyta, but with a distinctive internal cell structure.
All are unicellular with no cell walls and no eyespot.
The marine species may cause non-toxic algal blooms, e.g. Gonyostomum.

9.0.1 Cyanophyceae, Phylum Cyanobacteria
Cyanophyceae, "blue-green algae", now called "cyanobacteria", are prokaryotic and are really a form of bacteria that happens to contain
chlorophyll and is thus photosynthetic.
Division Cyanophyta, "blue-green algae", cyanophytes (Phylum Cyanidophyta, Cyanobacteria, Cyanophyceae)
Class Cyanophyceae
Theye are grey-green, violet, brown, purplish or red, and contain phycocyanin, phycoerythrin.
They occur as single cells, colonies and more complex structures.
Photosynthesis not in chloroplasts.
They have no membrane-bound organelles in the cells, so they have no nucleus defined by a membrane and no dispersed
photosynthetic pigments dispersed and no chloroplasts. Sexual reproduction and motile cells have not yet been observed.
[Also, similar to Cyanobacteria are marine and freshwater prochlorophyta genera, phytoplankton that cause algal blooms,
e.g. Synechoccus, Prochloron, Prochlorococcus, Prochlorothrix.
Anabaena azollae can fix atmospheric nitrogen and lives in leaf cavities of the floating fern.
Anabaena spiroides
Mastigocladus laminosus, is a thermophilic cyanobacterium that lives in hot springs.
Nostoc commune is nitrogen-fixing and lives in leaf cavities of the liverwort Anthoceros and in the roots of Cycas.
Spirulina is a mixture of Arthrospira platensis, (Spirulina platensis) + Arthrospira maxima (Spirulina maxima), edible nutritious
algae used as a food and in health drinks.
Spirulina maxima and Spirulina platensis, are nitrogen-fixing and live in in leaf cavities of floating ferns.
China, Family Phormidiaceae.
Dried herb sold as spirulina powder.
Stigonema has microscopic connections between cells
Other algae include: Gloeocapsa, Gloeotrichia, Merismopedia, Oscillatoria, Rivularia
Saccorhiza polyschides, sea furbelows, largest seaweed in Europe

9.0.2 Green algae, Phylum Chlorophyta, Class Chlorophyceae
Phylum Chlorophyta, chlorophytes
Green chloroplasts for photosynthesis,
Single cells, colonies and filaments have grass-green colour.
Asparagopsis taxiformis produces great quantities of organohalides and the "smell" of the sea.
Caulerpa taxifolia, in aquariums invasive, "killer algae" of fish.
9.1.1 Chlamydomonas, Sphaerella, (Haematococcus), green algae
Cladophora species, green algae, branching filaments, Cladophoraceae, Chlorophyta
9.1.5 Closterium, desmid (Family Desmidiaceae)
Chlorella pyrenoidosa, common freshwater green algae
Chlorella vulgaris, single-celled algae, 2-10 mu m diameter, no flagllum, chorophyll a and b in chloroplast, high concentration of
cheap protein and nutrients, many alleged health benefits, including gums, teeth oral hygiene, digestion, thinner cell wall than
C. pyrenoidosa, so easier to digest, Chlorellaceae
Chlorella dried herb powder, broken cell wall, sold as extremely high in chlorophyll and magnesium, detoxifier, complete protein source,
and aids in many disorders

Pleodorina produce aquatic, algal blooms.
Codium tomentosum, velvet horn and spongeweed, widespread, deep rock pools, north east Atlantic Ocean, Codiaceae,
9.1.2 Pleurococcus (Protococcus)
9.1.3 Spirogyra, Ulothrix, Zygnema, Udotea flabellum, fan-shaped thallus, leathery, calcified, popular aquarium plant
9.1.4 Volvox, Eudorina, Gonium, Pandorina
See diagram 9.39.1 Filamentous algae, Cladophora, Nostoc, Oedogonium, Oscillatoria, Spirogyra, Ulothrix, Zygnema
See diagram 9.41.1: Chloroplasts of Spirogyra and Ulothrix

9.0.3 Charophyta, stoneworts
Freshwater green algae, structures like stems and leaves.
Chara group (stoneworts), Charophyta, Charophyceae, are submerged aquatic plants, e.g. Nitella.
Chara vulgaris, common stonewort (algae) Characeae
Chara, the musk grass, is a giant green alga with a musky, earthy odour that looks like a higher plant.
It generates action potentials in response to mechanical stimulation or direct electrical stimulation, leading to study of mechanisms
of excitability, action potential generation, ion channels and excitability.

9.0.4 Haptophyta
Phylum Haptophyta, Prymnesiophyta (Haptophytes), golden or yellow-brown cells, marine plankton, fucoxanthin pigment,
unicellular flagellates, chrysolaminarin, causes algal blooms on marine beaches
Single cells, colonies or filaments are golden-brown.
Motile cells with two almost equal flagella and a thread-like organelle between them, called the haptonema, Emiliania

9.0.5 Cryptomonads, Phylum Cryptophyta, Class Cryptophyceae
Hhave mechanical escape "spring", Single cells are red, olive-brown.
Motile cells with two unequal flagella, Cryptomonas, Chroomonas, Rhodomonas, Chlamydomonas, Chlorococcum

