School Science Lessons
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Chemistry T
Table of Contents
Tabersonine, C21H24N2O2
Table 2 Table of Elements
Table salt and rock salt: 19.1.16
Tagatose, C6H12O6,  Aldoses and ketoses (Table)
Talc, Mg3Si4O10(OH)2: 35.23.7 (Geology)
Talcum powder, talc, baby powder
Talose, C6H12O6, Aldoses and ketoses (Table)
Tamoxyfen, C26H29NO, "Nolvadex", oestrogen receptor, used for breast cancer treatment
Tangeritin, C20H20O7, O-polymethylated flavone
Tannic acid, Tea
Tannins, plant polyphenols:
Tantalum, Ta
Tap water, Volume of gas dissolved in tap water:
Tap water, Weight of solids dissolved in tap water: 7.7.13
See: Tape Measures, (Commercial)
Tar, Coal tar products, creosote: 16.2.10
Tar, wood tar, hydrocarbon mixture from destructive distillation of wood, e.g. birch, coal, organic substances
Tarnished silver, Clean tarnished silver: 15.3.16
Tartar emetic, K(SbO)C4H4O6. H2O
Tartaric acid, C4H6O6 Tests for tartaric acid
See: Tartaric acid, (Commercial)
Tartrazine, C16H9N4Na3O9S2
TATP, Acetone peroxide: Contact explosives
Tautomer, Reactions of sulfamic acid: 12.18.7
Taxol, C47H51NO14
TCP, Phenol, Carbolic acid: 16.1.0, (See 3.)
TDS, Total dissolved solids, water hardness, scale: 18.7.16
Tea, tannic acid
Tea tree oil
Teach manipulative skills, duties of a teacher: 3.2.4
Tear gas, C6H4(Cl)CHC(CN)2
Technetium, Tc
Technical standard, chemicals 38.
TeflonTM, PFOA, perfluorooctanoic acid, CF3(CF2)6COOH: 16.14.2
35.20 Tenacity (Geology)
Tensides, alkylphenol ethoxylates: 9.2.30
Teepol: Detergents
Teeth and toothpaste: 9.226
Teflon , Polytetrafluoroetheylene, PTFE: 3.7.32
Tellurium, Te
Temperature and rate of reaction: 17.2.3
Temperature, scales:
Temperature, Thermometers and temperature: 22.7.0
See: Thermometers (Commercial)
Tempering: 7.9.54
Tenisopide, C32H32O13S
Tensides, alkylphenol ethoxylates: 9.2.30
Tephra, tuff: 35.21.7 (Geology)
tera-, T, × 1 million million, 1012
Terbium, Tb
Terpenes (C5H8)n:
Terpenoids, isoprenoids (C5H8)n:
Terpinenes (cyclic terpenes):
Terpineol, C10H18O
Terpinoline, C10H16
Terpinyl acetate, C12H20O2
Terpyridine, C15H11N3
Terylene, polymer
Test-tubes, glassware and microscope slides: 3.3.1
Test-tubes: 1.9 (List)
See: Test-tubes (Commercial)
Test tape, glucose tes-tape
3.4.5 Tests for electric polarity, potassium chloride with phenolphthalein
1.0.0 Tests for gases and vapours
22.7.9 Thermochromic substances
See: Test Strips Ammonia to Sulfide, (Commercial) Testosterone, Steroids, sterols, steroid alcohols, natural steroids
Tetra-ethyl lead, lead tetra-ethyl (in "leaded" gasoline)
Tetraamine copper (II) chloride
Tetraamine copper (II) sulfate, [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)n]SO4, rayon production
Tetrabromofluorescein, C20H8Br4O5
Tetrabromophenol blue, C19H6Br8O5S, indicator
Tetrabromophenolphthalein, C20H10Br4O4, disodium salt dye for X-ray examinations
Tetrachloroethylene, CCl2=CCl2, Stain removal: (See Treatments: 2.),
Tetrachloromethane, CCl4, carbon tetrachloride
Tetrachlorvinphos, C10H9Cl4O6P, insecticide: 16.4.5
Tetrafluoroethylene, C2F4: 3.7.32
Tetrahydrocannabinol, C21H30O2
Tetrahydrofuran, C4H8O
Tetrahydropalmatine, C21H25NO4
Tetramethylammonium hydroxide pentahydrate (CH3)4N(OH).5H2O, Toxic, corrosive, avoid skin contact
Tetrandrine, C38H42N2O6
Tetraterpenes C40 (eight isoprene units):
Tetraterpenoids, Carotenoids, C40:
Tetrazolium chloride, C19H15ClN4 (2, 3, 5- triphenyl- tetrazolium chloride), TTC, redox indicator, test for cellular respiration
Tetrose sugars, Aldoses and ketoses
Thallium, Tl
THC (C21H30O2, tetrahydrocannabinol), Hallucinogenic drugs, hallucinogens: 11.11. 9
Thebane, C19H21NO3
Theobromine, C7H8N4O2
Theophylline, C7H8N4O2
Thermal capacity: 14.05
Thermal capacity, Specific heat capacity, calorimeters, heat measuring devices, C: 22.5.0
Thermal cracking, Cracking
Thermal decomposition: 3.22.0
Theobromine, C7H8N4O2
Theophylline, C7H8N4O2
Thermite reaction, thermit welding: 12.1.5
Thermochemistry, heat of reaction: 14.0
Thermochromic substances: 22.7.9
Thermoelectricity, thermocouple: 33.8.0
Thermometers and temperature: 22.7.0
Thermometers, Mercury in barometers and thermometers: 1.9
Thermoplastic polymers: 3.0.2
"Thermos" flask, Heat transfer by Dewar flask (vacuum flask): 22.2.8
Thermosetting polymers: 3.0.3
Thevetin A, C42H64O19, poisonois cardiac glycoside
Thevetin B, C42H66O18, poisonois cardiac glycoside
Thiacloprid, C10H9ClN4S
Thiamethoxam, C8H10ClN5O3S
Thiamine, thiamin, Vitamin B1, C12H17ClN4OS, :
Thiazine compound: aromatic ring, one S atom, one N atom, four C atoms, to prepare dyes, drugs, insecticides.
Thiazole derivatives, True alkaloids: 16.3.26
Thickeners, Stabilizers, food additives: 19.4.26
Thimerosal, C9H9HgNaO2S, preservative, formerly used in childhood vaccines
Thinners, Flammable liquids, keep away from ignition
Thinners, solvents for oil-based paints, e.g. acetone, turpentine, white spirit, MEK, DMK, toxic vapours
Thiocarbamide, NH2CSNH2, thiourea
Thiocyanates, anions (SCN)-
Thiols / mercaptans, CH3CH2SH):
Thiomersal, thimerosal, C9H9HgNaO2S
Thionyl chloride, SOCl2, sulfur dichloride
Thiopental (C11H17N2NaO2S), Barbiturates: 11.11.7
Thiophene (CH2)4S:
Thiourea, H2N.CS.NH2, thiocarbamide
Thorium, Th
Thorite, ThSiO4
Threonine, C4H9NO3
Threose, C4H8O4, Aldoses and ketoses (Table)
Thujene, C10H16
Thujone, C10H16O
Thulium, Tm
Thymine, C5H6N2O2
Thymol, C10H14O
Thymolphthalein, C28H30O4: 33 (indicator)
Thymoquinone, C10H12O2
Thyodene (amylodextrin, C6H10O5)n, indicator, blue with iodine, Toxic if ingested
Thyroxine, Table salt and rock salt: 19.1.16
Time, second:
See: Time, pendulum, timers, stopwatch, (Commercial)
Tin, Sn
Titan yellow, Tests for magnesium: (See: 2.)
Titanite, sphene, CaTiSiO5, CaTi(OSIO4), calcium titanium nesosilicate
Titanium, Ti
Tolidine, C14H16N2
Tollens' reagent
Toluene, C7H8
Toluidine blue, Prepare toluidine blue solution: 3.25
Toluidines (m-toluidine, o-toluidine, p-toluidine), Highly toxic by all routes