9.0.6 Dinoflagellates, Class Dinoflagellata, Class Dinophyceae
Phylum Miozoa, Dinophyta, Pyrrophyta, Also: Eukaryota, Phylum Dinoflagellata], dinoflagellates,
marine and freshwater plankton, brown cells, biflagellate, single cells brown or brown-green.
Motile cells with prominent transverse furrow containing two flagella.
One flagellum encircles the cell transversely, the other extends out from the cell.
Single cells, mostly marine, two unequal flagella, photosynthesis or parasitic, cause red tide
Gymnodinium (naked dinoflagellate), Noctiluca scintillans (red tide, fire in the sea)
Ceratium polysaccharide wall has horn-like shapes.
Harmful algal blooms (red tides), caused by Karenis brevis and Alexandrium.
Ciguatera disease is caused by eating reef fish infected by Gambeirdiscus toxicus.
Rhodolith, zooxanthellae in corals, [Dinoflagellates, Phyrrhophyta, dinophyta (plankton)]

9.0.7 Apicomplexa
Phylum Apicomplexa, mainly parasitic,
Class Sporozoa
Babesia causes Babesiosis,
Plasmodium vivax causes Malaria,
Cryptosporidium in drinking water causes Cryptosporidiosis,
Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis.
Class Microspora, fungus-lke protists

9.0.8 Ciliophora
Phylum Ciliophora, ciliates (have cilia)
Paramecium, Vorticella, Colpoda, Tetrahymena, Balantidium
See diagram 9.3.35

9.0.9 Euglenoid flagellates, Phylum Euglenophyta
See diagram 9.38: Euglena (two flagella)
See 4.3.9: Prepare Euglena culture
Euglena, Euglena gracilis, E. viridis, red, E. sanguinea
(Phylum Euglenozoa, Phylum Sarcomastigophora, Phylum Euglenophyta), Euglenoidea (Euglenoids)
The Euglenoids are freshwater or marine and parasitic, light-sensitive, with one or two flagella, and have green or colourless
single cells with a red "eyespot".
The motile cells may have two flagella in a "gullet" at the anterior end, one shorter, with flagella often non-emergent.
Peranema, Phacus, Trachelomonas
Trypanosoma brucei
causes African sleeping sickness (Trypanosomiasis)
Trypanosoma cruzi parasitic, causes Chagas disease in South America
Leishmania causes leishmaniasis,
Giardia lamblia causes diarrhoea, dehydration.

9.0.10 Percolozoa
Phylum Percolozoa, colourless protozoa
Naegleria fowleri is a parasite of human nervous system and causes encephalitis.

9.0.11 Actinopoda
Phylum Actinopoda, radiolarians, are plankton with shells that form geologic beds, e.g. Acanthometra
Goldieria sulphuraria lives in hot springs.

9.0.12 Foraminifera
Phylum Foraminifera, have a calcium carbonate shell and send out many fine strands of cytoplasm.
They are a component of limestone because the shells form limestone rocks, e.g. White cliffs of Dover, England,
e.g. Notodendrodes, Elphidium, Globigerinoides.

9.0.13 Cercozoa
Phylum Cercozoa, amoeboids and flagellates (amoeba with silica shell)
Euglypha, Trinema, cabbage club root fungus Plasmodiophora

9.0.14 Red algae, Phylum Rhodophyta
Irish moss (Chondrus crispus) carrageen moss, red algae (Rhodophyta), Ireland, Canada, Gigartinaceae.
Dried herb sold as fronds powder. Carrageenans, red seaweed, Rhodophyceae
Mainly marine.
The single cells, filaments or more complexly structured algae are red, brown, olive-green, grass-green.
No motile cells.
Complex sexual reproduction.
Used to make agar, dulse, nori, carrageenan, seaweed, red cells, phycocyanin and phycoerythrin in chloroplasts.
Caulerpa cupressoides, zipper green seaweed, USA
Ceratium colours the upper ocean red.
Chondrus crispus, herbal medicine, Irish "moss", red algae, carrageenan moss, coral algae, carragheen, kelp, (in cough mixtures),
Compsopogon and others have microscopic connections between vegetative cells.
Corallina, Gelidium, kelp, agar
Dulse, red dulse, creathnach, popular fibre food and snack food (Palmeria palmata), Ireland, Iceland, Canada, Palmariaceae
Galaxaura subverticillata Gigartina atropurpurea, giant marine kelp
Gracilaria, kelp, agar
Gymnodinium, causes red tide (algal bloom)
Lithothamnium, Rhodolith, corraline red algae
Noctiluca causes bioluminescence.
Polysiphonia, Porphyra, Porphyia, "nori" Japanese food

9.0.15 Glaucophyta
Phylum Glaucophyta, microscopic primitive algae
Single cells or colonies with pigments in symbiotic blue-green algal cells not chloroplasts.
Motile cells dorsiventrally symmetrical with two lateral flagella.
Cyanophora, Glaucocystis

9.0.16 Rhizopoda
Phylum Amoebozoa (Phylum Rhizopoda), Amoeba, Entamoeba
See diagram 9.38.1: Amoeba Amoeba proteus is a single cell, aquatic, organism that is constantly changing shape.
The cytoplasm consists of clear jelly-like ectoplasm and granular endoplasm.
A clear rounded area, contractile vacuole, expands and contracts as it collects and expels water to maintain the concentration of the
A central nucleus controls all the activities.
It moves by forming a pseudopodium (false foot), by the endoplasm flowing into the ectoplasm.
The amoeba flows into the pseudopodium which may be anchored to the substrate by the outer membrane, pellicle or plasma
lemma, becoming sticky.
Amoeba feeds on small organisms by flowing around them and enclosing them in a food vacuole, where they are digested.
Reproduction is by simple binary fission when the amoeba splits into two.
Amoeba avoids dry conditions by forming a spore with an external cyst wall.
Entamoeba species have no contractile vacuole possibly because the live as parasites in vertebrates.
They have only one or two large blunt pseudopodia. Entamoeba coli
It lives in human large intestine, feeding on bacteria and remains of digested
food, so it is a commensal parasite and is harmless.
It may have up to 8 nuclei when it divides inside a cyst in the faeces.
Infection occurs after ingestion of cysts in faecally-contaminated food or water.
In the small intestine, the cysts break open to release sporozoan trophozoites which migrate to the large intestine, absorb nutrients, grow
and multiply by binary fission to form cysts.
Do not confuse with:
Escherichia, Phylum Proteobacteria, Escherichia coli (E .coli), the names are similar Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebic dysentery (intestinal amoebiasis) when it attacks the mucous membrane of the
intestine, causing blood in stools and peritonitis.
It may also cause abscesses in the liver.
It has 4 nuclei, but no mitochondria.
Entamoeba histolytica causes about 50 million infections world wide with a death rate of over 100, 000 annually.
Wheatley trichrome staining of the trophozoites (growing stage when it is absorbing nutrients from the host) is commonly used for
diagnosis of intestinal amoebiasis, but other stains are being tested.
Entamoeba histolytica in microscopic faeces specimens, looks like Entamoeba coli.
Canthamoeba, and Balamuthia mandrillaris cause encephalitis.
3.13.5 Heidenhain iron haematoxylin is used to stain mitotic figures in amoeba, after fixation.

9.0.17 Myxomycota
Phylum Myxomycota, Class Mycetozoa, Myxomycetes (acellular or plasmodial or coenocytic slime moulds)
It is a plasmodium, slime fungus, fungus-like slime moulds.
The Class contains many micro-organisms but most are not fungi.
The Class also includes the giant kelps, e.g. Stemonitis, Physarum polycephalum.

9.0.18 Choanozoa
Phylum Choanozoa, have a single rear flagellum surrounded by a collar.
They are, mainly sessile or colonial and may be related to the animal, e.g. Capsaspora, Ministeria, Proterospongia.

9.0.19 Metamonada
Phylum Metamonada, flagellate, have no mitochondria
The Metamonada have flagella, but no mitochondria. Giardia lamblia causes "beaver fever", in termite guts to assist the breakdown
of cellulose.
Trichomonas vaginalis causes trichomoniasis.
Trimastix pyriformis is free-living, has four flagella and consumes bacteria.

9.0.20 Acrasiomycota
Phylum Acrasiomycota, Kingdom Discicristates, Family Acrasiomycetes, (cellular slime moulds)
The Acrasiomycetes cause powdery scab on potatoes.
Formerly it was thought to be a fungus hence the "mycota", e.g. Guttulinopsis, Pocheina.

9.0.21 Prasinophyta
Phylum Prasinophyta, usually have dark green unicells, with green chloroplasts and flagellae and contain starch, e.g. Monomastix,
Nephroselmis, Pedinomonas, Pycnococcus, Pyramimonas.

2.0.0 Kingdom Animalia (animals)
Eumetazoa (metazoans)
Bilateria (bilateral symmetrical animals)
Phylum Orthonectida (orthonectids)
Phylum Rhombozoa (rhombozoans)
Phylum Cycliophora (deuterostomes)

18.0 Phylum Chordata (chordates)
19.0 Phylum Hemichordata (hemichordates)
17.0 Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms)

18.0 Phylum Chordata (chordates)
20.0 Subphylum Urochordata (sea squirts, tunicates)
21.0 Subphylum Vertebrata (vertebrates)
30.0 Subclass Dipnoi (lungfishes)
32.0 Amphibia (amphibians)
34.0 Reptilia (reptiles)
36.0 Aves (birds)
39.0 Class Mammalia (mammals)
Phylum Gnathostornulida (gnathostomulids)
Protostomnia (protostomes)

Superphylum Lophotrochozoa
Phylum Chaetognatha (chaetognaths, arrow worms)
Phylum Entoprocta (entoprocts)
Phylum Gastrotricha (gastrotrichs)
Lophophorates (lophophorates)
Phylum Brachiopoda (brachiopods, lamp shells)
Phylum Bryozoa (bryozoans, ectoprocts, moss animals)
Phylum Phoronida (phoronids)
Phylum Nemertea (proboscis worms) (Nemertea have trochophore larvae.)
Phylum Rotifera (rotifers)
9.35 Rotifers, Succession in a pond community, hay infusion cultures

Trochozoa (molluscs, annelids, Sipuncula)
8.0 Phylum Annelida (segmented worms, ringed worms)
15.0 Phylum Mollusca (molluscs)
6.0 Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms)

Superphylum Ecdysozoa
Phylum Kinorhyncha (kinorhynchs)
Phylum Locifera (lociferans)
Phylum Priapulida (priapulids, priapulans)
7.0 Phylum Nematoda (nematodes)
Phylum Nematomorpha (nematomorphans, gordian worms, horsehair worms)

9.0 Phylum Arthropoda (arthropods)
9.1 Subphylum Crustacea, crustaceans, shrimps, crabs, lobsters, barnacles
"Sea-monkey", Artemia nyos, crustacean (toy product)
12.0 Subphylum Myriapoda, myriapods (millipedes, centipedes)
13.0 Subphylum Hexapoda, Class Insecta (insects)
14.0 Subphylum Chelicerata, Class Arachnida (arachnids, spiders, scorpions)

Phylum Lobopoda
Phylum Tardigrada (tardigrades) (Phylum Arachnida, Order Tardigrada)
Phylum Onychophora (velvet worms, Peripatus)