Tomatidine, C50H83NO21
Tongs: 1.4
See: Tongs (Commercial)
Tonic water, Quinine:
Tonic wines: 5.04.5
Tools for electrical experiments: 7.0.0
Top dressing and side dressing, Fertilizing: 9.12.3 (Agriculture)
Topaz, Al2(F2SiO4), Pegmatite: 35.21.3 (See: 2.) (Geology)
Topotecan, C23H23N3O5
Torch battery, Dry cell torch battery: 33.4.2
torr, Pressure definitions: 12.1.01
Total dissolved solids (TDS) and suspended solids in water, Beer-Lambert law: 18.2.0
Total dissolved solids (TDS), water hardness, scale: 18.7.16
Touch powder, Nitrogen triiodide, NI3:
Touchstone, gold streak: 35.12.1
Tourmaline (Geology)
Town gas
Toxicity: 4.0 (Safety)
Trace elements, Plant nutrients: 6.36
Trace elements soil test: 6.50.8
Trade mark, trademark, | TM | or | R in a circle superscript |
Tranquillizers, Benzodiazepines:
Trans fats, Omega-fatty acids:
Transammination, transposing an amino group within a compound
Transferring chemicals, Handling and transferring chemicals: 3.4.10
Transfluthrin, C15H12Cl2F4O2
35.7 Transparency (Transparent, translucent, opaque, refraction) (Geology)
Transition elements: 1.12.0
Transuranic elements
See: Trays (Commercial)
Trehalose, Oligosaccharides
Treated timber, Wood treated with copper chrome arsenate (CCA):
Tri(o-tolyl)phosphine, P(o-tolyl)3, monodentate ligand
Tri-sodium phosphate, Na3PO4.12H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 38 g in 1 L water
Triammomium aurine tricarboxylate, Tests for aluminium: Aluminon
Triammomium phosphate (V)-3-water, ammonium phosphate
Triazacyclononane (tacn) (C2H4)3(NR)3, tridentate ligand
Tribromomethane, bromoform (use < 50 mL), Harmful by all routes, eye / lung Irritant
Tricarboxylic acids:
Trichanthin, C22H27NO7S
Trichlor: 18.7.67
Trichloroacetic acid, CCl3COOH
Trichloramine, Chloramines in swimming pools: 18.7.23
Trichlorethylene, C2HCl3
Trichloroanisole, 2, 4, 6-Trichloroanisole, Cl3C6H2OCH3
Trichloroethane, CH3CCl3,
Trichloroethanediol, Trichlorethanal, 1, 1, 1-trichloroethanediol, chloral hydrate, toxic, drug addiction
Trichloroethanoic acid, trichloroacetic acid
Trichloroisocyanuric acid, TCCA, C3Cl3N3O3, white crystalline powder, disinfectant, bleaching agent:
Trichloroisocyanuric acid,
Trichloromethane, CHCl3, chloroform
1, 1, 2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, Harmful if inhaled, ozone-depleting chemical being phased out of use.
1, 1, 2-trichlorotrifluoroethane with active metals is highly exothermic, e.g. Na, Mg, Al
(2, 4-D) (2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid): 16.7.6 (Agriculture)
(2, 4, 5-T) (2, 4, 5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid): 16.7.7 (Agriculture)
Triclosan, C12H7Cl3O2:
Tricyclohexylphosphine (C6H11), monodentate ligand
Triethanolamine, C6H15NO3
Triethylamine, C6H15N
Triethylenetetramine, TET, curing agent for epoxy resin adhesive, surface coating, irritant
Triethylenetetramine (trien), tetradentate ligand
Triglycerides, Glycerides, esterification of glycerol:
Trimethylphosphine (PMe3), monodentate ligand
Triphenylphosphine (PPh3), monodentate ligand
1.14 Tripod stands
See: Tripod Stands (Commercial)
Tris(2-diphenylphosphineethyl)amine (np3), tetradentate ligand
Tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (tren) (NH2CH2CH2)3N, tetradentate ligand
Trifluoroacetic acid, CF3COOH, Corrosive by all routes, causes severe burns, damages eyes
Trifluoroacetic acid, Solution < 1%, Not hazardous (used in chemical reactions)
1, 2, 3-trihydroxybenzene, C6H3(OH)3, pyrogallol
1, 3, 5-trihydroxybenxene, C6H6O3, phloroglucinol
3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, C6H2(OH)3COOH, gallic acid:
Trilead tetroxide,  Pb3O4, Lead (II/IV) oxide
Trillion, Different measurements, billion: 6.2.0
Trimethoprim, C14H18N4O3, antibacterial, used with sulfamethoxazole
Trimethylamine, C3H9N
Trinitrobenzene, C6H3N3O6: 35
Trinitrophenol (NO2)3C6H2OH, picric acid,
Triodomethane, iodoform, Prepare: 16.1.13
Triose sugars, 3C
Trioxoboric (III) acid powder, boracic acid, boric acid, orthoboric acid
Triple bond (has 6 electrons in the bond), e.g. Carbon monoxide, CO
Triple point and ice point of water:
Triplumbic tetroxide, Pb3O4, lead (II/IV) oxide
Toxic by all routes, cumulative poison
Tripod stands: 1.14
Tripotassium phosphate, potassium phosphate, potassium phosphate dibasic, Harmful if ingested, skin irritant
Tris-(hydroxymethyl)-methylamine, Harmful if ingested
Trisodium-2-hydroxypropane-1, 2, 3-tricarboxyl
Trisodium citrate dihydrate, Na3C6H5O7.2H2O
Trisodium orthophosphate, Na3PO4
Trisodium orthophosphate, E339 (acidity regulator, emulsifier, mineral salt, laxative, textile fixing agent)
Trisodium phosphate, Na3PO4, TSP
Tristearin, C57H110O6, stearin, tristearicacid triglyceride
Triterpenes C30 (six isoprene units):
Triterpenoids, C30:
Triton X-100, reduced, polyethyleneglycol, mono(p-octylphenyl ether reduced, detergent, Harmful skin irritant
Tropain, C8H15N, 2, 3-dihydro-8-methylnortropidine
Tropane derivatives, True alkaloids: 16.3.27
Tropeolin O O (orange IV)
Tropylium, C7H7+, cationic ligand
Troy weight: 3.2.3
True alkaloids, Principle classes of alkaloids:
Tryptamine, C10H12N2
Tryptamine, Hallucinogenic drugs, hallucinogens: 11.11.9
Tryptophan, C11H12N2O2, (Table of amino acids)
Tryptophan, DNA codons
Tschermignite, NH4Al(SO4)2.12H2O, ammonium alum,
Tubocurarine, C37H41CN2O6+
Tuff, tephra: 35.21.7 (Geology)
Tung oil
Tungsten, W
Turbidity, Tests for environment of river, lake or ocean: 18.5.1
Turbidity: 18.7.68 (Swimming pools)
See: Turbidity (Commercial)
Turquoise, CuAl6[(OH)2PO4]4.4H2O, callaite
Two-hole stopper, Stoppers, cork stoppers, rubber stoppers: 1.8
Tyndall effect, sunbeams:
Type metal, Alloys
Types of chemical reactions, Chemical reactions, : 12.2.0
Tyramine, C8H11NO
Tyramine, Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI):
Tyrosine, C9H11NO3, (Table of amino acids)
Tyrosine, DNA codon
Tyrosine, Separate amino acids with paper chromatography:
Tyrosol, C8H10O2