5.0 Phylum Coelenterata (Phylum Ctenophora, comb jellies, Phylum Cnidaria, jellyfish, sea anemones)
Phylum Ctenophora (comb jellies) (Phylum Coelenterata, Subphylum Ctenophora)
Phylum Cnidaria (cnidarians, marine, jelly fish-like, sea nettles, Chrysaora fuscescens)
Phylum Myxozoa (ciliated protozoans) (Phylum Protozoa, Class Ciliophora)
Phylum Placozoa, Trichoplax adhaerens (the most primitive invertebrate, only a single species in this phylum)

3.0 Phylum Porifera (sponges)

3.0 Phylum Porifera (sponges)
Class Calcarea
Class Demospongiae
Class Hexactinellida

6.0 Phylum Platyhelminthes, (flatworms)
Class Cestoda (tapeworms)
Class Trematoda (flukes)
Order Echinostomida
Suborder Echinostomata
Family Fasciolidae
Fasciola hepatica (common liver fluke)
Order Strigeatida
Family Schistosomatidae
Schistosoma japonicum (bilharzia infection)
Class Turbellaria (planarians)
Order Acoela
Order Catenulida
Order Lecithoepitheliata
Order Macrostomida
Order Neorhabdocoela
Order Polycladida (polyclads)
Order Prolecithophora
Order Proseriata
Order Tricladida (triclads)

7.0 Phylum Nematoda (nematodes)
Class Secernentea
Subclass Chromadoria
Order Araeolaimida
Order Desmodorida
Order Desmoscolecida
Order Monhysterida
Subclass Enoplia
Order Dorylaimida
Order Enoplida
Order Mermithida
Order Muspiceida
Order Trichocephalida
Order Aphelenchida
Order Ascaridida
Family Ascarididae
Ascaris lumbricoides (human intestinal roundworm)
Order Camallanida
Order Diplogasterida
Order Rhabdiasida
Order Rhabditida
Order Spirurida
Order Strongylida
Order Tylenchida

8.0 Phylum Annelida (ringed worms, segmented worms)
Class Polychaeta, bristle worms, polychaetes (paddle-footed annelids, usually marine swimming worms), Nereis ragworm
Class Polychaeta, Sipuncula (sipunculan worms, peanut worms) (Phylum Sipuncula), Sipunculus, Phascolosoma
Class Polychaeta, Echiura, spoon worms, burrow worms, echiuran worms, (marine), Bonellia green spoonworm
Class Oligochaeta, earthworms, angleworms, Lumbricus common earthworm, Allolobophora green worm, Eisenia red wriggler worms
Class Hirudinea (leeches), Hirudo medical leech
Class Pogonophora (beard worms), Riftia giant tube worm

9.1 Subphylum Crustacea (crustaceans)
Class Malacostraca (crabs, krill, pill bugs, shrimp)
Class Maxillopoda
Class Branchiopoda (branchiopods)
Subclass Phyllopoda
Superorder Diplostraca
Order Anostraca
Family Artemiidae
Artemia salina (brine shrimp) in inland salt water lakes
Artemia nyos ("Sea-monkey" (toy product)
Order Cladocera (water fleas)
Infraorder Anomopoda
Family Daphniidae
Daphnia pulex
Class Cephalocarida
Subclass Branchiura
Subclass Cirripedia (barnacles)
Class Ostracoda (ostracods)
Class Remipedia
Subphylum Hexapoda
Order Diplura (diplurans, no common name)
Order Protura (proturans, no common name)

12.0 Myriapods
Phylum Arthropoda
Subphylum Myriapoda
Class Chilopoda (centipedes)
Class Diplopoda (millipedes)
Class Pauropoda (pauropods, pauropodans, progoneates)
Class Symphyla (pseudocentipedes, symphylans)

13.0 Class Insecta (insects)
Phylum Arthropoda
Subphylum Hexaopda
Class Insecta
Subclass Pterygota (winged insects)
Order Ephemeroptera (mayflies)
Superorder Neoptera
Order Anoplura (sucking lice)
Order Hemiptera (true bugs, plant bugs, cicadas, psyllids, lerps, aphids, scale insects, lac insects, mealy bugs, bed bugs,
back swimmers, water boatmen, water scorpions, whiteflies, greenflies)
Order Coleoptera (beetles)
See: Beetles (Commercial)
13.1 Order Diptera, Drosophila
Drosophila (Commercial)
13.2 Order Diptera, mosquito
13.3 Order Hymenoptera
13.5 Order Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths)
See: Peppered moths (Commercial)

13.1 Order Diptera, Drosophila
(true flies, two-winged flies, bee flies, blow flies, blue bottles, bot flies, crane flies, daddy long legs, fruit flies, gall midges, gnats, green
bottles, house flies, hover flies, midges, moth flies, sand flies, tsetse flies, vinegar flies)
Suborder Brachycera (circular-seamed flies, muscoid flies, short-horned flies)
Infraorder Muscomorpha
Family Drosophilidae (pomace flies, small fruit flies, vinegar flies)
Subfamily Drosophilinae
Drosophila melanogaster (common fruit fly)

13.2 Order Diptera, mosquito
Suborder Nematocera (long-horned flies)
Infraorder Culicomorpha
Family Culicidae (mosquitoes)
Subfamily Anophelinae
Anopheles gambiae (South American mosquito)
Subfamily Culicinae
Tribe Culicini
Culex tarsalis (North American mosquito)
3.02 Mosquito life cycle
16.3.0 Mosquito sprays, insecticides, repellents Mosquito bite clicker, Piezoelectricity (See: 4.)
See diagram 4.214: Mosquito larva
Phylum Microsporidia, unicellular, spore-forming, Amblyspora parasitic in mosquitoes

16.3.0 Mosquito sprays, insecticides, repellents
16.3.1 DDT
16.9.2 Garlic spray
16.4.3 Malathion, Maldison
16.3.2 Methoxychlor
9.1.0 Methoprene, C19H34O3
9.2.0 Bti insecticide (mosquito control), Bacillus thuringiensis

Mosquito repellents
Allethrin, bioallethrin
Oil of citronella

13.3 Order Hymenoptera
(ants, bees, wasps, horntails, sawflies, braconids, gall wasps, fairy flies, mud daubers, social bees and
solitary bees)
Suborder Apocrita (ants, bees, narrow-waisted hymenopterans, true wasps)
Superfamily Scolioidea (ants, parasitic wasps)
Family Formicidae (ants)
Subfamily Myrmicinae
Tribe Attini
Atta cephalotes, leaf cutter ants

13.5 Order Lepidoptera, butterfly, cockroach, grasshopper, lice, moth, termite
Order Mecoptera (scorpion flies)
Order Megaloptera (alder flies, dobson flies, fish flies)
Order Neuroptera (lacewings, ant lions, snake flies, spongilla flies)
Order Siphonaptera (Siphunculata) (fleas, sucking lice, lice)
Order Strepsiptera (parasitic insects, twisted-winged parasites, stylops)
Order Trichoptera (caddis flies)
Order Mallophaga (biting lice, bird lice)
Order Psocoptera (psocids, book lice)
Order Thysanoptera (thrips)
Order Orthoptera, [(grasshoppers, locusts, katydids (bush crickets, Tettigoniidae), crickets (Gryllidae), wetas, cave crickets, stick
insects, mantids]
Order Blattaria (Order Blattodea) (cockroaches)
Order Dermaptera (earwigs)
Order Embioptera (embiopterons, webspinners)
Order Grylloblattodea (grylloblattids)
Order Isoptera (termites, white ants)
Order Mantodea (mantids, praying mantis)
Order Mantophasmatodea (gladiators)
Order Plecoptera (stoneflies)
Order Zoraptera (zorapterans)
Order Odonata (dragonflies, damsel flies)
Order Phasmatoptera (Order Phasmida) (stick insects, leaf insects, phasmids, walking sticks)
Order Thysanura (bristletails, silverfish)
Subclass Archaeognatha
Order Collembola (springtails)

14.0 Class Arachnida, itch mite, mite, spider, scorpion, tick)
Phylum Arthropoda
Subphylum Chelicerata
Class Arachnida
Order Acari
Order Parasitiformes (mites, ticks)
Suborder Astigmata
Family Sarcoptidae
Sarcoptes scabiei (human ectoparasite)
Class Merostomata,
Order Xiphosura (horseshoe crabs)
Class Pycnogonida (sea spiders)

15.0 Phylum Mollusca (molluscs)
5.4 Shellfish, molluscs (Primary)
Class Scaphopoda (tusk shells)
Order Dentaliida
Order Gadilida
Class Cephalopoda (octopuses, squids)
Order Sepiida
Order Sepiolida
Order Spirulida
Order Teuthida
Order Octopoda
Order Vampyromorpha
Subclass Nautiloidea
Order Nautilida

17.0 Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms)
5.5 Starfish, echinoderms (Primary)
Class Echinoidea (heart urchins, sand dollars, sea urchins)
Class Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers)
Subclass Ophiuroidea (basket stars, brittle stars, snake stars)
Subclass Asteroidea (sea stars, starfishes)
Class Stelleroidea (star fishes)
Class Crinoidea (feather stars, sea lilies)

18.0 Phylum Chordata (chordates)
Class Cephalochordata (lancelets)
Craniata (craniates)
Myxini (hagfishes)
Class Pteraspidomorphi (pteraspidomorphs)

20.0 Subphylum Urochordata, (sea squirts, tunicates)
Class Appendicularia (pelagic tunicates)
Class Ascidiacea (ascidians, sessile tunicates)
Class Thaliacea (pelagic tunicates)

21.0 Subphylum Vertebrata (vertebrates)
24.0 Class Agnatha, Petromyzontida, jawless fish, lampreys
Superclass Gnathostomata (jawed vertebrates)
25.0 Class Chondrichthyes (sharks, dogfish, stingrays, rays, cartilaginous fish, elasmobranchs )
See diagram 9.302: Shark, Bony fish
26.0 Class Osteichthyes (Class Actinopterygii, ray-finned fish) (bony fish, "fish")
28.0 Class Sarcopterygii (Crossopterygii) (lobe-finned fish, coelacanths)
30.0 Subclass Dipnoi (lungfishes)
32.0 Class Amphibia (amphibians)
34.0 Class Reptilia (reptiles)
36.0 Class Aves (birds)
39.0 Class Mammalia (mammals)

30.0 Subclass Dipnoi (lungfishes)
Order Ceratodontiformes (Australian lungfish)
Order Lepidosireniformes
Order Coelacanthiformes (coelacanths)

32.0 Class Amphibia (amphibians)
Subclass Lissamphibia (amphibians)
Order Caudata (salamanders)
Order Gymnophiona (caecilians)
Superorder Salientia (frogs, toads)
See: Frogs (Commercial)
Order Anura (frogs, toads)

34.0 Class Reptilia (reptiles)
Anapsida (tortoises, turtles)
Order Testudines (tortoises, turtles)
Order Crocodilia (caimans, crocodiles)
Lepidosauria (amphisbaenia, lizards, snakes, tuataras)
Order Rhynchocephalia (tuataras)
Order Squamata (amphisbaenia, lizards, snakes)