Talcum powder, talc
Talc, hydrated magnesium silicate, H2Mg3(SiO3)4, [Mg3Si4O10(OH)2] (French chalk), serpentine mineral (meerschaum pipes
and soap) (fine abrasive, absorbent, lubricant).
Talc that contains asbestos may be carcinogenic to humans.
Talcum powder can be used to repel ants that do not walk through it, dust inside rubber gloves and shoes to slip on easily, dry
shampoo for human hair or dogs, stop squeak in floor boards, clean up grease, absorb perspiration from skin and between sheets,
protect white clothing from grease, clean sand off wet skin.

Baby powder
Talcum powder is sometimes confused with "Baby Powder".
However, "Johnson's Baby Powder" contains Zea Mays (cornflour), starch, tricalcium phosphate, fragrance (Aloe barbadensis leaf
juice), tocopherol (vitamin E).
It does not contain talc.
Cornflour is powdery starch synthesized from maize and used as a cooking thickener (in USA "cornstarch") (in Australia "wheaten starch").

Tea, tannic acid
Tannic acid, tannin, C76H52O46 (Some chemists do not regard tannic acid as an acid.)
E181 Tannic acid
Prepare cup of tea: 12.13.15
Prepare ferric tannate with tea leaves: 16.8.2
Tannins, plant polyphenols:
Tea plant (Camellia sinensis), Theaceae
Tea with dilute sulfuric acid: 12.10.3
Tea with iron (II) sulfate: 12.10.1
Tea with iron (III) salts: 12.10.2
Tea with lime water: 12.10.4

Tannic acid and tea
E181 Tannic acid, tannins (from oak trees, tea) (clarifying agent)
Tannic acid is present in oak galls.
Make a solution of tannic acid by boiling cut pieces of oak galls in water.
Tannic acid is sold as a brown powder and was used in tannic acid jelly for burns dressings.
Tea from Camellia sinensis, has a slightly bitter, astringent flavour.
Tea contains polyphenols, but tea does not contain tannic acid as previously believed.
Tannic acid is a dyeing mordant, slightly toxic if ingested.
Use tea solution to polish linoleum, windows and mirrors, remove fish smell and shine from seats of skirts or blue serge suits,
deodorizes feet, dye greying white fabrics, highlight brown hair, treat sunburn pain, with lemon treat sore throat, diarrhoea, sore eyes,
burns, bleeding gums, broken finger nail, speed grass seed germination and house plant growth, with lemon deodorize stuffy rooms,
clean and polish black lacquer and varnished woodwork, tenderize meat.

Tea tree oil
Tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), Myrtaceae.
Oil of Melaleuca, C10H18O, terpinen-4-ol, from Melaleuca alternifolia, a paperbark tree (antibacterial, cosmetic, antifungal, sunburn).
Tea tree oil, Melaleuca alternifolia leaves, essential oil, antimirobial, anti scabies, antifungal, in cosmetics, treat wound healing, period and breast pain.

Tantalum, Ta
, Ta (Greek: Tantalos, mythical king who could not reach fruit or water, tantalum acids are "out of reach" so no reaction),
in tantalite, columbite, other minerals usually with
Niobium, protective oxide so non-corrosive, very rare
Tantalum, coltan mineral.

Tartar emetic
Tartar emetic, K(SbO)C4H4O6. H2O
crystalline, poisonous, but used as expectorant and to treat schistosomiasis.

Tartaric acid, C4H6O6
Prepare fruit salts, health salts: 16.7.13
Thermal decomposition of acids: 8.2.4

Tartaric acid, racemic acid, α-hydroxy acid
L-(+)-Tartaric acid (2R, 3R)-(+)-Tartaric acid, L-Threaric acid, C4H6O6, HO2CCH(OH)CH(OH)CO2H, .(CHOHCOOH)2,
(CHOH)2(COOH)2, 2, 3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid, colourless, odourless, transparent, monoclinic crystals, or white powder or
granules, r.d. 1.76, m.p. 168 to 170oC E334, from potassium hydrogen tartrate, sour taste food flavour, in wine and fruits, e.g.
tamarind, tartrate salts, from potassium tartrate, tartar.
Molecule is either dextrorotatory, d, or laevorotatory, l, so it refracts light to the right or left, it has 2 mirror isomers (enantiomers). 
Tartaric acid, manufactured from grape juice,   is very weak acid ommonly used as an ingredient in effervescing health salts.
Tartaric acid salt, potassium hydrogen tartrate (cream of tartar), is used in baking powder.
Tartaric acid has similar chemical actions to citric acid in that it liberates carbon dioxide gas from carbonates and bicarbonates, and it
forms hydrogen when warmed with iron filings or zinc.
It can clean copper coins by dissolving the surface copper (II) oxide.
Racemic means one-to-one mixture of left handed and right-handed, chiral, forms of the same molecule.
Most chemical reactions produce products as racemic mixtures, whereas biological reactions generally produce one or the other form
Racemic acid is a compound containing equal proportions of d- and l- isomers of tartaric acid, so is optically inactive.
A tartrate is the ester or salt of tartaric acid.

Tartrazine, C16H9N4Na3O9S2, azo dye, food additive E102, lemon-yellow colour, banned in some countries
Food colouring and ADHD: 19.9.1, (Experiments)
Synthetic food colours approved for use in Australia: 19.4.1 (See: Yellow shade).

See: Physiology Taste, (Commercial)
Taste of acids, solid acids in the home: 12.3.1
Cork taint of wine, "corky" wine (2, 4, 6-TCA): 3.29
Five senses (Primary): 1.15
Nose and smelling, taste, flavour, odour: 9.6.0
PTC tasters and non-tasters: 9.24.2
Sense of taste, the gustatory system: 9.246
Tasting chemicals: 3.4.9.

Technetium, Tc
, Tc (Greek tekhnētos artificial), synthesized, dense, heat-resistant, from uranium fission.
Radiopharmaceuticals, Technetium 99m: 7.2.4.

Tellurium, Te,
, Te (Latin tellur earth), silver-white, brittle, metalloid, similar to selenium, in gold and silver ores
Tellurium, in semiconductors (future supply shortfall)
Tellurium, pieces, powder, Highly toxic by all routes, display in sealed containers only
Tellurium, natural tellurium, Te
Telluric acid
Tellurides, tellurium compounds
Tellurium dioxide
Tellurium hydroxide
Tellurium tetrachloride
Tellurium mineral, natural tellurium
Cadmium telluride thin films in solar cells to replace silicon panels.

Tempering: 34.2.4
Heat treatment of needles: 34.2.1
Heat treatment, razor blades, needles:
Heat treatment of steel needles, annealing, quenching, tempering: 3.64
Tempered glass, Prince Rupert's Drops:

Teratogenic, causing malformation of a developing embryo or foetus
E951 Aspartame

Terbene, dryer but some say it extends time of drying (liniment, resists water and oil), Harmful, flammable, irritant to skin and
respiratory system
Terbene, contact with combustibles may ignite (Ter. bene = tere bene = rub well)
Pharmaceutical linament: Terbene 06 mL, Almond Oil 16 mL, Tincture of ipecacuanha 8 mL.

tert-Amyl alcohol
tert-Butanol, tert-butyl alcohol, tertiary butanol, tertiary butyl alcohol, trimethyl methanol
tert-Butanol, 2-methylpropan-2-ol, Highly flammable
tert-Butyl amine
tert-Butyl benzene
tert-Butyl bromoacetate
tert-Butyl chloride
tert-Butyl dimethylsilyl chloride
tert-Butyl dimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate
tert-Butyl ethyl ether
tert-Butyl hydroperoxide solution (70% in water)
tert-Butyl phenol
tert-Butyl trichlorosilane.

Tests, chemical tests
Confirmation tests with original solution or solid:
Group tests instructions:
Food tests:
Tests for all substances: 2.0.0
Tests for an unknown substance, qualitative analysis:
Tests for gases and vapours: 1.0.0
Tests for swimming pools: 18.5.0.

Terbium, Tb
, Tb (Ytterby, Sweden), stable in air but slowly oxidizes, rare, future shortfall, green-yellow phosphorescence, with elements
Eu and Yb in TV screens
Terbium chips, foil, Tb
Terbium (III) acetate hydrate, C6H9O6Tb.xH2O
Terbium (III) acetylacetonate hydrate, C15H21O6Tb.xH2O
Terbium (III) bromide, Br3Tb
Terbium (III) chloride, Cl3Tb
Terbium (III) chloride hexahydrate, Cl3Tb.6H2O
Terbium (III) fluoride, F3Tb
Terbium (III) iodide, I3Tb
Terbium (III) nitrate hexahydrate, N3O9Tb.6H2O
Terbium (III) nitrate pentahydrate, N3O9Tb.5H2O
Terbium (III) oxide, O3Tb2
Terbium (III, IV) oxide, O7Tb4
Terbium (III) sulfate octahydrate, O12S3Tb2.8H2O
Terbium (III) trifluoromethanesulfonate, C3F9O9S3Tb.

Tetrachloromethane, CCl4
Carbon tetrachloride, CCl4, tetrachloromethane, perchloromethane, "dry cleaning fluid", "carbon tet", Not permitted in schools
The following chemicals are poisons and should never be used in a school laboratory: carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, tetrachloromethane)
Tetrachloromethane, solvent
CFCs, chlorofluorocarbons, "Freons":
CFCs, atmosphere and greenhouse gases: 37.42.1 Methane with chlorine, (Dangerous experiment)
1-1-1-Trichloroethane, use instead of tetrachloromethane.

Tetrahydrofuran, C4H8O, Toxic by all routes, highly flammable, avoid inhalation, skin irritant
Tetrahydrofuran (don't use in school laboratory, but replace as solvent with ethanol or acetone)
Tetrahydrofuran, Solution < 25%, Not hazardous, but do not ingest.

Thallium, Tl
, Tl (Greek thallos green shoot, spectrum green line), blue-white, soft malleable, similar to lead, toxic compounds
Thallium, in electronics, glass production.

Thallium compounds
Thallium (I) chloride, TlCl, thallium chloride, thallous chloride, Extremely toxic if ingested or absorbed through skin, cumulative,
Not permitted in schools
Thallium (III) nitrate trihydrate
Thallium nitrate, Toxic if ingested or absorbed through skin, cumulative poison, Not permitted in schools
Thallium (I) sulfate, Tl2SO4, thallous sulfate, odourlesswhite rhomboid prisms or dense white powder, rat poison, ant bait
Extremely toxic if ingested or absorbed through skin, slow acting cumulative poison, Not permitted in schools.

Thermoluminescent substance emit light when heated, but do not themselves decompose chemically, e.g. calcium oxide (limelight),
magnesium oxide, phosphorus (V) oxide (phosphorus pentoxide), fluorite, calcite.
Calcite glows when heated.

Thiocyanates, S-CN-
Thiocyanate ion: CNS- or [SCN]-
Thiocyanates: [RC(=O)SN] salts and esters of thiocyanic acid HSCN, e.g. methyl thiocyanate (CH3SC N)
Cobalt (II) thiocyanate, Co(SCN)2, cobalt (II) thiocyanate, Harmful, Environment danger, in Scott's reagent test for cocaine
Thiocyanates, Hazards: 3.7.18
Thiocyanate (thiocyanato), S-CN-, monodentate ligand
Thiocyanate, monodentate ligand.

Thionyl chloride, SOCl2
Thionyl chloride, SOCl2, sulfur dichloride oxide, sulfur oxychloride, Toxic by all routes, irritant vapour
Thionyl chloride, Prepare thionyl chloride:
Thionyl chloride with water forms hydrogen chloride gas and sulfuric acid.

Thiosulfate ion: S2O32-
Thiosulfates with acids form sulfur dioxide gas.
Thiosulfates heated to decomposition form sulfur dioxide gas.
List of thiosulfates (not containing heavy metal ions, e.g. lead thiosulfate): 1.26
Thiosulfates, hazards: 3.7.19.