34.01 Turtles in Australia
based on "A complete guide to turtles in Australia", by Steve Wilson and Gerry Swan
Crocodiles Genus Crocodylus
Freshwater crocodile, Johnstones crocodile
C. johnstoni
Estuarine crocodile, saltwater crocodile
C. porosus
1. Hard-shelled sea turtles
Family Cheloniidae
Loggerhead turtle Carella caretta, Pacific Ridley turtle Lepidochelys olivacea,
Flat back turtle Natator depressus
2. Leathery sea turtle Family Dermochelyidae
Leathery turtle Dermochelys coriacea
3. Side-necked freshwater turtles
Family Cheluidae
Long-necked turtles Genus Chelodina, Snapping turtles Genus Elseya, Southern snapping turtle, Elseya albagula, Mary River turtle,
Elusor macrurus, Snake-necked turtle, Chelodina longicollis, Genus Emdura, Genus Pseudoemdura, Genus Rheodyte, Helmeted turtles
Genus Wollumbinia
In Australia, a freshwater turtle is popularly known as a "tortoise", but in other countries a tortoise is a domed-shaped terrestrial reptile.
4. Pig-nosed turtle
Family Carettochelydidae, Carettochelys insculpa
5. Red-eared slider
Family Emdidae
Genus Trachemys, Red-eared slider Trachemys scripta elegans, the most common pet turtle
Asian house gecko Hemidactylus frenatus, "the chuck chuck", Flap-footed lizards, "legless lizards", Family Pygopodidae
Worm lizards, Genus Aprasia
Skinks, Family Scincidae, Blue tongued lizards, Genus Tiliqua, Eastern Blue tongue lizard Tiliqua scincoides
Dragons Family Agamidae
Bicycle lizards, Genus Amphibolurus
Genus Ctenophorus, C. cristatus crested dragon bicycle lizard, it runs on hind limbs
Genus Moloc, M. horridus, it has thorn-like spines and eats ants
Genus Pogona bearded dragons Monitors, goannas
Family Varanidae, Genus Varanus, Australian lace monitor
Varanus varius uses termites nests to hatch eggs.
Blind snakes Family Typhlopidae
Insectivorus snakes, Genus Ramphotyphlops, Flowerpot snake, R. braminus
Pythons Family, Pythonidae, diamond and carpet pythons, Morelia spilota
Reticulated python, Python reticulatus, at 10 metres it is the world's largest snake
File snakes, Family Acrochordidae, Genus Acrochordus, venomous water snakes
Colubrid snakes, Family Colubridae
Mangrove and freshwater snakes, Family Homalopsidae, Gens Cerberus
Venomous aquatic snakes
Venomous land snakes, Family Elapidae, Venomous front fanged snakes, 99 described species
Death adders Genus Acanthophis, A antarcticus, common death adder
Copperheads Genus Astrelaps
Shovel-nosed Genus Brachyurophis
Crowned snakes Genus Cacophis
Whipsnakes Genus Demansia
Genus Denisonia, D maculate, ornamental snake, eats frogs
Genus Dysalia
Genus Notechis, Tiger snake
Genus Oxyuranus, Taipans
Genus Pseudechis, Blacksnakes, P. papuanus Papuan black snake
Genus Pseudonaja, brown snakes
Bandy bandys, Genus Vermicella
Genus Aipysudrus, sea snake
Sea snakes
Sea kraits

36.0 Class Aves (birds)
Subclass Neognathae (neognath birds)
Infraclass Galloanserae (geese, ducks, quails, pheasants)
Order Anseriformes (ducks, geese, swans)
Order Galliformes (chicken-like birds)
Infraclass Neoaves (modern birds)
Family Scopidae (hamerkop)
Family Otididae (bustards)
Family Aegothelidae (owlet-frog mouths)
Order Caprimulgiformes (nightbirds)
Order Apodiformes (hummingbirds, swifts
Order Balaenicipitiformes (shoebill or whale-headed stork)
Order Charadhiformes (shorebirds, relatives)
Order Ciconiiformes (storks, relatives)
Order Coffiformes (mousebirds)
Order Columbiformes (doves, pigeons)
Order Coraciiformes (kingfishers, relatives)
Order Cuculiformes (cuckoos, relatives)
Order Falconiformes (diurnal birds of prey)
Order Galbuliformes (nunlets, puffbirds)
Order Gaviiformes (loons)
Order Gruiformes (coots, cranes, rails)
Order Mesitornithiformes (mesites)
Order Musophagiformes (turacos)
Order Opisthocomiformes (hoatzin)
Order Passeriformes (perching birds)
Order Pelecaniformes (pelicans, tropic birds, cormorants)
Order Phoenicopteriformes (flamingos)
Order Piciformes (woodpeckers, relatives)
Order Podicipediformes (grebes)
Order Procelladiformes (tube-nosed seabirds)
Order Psittaciformes (parrots)
Order Sphenisciformes (penguins)
Order Strigiformes (owls)
Order Trogoniformes (trogons)
Order Turniciformes (buttonquail)
Subclass Paleognathae (paleognath birds)
Order Struthioniformes (cassowaries, emus, kiwis, ostriches, rheas)
Order Tinamiformes (tinamous)

39.0 Class Mammalia (mammals)
Subclass Prototheria (egg-laying mammals)
Order Monotremata (monotremes)
Subclass Theria (therian mammals)
Infraclass Eutheria (placental mammals)
Order Afrosoricida (tenrecs, golden moles)
Order Carnivora (carnivores)
Superorder Cetartiodactyla (cetaceans, artiodactyls)
Order Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates)
Order Cetacea (dolphin, porpoise, whale)
Order Chiroptera (bat)
Order Cingulata (armadillo)
Order Dermoptera (flying lemur)
Order Erinaceomorpha (gymnures, hedgehog)
Order Hyracoidea (hyrax)
Order Lagomorpha (hare, pika, rabbit)
Order Macroscelidea (elephant-shrew)
Order Perissodactyla (horse, rhinoceros, tapir)
Order Pholidota (pangolin)
Order Pilosa (edentate)
Order Primates (primate)
Order Proboscidea (elephant)
Order Rodentia (rodent)
Order Scandentia (tree shrew)
Order Sirenia (dugong, manatee, sea cow)
Order Soricomorpha (insectivores)
Order Tubulidentata (aardvark)
Infraclass Metatheria (marsupial mammals)
Order Dasyuromorphia (dasyuroid marsupials, marsupial carnivores)
Order Didelphimorphia (American marsupials)
Order Diprotodontia (kangaroo, possum, wallaby)
Order Microbiotheria (monito del monte)
Order Notoryctemorphia (marsupial mole)
Order Paucituberculata (shrew opossum)
Order Peramelemorphia (bandicoot, bilby)

40.0 Taxons
Taxons are based on the Linnean sequence, Carolus Linnaeus 1707-1778, published in "Systema Naturae" in 1735.
Kingdoms: Animalia, Plantae | Fungi | Protista (Protoctista) Bacteria (Monera) Archaea (not is some systems)
An animal species:
Kingdom: Animalia, Animals
Phylum, Division: Chordata, Subphylum Vertebrata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Lagomorpha
Family: Leporidae
Genus and species, binomial classification: Oryctolagus cuniculus, rabbit, European rabbit

41.0 Classification of the common bean species
Kingdom: Plantae, Plants, Subkingdom: Tracheobionta, Vascular plants, Superdivision: Spermatophyta, Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta, flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida, Dicotyledons, Subclass: Rosidae
Order: Fabales, also called Leguminales
Family: Fabaceae, also called Leguminosae, Pea family
Genus and species, binomial classification: (Phaseolus vulgaris), Bean, common bean, field bean, French bean, garden bean,
green bean (pole bean, climbing bean, bushy bean), haricot bean, kidney bean, runner bean, snap bean, string bean

42.0 Phylogenetic classification
1.0 Prokaryota, Prokaryotes have no cell nucleus, no mitosis, no meiosis
1.1.0 Archaea
Archaea, Archaebacteria, live in hot acid environment, mostly anaerobic, e.g. Methanococcus jannaschii, lives in hydrothermal vents.
Its genome has been sequenced.
Phylum Crenarchaeota
Phylum Euryarchaeota

1.2.0 Bacteria classified by phylum
Phylum Acidobacteria
Phylum Actinobacteria, Actinomycetes
Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (tuberculosis), Mycobacterium leprae (leprosy)
Phylum Aquificae
Phylum Bacteroidetes, Bacteroides-Cytophaga-Flavobacterium
Phylum Chlamydiae
Chlamydia trachomatis
Phylum Chloroflexi
Phylum Chrysiogenetes
Phylum Cyanobacteria
Phylum Deferribacteres
Phylum Deinococcus-Thermus
Deinococcus radiodurans (tough, radiation-resistant bacterium)
Phylum Dictyoglomi
Phylum Fibrobacteres
Phylum Firmicutes
Phylum Fusobacteria
Phylum Gemmatimonadetes
Phylum Lentisphaerae
Phylum Nitrospira
Phylum Planctomycetes, Planctomyces
Phylum Proteobacteria
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Ralstonia solanacearum, Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli, Rhizobium, Vibrio cholerae (cholera)
Helicobacter pylori (causes peptic ulcers), Haemophilus influenzae (Bacillus influenzae) (first genome of a free-living organism)
Phylum Spirochaetes (Spirochetes): 3.44.5
Leptospira, Treponema pallidum, Borrelia
Phylum Tenericutes
Phylum Thermodesulfobacteria
Phylum Thermomicrobia
Phylum Thermotogae
Phylum Verrucomicrobia
Class Mollicutes, mycoplasmas, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma genitalium (smallest genome of a free-living organism)

1.3.0 Eucaryota, Eukaryota
(Greek, eu good, karuon nut)
Eukaryotes have a cell nucleus and nuclear membrane, + organelles, e.g. chromosomes, mitochondria, golgi apparatus, so most
organisms except bacteria.
Plants, Plantae
Animals, Animalia

1.3.1 Phylum Metamonada, Trichomonadida, trichomonads, Trichomonas vaginalis

1.3.2 Phylum Metamonada, Diplomonadida, diplomonads, Giardia lamblia

1.3.3 Phylum Amoebozoa, Entamoeba histolytica

1.3.4 Phylum Ciliophora, ciliate protozoa
Balantidium, Paramecium, Stentor, Stylonychia, Vorticella
Flagellate protozoa (formerly a class of phylum Mastigophora)
Phytoflagellates (have chloroplasts)
Zooflagellates (do not have chloroplasts)

1.3.5 Class Mycetozoa (Phylum Myxomycota) Myxomycetes (acellular or plasmodial or coenocytic slime moulds) giant kelps,
e.g. Stemonitis, Physarum polycephalum

1.3.6 Class Oomycetes (Phylum Oomycota) water moulds, downy mildews, rusts,
Kingdom Chromista, Chromists
Albugo candida (Cystopus), water mould, white rust
Aphanomyces raphani black root of Raphanus sativus, radish,
Bremia lactucae, downy mildew of lettuce
Peronospora cubensis downy mildew of cucurbits, e.g. cucumber
Peronospora destructor downy mildew of onion
Peronospora parasitica downy mildew of crucifers, e.g. cauliflower, cabbage
Phytophthora infestans causes potato blight
Phytophthora ramorum causes oak blight, downy mildews damage grapes
Aaprolegnia, Achyla, Ichthyophthirius, Saprolegnia, Phytophthera infestans, Plasmopara viticola,
Albugo candida (Cystopus), Monoblepharis, Peronospora, Physarum, Pythium