Thiourea, H2N.CS.NH2
Thiourea, thiocarbamide (used as flame retardant and chelating agent), Highly toxic, skin irritant, carcinogenic
Thiourea, Tests for bismuth:
Thiourea, Solution < 1%, Not hazardous, but do not ingest.

Thorium, Th
, Th (Old Norse Thor, thunder god), radioactive compounds, high mp, in mining lamps and former gas light mantles, Toxic by
all routes, Not permitted in schools
SPADNS fluoride reagent solution, 500 mL,
indicator for thorium.

Aliphatic R-groups:
Available test reagents: 16.7.15
Conjugation in bacteria, Escherichia coli: 4.24
Lost nutrients in food: 19.3.03
Nutritional value (chicken feed): 22.20
Threonine, C4H9NO3, (Table of amino acids)
Threonine, DNA codons, Threonine.

Thulium, Tm
, Tm (Latin Thule, Ultima Thule, legendary most northern habitation), lanthanide, rare.

Thymine, C5H6N2O2
Thymine, (5-methyluracil), (2,4-Dihydroxy-5-methylpyrimidine), Thymin, one of four constituent bases of DNA, pyrimidine nucleobase,
pyrimidone, human metabolite, (derived from hydrolysis of deoxyribonucleic acid or by methylation of uracil), in RNA thymine is replaced
with uracil, in DNA thymine binds to adenine to assist in stabilizing the nucleic acid structures.
DNA and RNA: 4.4.0
Nucleic acid, nitrogenous bases: 3.0.0
Nucleosides, nucleic acids, DNA, RNA:
Nucleic acid nitrogenous bases: 3.0.0
See diagram: Heterocyclic compounds: pyrimidines, thymine

Thymol, C10H14O
Thymol, 2-[(CH3)2CH]C6H3-5-(CH3)OH
Thymol, phenolic terpene
Thymol, C10H14O, monoterpenes, C10, (2 isoprene units)
Thymol, harmful if ingested but not in < 25 mg in throat lozenges:
Thymol 1-methyl-, 3-hydroxy-, 4-isopropylbenzene
Thymol blue (0.4% aqueous solution in 20% ethanol, UN number 1983), 100 cm3
Thymol blue: First (indicator, 1.2)
Thymol blue: Second ( indicator, 2.9)
Thymol blue, indicator, 1st range: 34.0
Thymol blue, indicator: 2nd range: 34.1
Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi), Apiaceae.
Food used in plant respiration: 9.160
Lemon bergamot (Monarda citriodora), Lamiaceae.
Meyer lemon (Citrus x myeri), Rutaceae.
Meyer's albumen, adhesive, microscope slides: 2.3
Universal indicator: 36 (See: Experiment 1.)

2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol, "hydroxy cymene", monoterpene phenol, monoterpenoid, from cymene, C10H13OH,
isomeric with carvacrol, large white colourless crystals or white crystalline powder, pleasant aromatic odour, from thyme oil, phenolic
compound, topical antifungal, antiseptic, antibacterial, pharmaceutical stabilizer, former vermifuge, thyme oil used in mouthwashes
and skin creams, cigarette additive, also used in perfumery, as a mould and mildew preventive, in microscopy, as a preservative,
antioxidant, flavouring; and laboratory reagent, in thyme and oregano.
See diagram: Thymol Thyroxine
Iodine is used in the muscles and in the thyroid gland as part of the chemicals thyroxine and triiodothyronine.
Thyroxine is a hormone containing iodine, from thyroid gland, controls metabolic rate.
Iodine deficiency causes hyperthyroidism and an enlarged thyroid gland.
The recommended daily allowance, RDA, is 150 pg.
Radioactive labelled iodine used to measure percentage uptake of it by thyroid gland (RAI test).
Iodine poses fewer risks in school laboratories than the other halogens, chlorine and bromine.
Do not inhale the acrid iodine vapour.
Avoid skin contact with solid iodine.
Iodine, whether as a solid, in solution or a vapour can temporarily stain the skin.
Do not allow iodine to react with concentrated ammonia solution because it forms nitrogen triiodide, NI3NH3 (touch powder), which
is violently explosive.
Solid crystalline iodine is toxic by all routes of exposure and a highly irritating vapour comes off from the crystals and iodine solutions.
Do not mix iodine with concentrated ammonia solution because the highly explosive nitrogen triiodide may form.
The reactions of iodine with acetaldehyde or antimony metal are violently exothermic.
Use of solid iodine by students should be limited to 0.2 g (the size of about 2 rice grains), per experimental activity.
Atomic number: 53, Relative atomic mass: 126.905, r.d. 4.93, m.p. = 113.5oC, b.p. = 184oC.
Specific heat capacity: 218 J kg-1 K-1.

Tin, Sn
See: Tin Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Tin, Table of Elements
Tin, properties
Tin compounds
Tin, natural: 35.20.45 (Geology)
Tin-lead alloys: 5.5.10
Tin plate
Tin-plated beer can, beverage can, aluminium can, "can", drink can, soda pop can, soft drink can
Tests for hardness of lead, tin: 3.62.0
Tests for tin: (See: 9.)
Tests for tin:
Prepare tin (IV) chloride: 12.20.2
Reactions of tin and tin compounds: 12.20.1.

Tin, Sn (Old English tin), silver, lustrous, malleable metal, in cassiterite, granulated, pellets, foil, sheets, powder (tin-plated jam tin),
pewter, metal foil (0.13 mm), metal granulated, metal powder.
Tin is used in electrochemical cells, reactivity of metals, metal displacement reactions.
Tin with silver and mercury in dental "amalgam" is used for teeth fillings. Also, bronze is an alloy of copper containing small amounts of
tin or arsenic. Tin fine dust and tin fumes are a heavy metal hazard.
Tin-plated jam tin, pewter is a ductile, malleable metal, resists corrosion, is available as granules, pellets, foil and powder, is extracted
from the ore cassiterite, [tin (IV) oxide, SnO2], and used in alloys and the shiny protective plating of "tin cans" (tin plate) and
aluminium drink-cans, and in alloys and solders.
It reacts with dilute HCl or H2SO4 to form H2 and metal ion, reacts with concentrated oxidizing acids,
HNO3 or H2SO4 to produce high oxidation number ions, and sulfur dioxide SO2 or nitrogen dioxide, NO2.
No reaction with water.
Heated powder forms oxide.
The "silver paper" used in wrapping is usually tin foil.
Atomic number: 50, Relative atomic mass: 118.71, r.d. 7.28 (white), 5.75 (grey), m.p. = 232oC, b.p. = 2270oC.
Specific heat capacity: 218 J kg-1K-1.

Cassiterite, tinstone, SnO2: 35.20.7
Group 2 tests for Bi3+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Sn2+:
Reactions of tin and tin compounds: 12.20.1
Separate by melting points, tin from tin and carbon mixture: 3.18
Weight of tin in solder: 17.6.6.