1.3.7 Class Hyphochytridiomycetes (Phylum Hypochytridiomycota) protist (Kingdom Chromista), zoospores with just one
anterior flagellum
1.1.1 Protista, heterotrophic protists
1.1.2 Chromista
1.1.3 Heterokontophyta

1.3.8 Class Chytridiomycetes (Phylum Chytridiomycota), chytrids, Heterokontophyta

1.3.9 Phylum Glomeromycota, Glomerales, mycorrhizal associations, arbuscular, i.e. lives inside plant cells, mutualistic

1.3.10 Phylum Cerozoa, amoeboids and flagellates, slime mould

1.3.11 Phylum Zygomycota, zygomycetes, phaecomycota, phycomycetes, Class Microsporidia, Microsporum

9.208 Lichens, Ascomycota
A lichen is the symbiosis of a fungi and algae, i.e. partnership between two species for the benefit of each.
The photosynthetic algae partner in the lichen thallus is called a photobiont.
Each type of lichen has a characteristic shape.
The fungi in a lichen are mainly Ascomycetes.
Lichens may be nitrogen-fixing.
Lichens are found in most places in the world and are very susceptible to air pollution in the atmosphere.
They may be damaged by sulfur dioxide or other harmful gases, and may die.
So lichens are sensitive plant detectors of air pollution.
1. Crustose lichens form a flattened thin crust on rocks, soil and tree bark.
These encrusting forms spread over and into the
surface of their habitat.
They crumble if removed from the surface.
2. Foliose lichens are like leaves on rocks and tree bark, sometimes with a paper texture.
The leafy lobes spread out over the surface.
They can be easily removed with a knife because they are attached to the surface by root-like threads.
3. Fructicose lichens have upright stalks with many thread-like branches, sometimes with fruiting structures at the ends.
They have shrubby forms with many branches.
They can be removed from the surface by hand.
4. Squamulose lichens have a primary and secondary loosely-attached thallus.
Lobaria pulmonaria, lung lichen, lungwort, a nitrogen-fixing lichen
Peltigera canina, felt lichen, dog lichen, a nitrogen-fixing lichen and herbal medicine

Division Ascomycota, sac fungi, lichens (Lichens are usually classified by the species of fungus.)
Class Ascomycetes
Order Lecanorales
Family Parmeliaceae
Bryoria bicolor, horsehair lichen
Cavernularia lophyrea, pitted lichen
Cetrelia monachorum, giant shield lichen
Cornicularia normoerica, brittle lichen
Iceland moss (Cetraria islandica), Parmeliaceae
Evernia furfuraceae, ring lichen, tree moss, bush lichen (fixative agent in eau de cologne)
Evernia divarcata, ring lichen
Evernia prunastri, ring lichen, oak moss
Hypogymnia austerodes, tube lichen, foliose lichen like a leaf Letharia vulpina, wolf lichen
Lobaria pulmonaria, lung lichen, lungwort, a nitrogen-fixing lichen
Menegazzia terebrata, honeycombed lichen
Parmelia cirrhata (P. nepalensis), Indian moss, shield lichen
Parmelia saxatilis, foliose lichen
Parmeliopsis hyperopta, bran lichen
Peltigera canina, felt lichen, dog lichen, a nitrogen-fixing lichen and herbal medicine
Platismatia glauca, ragged lichen
Pseudephebe pubescens, black curly lichen
Pseudevernia cladonia, light and dark lichen
Family Acarosporaceae
Acarospora tilesii, cracked lichen, a crustose lichen that forms a thin crust
Family Alectoriaceae
Alectoria lata, witch's hair lichen
Family Bacidiaceae
Bacidia arceutina, dotted lichen
Family Cladoniaceae
Cladonia stricta, cup lichen, reindeer "moss", a squamulose, loosely attached thallus lichen with a primary and a secondary thallus
Cladonia cornuta, horn lichen
Family Lecoraceae
Lecanora confusa, rim lichen
Family Physciaceae
Physcia crispa, rosette lichen
Family Roccellaceae
Rocella tinctoria, litmus acid/base indicator is extracted from it
Family Ramalinaceae
Ramalina fastigiata, Chinese moss
Ramalina fraxinea, cartilage lichen, "sac fungi"
Ramalina mensiesii, lace lichen, Spanish moss
Ramalina siliquoa, rock lichen
Ramalina subcomplanata, Indian "moss"
Family Usnaceae
Usnea barbata, tree moss, beard lichen
Usnea dimorpha, beard lichen
Usnea longissima, Methuselah's beard lichen (recent absence indicates air pollution)
Usnea lucea, haraphool
Usnea rubicunda, old man's beard, red beard lichen, tree lichen

Iceland moss (Cetraria islandica), Parmeliaceae
Cetraria islandica, island cetraria lichen ("Iceland moss") is a lichen growing abundantly in the mountainous regions of Europe, usually
lava slopes, USA
It is easily digested, has a bitter taste, and is used medicinally as a folk medicine.
Dried herb sold as aerials flakes.

1. Examine a specimen of a common lichen.
Study a prepared slide showing a transverse section of the thallus revealing the presence of alga and fungus.
Look for the penetrating haustoria.
2. Attach 10 lichens on a board.
Then put them in three places, e.g. near a factory, in the central city and far from the factory.
Observe any change in the lichens after one mouth.
Count the percentage of damaged lichens.
Lichens indicators are used as indicators of air pollution and species diversity.