Tin compounds
Copper-tin alloys, bronze: 5.5.7
Tin (II) bromide
Tin (II) chloride, stannous chloride, SnCl2
Tin hydroxide, amphoteric
Tin (II) oxide, SnO, amphoteric
Tin (IV) bromide
Tin (IV) chloride, stannic chloride, tin tetrachloride, SnCl4
Tin (IV) fluoride
Tin (IV) oxide, SnO2, tin dioxide, tinstone, tin oxide, tin ashes, stannic oxide for craft, from cassiterite
Stannic (IV) chloride pentahydrate
Stannous bromide
Tin-lead alloys: 5.5.10.

Tin (II) chloride, stannous chloride, SnCl2
Tin (II) chloride, SnCl2.2H2O, Harmful if ingested
Tin (II) chloride absorbs oxygen from the air to form water insoluble tin oxychloride, keep in airtight container
Tin (II) chloride forms explosive mixtures with oxidizing agents, e.g. nitrates, peroxides, nitrites, permanganates
Tin (II) chloride, hydrated, tin (II) chloride-2-water, SnCl2.2H2O, tin salt, crystals,
Tin (II) chloride, For 0.5 M solution, 113 g in 170 mL concentrated HCl, dilute to 1 L + add tin foil
Electrolysis of tin (II) chloride solution: 15.5.20
Prepare solutions, tin (II) chloride: 5.4.18.

Tin (II) chloride, anhydrous, powder, SnCl2, tin (II) chloride dihydrate, SnCl2.2H2O, stannous chloride dihydrate, stannous chloride,
butter of tin, colourless, monoclinic crystals, absorbs O2 from air to form insoluble stannous oxychloride, r.d. 2.71, m.p. 37 to 38oC.

Tin (IV) chloride, SnCl4
Tin (IV) chloride (use 0.1 M solution to test for cations), Harmful if ingested, corrosive
Tin (IV) chloride, Solution < 5%, Not hazardous
Tin (IV) chloride forms an explosive mixture with turpentine
Tin (IV) chloride with water forms hydrogen chloride gas.
Tin (IV) chloride-5-hydrate, SnCl2.5H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 35 g in 1 L water
Prepare tin (IV) chloride, SnCl4: 12.20.2

Tincture of iodine
Prepare herbal tinctures, 17.0.0
Herbal tinctures: 5.04.4
Prepare iodine crystals with tincture of iodine:
Prepare iodine solution, tincture of iodine:

Tincture of iodine Povidone, Polyvinyl pyrrolidene
The word "tincture" means add a small mount of a substance to the main substance or a tinge of something added to the main substance
to change the colour.
A tincture is an alcoholic solution of non-volatile substances with the alcohol acting as a solvent and preservative.
Tincture of iodine, used in medicine, is iodine dissolved in ethanol.
Tincture of iodine because if sodium iodide not added, iodine would otherwise be insoluble, 2-7% KI or NaI solution in ethanol and
water, about 2 g iodine and 2 g sodium iodide in 100 mL in 40-60% ethanol, contains soluble triiodide anion I3-, disinfectant, antiseptic
and starch test
Nowadays, the tincture of iodine that used to be found in most home medicine chests is often replaced by Povidone
iodine, e.g. Betadine.
Lugol's iodine solution is elemental iodine and potassium iodide.

Titanium, Ti
See: Titanium Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Titanium, Ti, Table of Elements
Titanium compounds
Titanium properties: .

Titanium, Ti (Greek titan god), transition metal, in clays and minerals
Titanium dioxide, TiO2
See: Titanium Dioxide (Serrata)
brookite mineral, in self-cleaning concrete
Titanium tetrachloride, Toxic by all routes.
Titanium tetrachloride with water forms hydrogen chloride gas and titanium dioxide
Titanium tetrachloride bottles may be under pressure because of formation of hydrogen chloride
Tantanite, calcium titanium silicate, source of titanium and jewel stone, absorbs ultra-violet light so used to prevent sunburn
Tantanite, titanium silicate, source of titanium, jewel stone
Titanium sun glass rims
Titanium Ion Bands, Oregon Scientific "negative ion bracelet", pseudo science device
Titanium ore was discovered in 1791, but pure titanium not produced until 1910 .
Titanium is strong, lustrous, silver colour, low density.
It is resistant to sea water corrosion, aqua regia and chlorine.
It can be welded with lasers but not soldered.
Titanium used in aeroplane framework and turbine blades of turbojet engines, bicycles, cars, jewellery and craft ware, walls of
Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao.
Titanium inserts, e.g. screws are tolerated by the human body and will undergo osseo-integration and form a strong surface coating of
titanium oxide to form strong bonds will bones.
Titani um turnings are very hard sensitive to friction, and used for silver sparks in fireworks
Titanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
It is a lustrous transition metal with a silver colour, low density and high strength.
It is highly resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia and chlorine.
Atomic number: 22, Relative atomic mass: 47.867, r.d. 4.5
Specific heat capacity 54 J kg-1 K-1.

Titanium compounds
Titanium (II) chloride, TiCl2, titanium dichloride
Titanium (III) chloride, TiCl3, titanium trichloride
Titanium tetrachloride, Toxic by all routes
Titanium (III) fluoride
Titanium (III) sulfate solution
Titanium (IV) butoxide.

Titanium chloride
Titanium (IV) chloride, TiCl4, titanium tetrachloride (tickle), volatile metal halide, liquid at room temperature, forms clouds in humid air
Titanium (III) chloride, TiCl3, titanium trichloride, common titanium halide, paramagnetic derivatives
Titanium (II) chloride, TiCl2, titanium dichloride, highly reactive black solid.

Titanium (IV) isopropoxide
Titanium (IV) oxide, anatase, TiO2, titanium dioxide
Titanium (IV) propoxide, Ti(OC3H7)4
Brookite, mineral, TiO2
Ilmenite, mineral, FeTiO3
35.20.37 Rutile, TiO2, titanium (IV) oxide
Sagenite, TiO2, mineral Sapphire.

Titanium (IV) oxide
Titanium (IV) oxide, powder, TiO2, titanium dioxide, colour white, opacifer, "white out" correction fluid, white pigments for tennis shoes,
household white paint, from mineral rutile, ilmenite FeTiO3, food additive, E171, the three mineral forms are anatase, brookite and rutile.

See: 6CH Titrations, (Commercial)
Titration Neutralization of soluble acid and base, prepare salts: M1
Titration, neutralization:
Titration, heat of a neutralization reaction: 3.82
Titration of acids with bases: 3.78.

3.78 Titration of acids with bases
Put 20 drops of a dilute acid, e.g. vinegar in a test-tube.
Add one drop of indicator, e.g. methyl orange or phenolphthalein.
Add a dilute base drop by drop, and count the drops.
Within experimental error, it will always take the same number of drops to neutralize the 20 drops of acid.
If using the same dropper, a teat pipette is used.
If the concentration of the acid is known, the concentration of the base can be estimated by comparing the numbers of drops of acid
and drops of base that just react.

Tobacco: 3.78
Anabasine, C10H14N2 (test for smoking)
6H4O2, para-quinine, cyclohexadiene-1, 4-dione, in coal and tobacco smoke 9.213.4 Virus list, tobacco mosaic virus
Nicotine, C10H14N2
Pipe clay is fine white clay formerly used for tobacco pipes, pottery and leather whitening.
Pyrrolidine, C4H9N
16.7.28 Tests for cigarette smoke
16.7.29 Toxic effect of drugs on water fleas (See: 2.2).

Tolidine, C14H16N2
Ethylbenzene, C8H10, in tobacco
OTO test for swimming pools:
For testing water in school swimming pools do not use OTO test, but use DPD test:
DPD test for swimming pools:
Sensitivity to drugs determined by genes: 9.4.1.

Tolidine, C14H16N2
Highly toxic if ingested, carcinogenic impurities, Not permitted in schools
Tolidine, 2-tolidine, o-Tolidine, Orthotolidine, Diaminoditolyl, Diaminotolyl, Bianisidine, Tolidine blue, 3, 3'-Dimethylbenzidine,
4, 4'-Bi-o-toluidine
Purchase: o-Tolidine, 97%, powder, 3, 3 -Dimethylbenzidine, 4, 4 -Bianisidine
Tolidine derived from toluene.
It is used as a reagent to test for gold and for chlorine in water.

Tollens' reagent
Tollens' reagent
, ammoniacal silver nitrate solution, Toxic if ingested, corrosive to skin
Be careful! Tollens' reagent evaporated to dryness is explosive
Tests for aldehydes, Tollens' test:

Toluene, CH3C6H5
Toluene, methylbenzene, CH3C6H5, from benzene C6H6, by replacing a H by a CH3
Toluol, toluene, coal tar product
Low cost: from hardware stores, paint stores
For general solvent and chromatography, but use ethanol, not toluene, as solvent for dilute solutions
Toluene is a curing agent for epoxy resin adhesives, surface coating, irritant, in nail lacquer
Toluene, methylbenzene, toluol, Toxic by all routes, highly flammable, do not inhale vapour
Toluene, Solution < 12.5%. Not hazardous
Toluene diisocyanate, toluene mixd isomers, Highly toxic by all routes, possible carcinogen
Toluene diisocyanate, Solution / mixture < 0.5% not hazardous
Toluene, flammable liquids, Flammable organic chemicals: 15.7.0 (See: Table 15.7.0, Toluene)
Toluene, octane number: See diagram 16.1.1h
Antioxidants (BHT), E321: See diagram
Aromatics, benzene, toluene, naphthalene:
Coal tar products, creosote: 16.2.10
Relative sweetness of some artificial sweeteners: 19.2.8
Separate by chromatography, green leaves: 3.24
Steam distillation, water and fat content, food: 10.5.5.

Town gas
Town gas was the main domestic gas, a mixture of coal gas and carburetted water gas, energy density about 20 MJm-3, was
previously used on school laboratories, but nowadays the gas is usually natural gas, i.e. mostly methane CH4, or LPG, bottled gas,
mostly propane, C3H8.10.55
Household gas, laboratory gas, "lab gas"10.55.

Triboluminescent minerals emit light when squeezed, e.g. Sphalerite, ZnS: 35.20.41.

Trichlorethylene, C2HCl3
Trichlorethylene, trichlorethene (C2HCl3), Toxic if ingested or inhaled, carcinogenic, ozone-depleting chemical being phased out
Trichlorethylene, Solution < 1%, Not hazardous but do not ingest. Dilute with ethanol.
Trichlorethylene with active metals is highly exothermic, e.g. Na, Mg, Al.

Trichloroacetic acid, trichlorethanoic acid, CCl3COOH, C2HCl3O2
Highly toxic by all routes, highly corrosive to skin and eyes, highly skin irritant
Trichloroacetic acid, Solution < 1%, Not hazardous.

1, 1, 1-trichloroethane, CH3CCl3, methyl chloroform, Toxic if ingested, do not inhale vapour
Trichloroethane (1, 1, 1-trichloroethane), Solution < 25%, Not hazardous
ACS reagent (may contain 0.05% low alkyl epoxide as stabilizer), "Chlorothene", (E512), methyl chloroform, grease solvent, safer
alternative to tetrachloromethane (carbon tetrachloride, CCl4).
Solvent in "white-out" correction fluids, but banned in many school systems because of "sniffing".
Ozone-depleting chemical being phased out of use.
Mixed with active metals, e.g. Na, Mg, Al, forms metal chloride and carbon in highly exothermic reaction.
Substitute for non-chlorinating solvents, e.g. acetone or ethanol.

Trichloromethane,  CHCl3, chloroform
Do NOT store or use in school science laboratories.
Methane with chlorine:, (Dangerous experiment)
Prepare trichloromethane: 16.1.14
Reaction of ethyl alcohol with bleaching powder: (Dangerous experiment)
Trichloromethane, cleaning agent, solvent: 2.20.4
Trichloromethane, methane trichloride, TCM, Freon 20, Refrigerant R20, Toxic by all routes, Not permitted in schools, harmful, local
purchase, anaesthetic, colourless, mobile, clear, sweet taste liquid, distinct odour, not inflammable, vapour in flame may form
 poisonous gases, b.p. 61oC, store dark, cool place, former anaesthetic, solvent irritant, possibly carcinogenic.

Triethanolamine, C6H15NO3, "tea", viscous liquid, Harmful if ingested, skin irritant, avoid vapours
Triethylamine, C6H15N, N(CH2CH3)3, Harmful, highly irritant vapour, alkaline skin irritant
Triethylamine, Solution < 20%, Not hazardous.

2, 4, 6-trinitrophenol (NO2)3C6H2OH, picric acid, trinitrophenol, carbazotic acid, Toxic, irritant, Not permitted in schools
2, 4, 6-trinitrophenol, yellow crystals stain skin yellow, Explosive when dry and compacted
2, 4, 6-trinitrophenol, If crust forms at neck of bottle, do not open bottle because crust may explode.

Trisodium phosphate, Na3PO4, Na3PO4.12H2O, sodium orthophosphate, "sodium phosphate", E339,
Trisodium phosphate, Na3PO4.12H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 38 g in 1 L water
"TSP", trisodium phosphate, cleaner (brand name, may not include phosphates!)
Sodium phosphate, Na3PO4, sodium orthophosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium phosphate tribasic dodecahydrate, Na3PO4.12H2O,
TSP, trisodium phosphate dodecahydrate, "sodium phosphate", tribasic, colourless to white odourless, trigonal crystals, r.d. 1.6,
m.p. about 73oC, acidity regulator, food buffer, thickener E339.

Trypsin, protease in human digestion system, formed from trypsinogen in the pancreas, converted to its active form by enteropepidase
in the small intestine, hydrolyses carboxyl group of arginine or lysine.
Tryptose, peptone from meat and soybean meal, mixture of water-soluble peptides, no chemical formula.

Tung oil
Tung oil from nut of tung oil tree, Aleurites fordii,   Euphorbiaceae
Tung oil is used to penetrate wood, seal against moisture in paints and varnishes, because it dries hard.

Tungsten, W
, W, Table of Elements
Tungsten properties:
Incandescent, filament lamp, light bulb: 33.4.0
Scheelite, CaWO4, calcium tungstate: 35.20.38
Tungsten, W, Chemical reactions:
Tungsten carbide, Carbides (C4-):
Wolframite: 35.20.48 (Mineral).

Tungsten, W (formerly wolfram) (Swedish tung heavy sten stone), white-grey metal, dense, transition element, heat-resistant,
tungsten carbine used for very hard metal alloys, steels, jewellery, fluorescent lighting, weights and counterbalances, light bulb filaments,
vacuum tube filaments, heating elements, electrodes.
Tungsten, highest mp, so in electric filaments and steel alloys.
Tungsten sulfite in high temperature lubricants.
Available as tungsten wire.
Tungsten is from wolframite (MnFe)WO4, scheelite CaWO4.
Tungsten is not affected by dilute acids, used in steels and lamp filaments, tungsten carbide, WC, black powder, used in cutting tools
because has Mohs scale 9.5.
The tungsten filament in a light bulb reaches about 2, 300oC.
It has the highest melting point of all metals.
Tungsten alloy, high density 15.4-18.5 g / cc (80-97W), with components of W-Ni-Cu, W-Ni-Fe or W-Ni-Cu-Fe for different
applications of radiation shielding, crankshaft counterbalance for automobiles,
defence applications of kinetic energy penetration, counterbalance for racing car, yacht, aircraft, sports fittings parts, e.g. golf, fishing
weights and sinkers, counterbalance in oil exploration, medical shields.
Atomic number: 74, Relative atomic mass: 183.85, r.d. 19.3, m.p. = 3, 422oC, b.p. = 5, 660oC.
Specific heat capacity: 130 J kg-1 K-1.

Mineral turpentine
Gum turpentine
Dienes, isoprene units:
Prepare turpentine copying fluid: 9.1.4.
Terpenes have linked isoprene units as in natural rubber.
Use turpentine + steel wool to remove scuff marks on the floor.
Use turpentine solution for washing blankets before storage, to deter moths.
Use turpentine to remove paint stains.

Mineral turpentine
Mineral turpentine, "mineral turps", paint thinner, Toxic by all routes, highly flammable
Turpentine, Mixture / solution < 25%, Not hazardous
Mineral turpentine, "turps", cheapest paint and ink solvent, mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons, avoid vapours, eye and skin contact.
mineral turps, oil-based paint cleaning solvent, petroleum fraction b.p. 150oC - 200oC
Mineral turpentine contains aliphatic hydrocarbons, Toxic by all routes
Mineral turpentine, "Turpentine Odourless Thinner", "Turpenoid", solvents with no smelling hydrocarbons so may be undetected
Mineral turpentine, "turps", is the cheapest solvent for oil-based paint and ink solvent, mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons, avoid
vapours, eye and skin contact, toxic by all routes of exposure, highly flammable
("Turpentine Odourless Thinner", "Turpenoid", are solvents with strong smelling hydrocarbons removed so may be undetected).

Gum turpentine
"Turpenoid natural", non-toxic, non-flammable, alternative to mineral turps
True turpentine, vegetable turpentine, spirit of turpentine, wood turpentine, gum spirits, gum turpentine, from pine trees (FP 35oC),
Gum turpentine, gum spirits oil of turpentine, originally, "true terpentine", called Chian terpentine from Pistacia terebinthus,
terebinth tree, Anacardiaceae
Nowadays, gum turpentine from various pine trees, contains contains terpenes, mainly, α- and β- pinene, C10H16,
Gum turpentine has pleasant odour but possible skin irritant vapour, less toxic than mineral, turpentine, highly flammable and reacts
violently with chlorine gas and explosively with chlorine compounds, e.g. tin (IV) chloride.
Rosin is a solid amber residue made by the distillation of turpentine from pine stumps, used for adhesives, varnishes, violin bows.

12.20.1 Reactions of tin and tin compounds
1. Pass hydrogen sulfide through tin (II) chloride solution.
Note the precipitate that is insoluble in dilute hydrochloric acid.
Sn2+ + S2- --> SnS (s)
Filter off the precipitate and wash with distilled water.
Transfer it to an evaporating basin and add yellow ammonium sulfide solution.
The precipitate dissolves.
Oxidation by the free sulfur in the ammonium sulfide occurs, so the S in the equation come from the ammonium sulfide.
(NH4)2S + SnS + S --> (NH4)2SnS3 (ammonium thiostannate)
Add dilute acid to the ammonium thiostannate to precipitate tin (IV) sulfide, SnS2.

2. Add drops of sodium hydroxide solution to tin (II) chloride solution.
Note the white precipitate of tin (II) hydroxide that dissolves in excess sodium hydroxide to form sodium stannite.
Sn2+ + 2OH- --> Sn(OH)2 (s)
Sn(OH)2 + 2OH- --> SnO22- + 2H2O (stannite ion = SnO22-).

3. Add drops of ammonium hydroxide solution to tin (II) chloride solution.
Note the white precipitate of tin (II) hydroxide that is not soluble in excess of ammonium hydroxide.

4. To show that tin (II) chloride is a powerful reducing agent, add tin (II) chloride solution to solutions of the following reagents.
Reduction occurs with every reagent.
Iron (III) chloride forms pale green iron (II) ions.
Potassium permanganate forms manganese (II) ions.
Potassium dichromate forms green chromic ions.

12.20.2 Prepare tin (IV) chloride
1. Use a fume cupboard
Put sand into the retort protect the glass during heating, followed by 5 cc of granulated tin.
Insert the delivery tube and connect to a chlorine apparatus.
Heat the retort while chlorine passes over.
Note the ignition of the tin, the fine white crystals in the upper part of the retort, and the yellow distillate of tin (IV) chloride.
The white crystals are SnCl4.5H2O, due to traces of moisture in the apparatus.
Sn + 2Cl2 --> SnCl4.

2. Add drops of water to the tin (IV) chloride mixture and heat the mixture.
Test for hydrogen chloride.
The white precipitate is hydrated tin (IV) oxide or a tin (IV) acid.
SnCl4 + 4H2O --> SnO2.2H2O + 4HCl.

3. Add ammonium hydroxide solution to the tin (IV) chloride mixture and heat the mixture.
Divide the suspension of hydrated tin (IV) oxide into two parts.
To show the amphoteric nature of hydrated tin (IV) oxide, dissolve part A in sodium hydroxide solution and dissolve part B in
hydrochloric acid.
SnO2.2H2O + 4HCl -->- SnCl4 + 4H2O
SnO22H2O + 2NaOH -->- Na2SnO3 + 3H2O
(Note: Na2SnO3 = sodium stannate).