School Science Lessons
2019-07-28
Please send comments to: J.Elfick@uq.edu.au

Chemistry, Sodium
Table of Contents
See:
Sodium Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
See: Salinity, (Commercial)
Sodium Na, Table of Elements
Sodium properties
Sodium compounds
Sodium reactions
Sodium, toxicity: 3.6.14
Sodium reactions
spectrum of sodium: 4.117
Group 6 tests for K+, Mg2+, Na+, NH4+: 12.11.4.6
Reactions of chlorine with sodium: 13.4.7
Reactions of sodium with water: 3.73
Sodium amalgam
Soft drinks, carbonated beverages, fizzy drinks, sports drinks: 15.8.6
Storing sodium and potassium: 3.4.13.9
Tests for sodium: 12.11.3.27

Sodium properties
Sodium, Na (Latin, Sodanum barilla, plant burned to extract sodium), silver-white, alkali metal, very reactive in sea water (sodium
chloride), in many minerals.
Sodium, Na, metal (natrium), pellets (in liquid paraffin), cube, AAS solution, Toxic if ingested
Sodium, silver-white soft metal, readily tarnishing in air, harmful, Corrosive, (FLAM, COR 1428),
Direct union of the elements, sodium and chlorine:
Sodium, Na (in liquid paraffin) (natrium), is a very reactive, soft and shiny alkali metal with a silvery colour, 2.5% of the earth's crust,
does not occur in the free state and soon becomes dull in air, available as sodium metal in liquid paraffin, extracted by electrolysis of
fused sodium hydroxide, rock salt (halite) and evaporated sea water, used in sodium vapour discharge lamps.
Reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid to form hydrogen and metal ion, with concentrated oxidizing acids, nitric acid or
sulfuric acid to produce high oxidation number ions, and sulfur dioxide or nitrogen dioxide, reacts with cold water and reacts with air
to form peroxides.
Sodium has greater concentration in extra cellular fluids than in intracellular fluids.
The level of sodium ion in blood is 310 to 333 mg per 100 mL of serum.
Sodium metal reacts violently with water to form highly corrosive sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas.
The surface of the reacting sodium may become sufficiently hot to ignite the hydrogen and explode the air / hydrogen mixture.
Reacts explosively with acids, bromides, iodine, sulfur, polyhalogenated hydrocarbons, e.g. chloroform.
The surface of sodium metal is coated with a mixture of the oxide and hydroxide, both of which hygroscopic, causing the surface of
sodium metal to absorb moisture from the air, and resulting in further reaction to form hydrogen and sodium hydroxide.
Sodium metal, unprotected in a container, may absorb sufficient moisture to form an air / hydrogen mixture and then becomes hot
enough to ignite the mixture, resulting in an explosion.
So store sodium under paraffin oil or kerosene.
Store sodium on a low shelf to reduce the chance of dropping the container.
Cut sodium on a clean dry surface with a clean dry blade, e.g. an all metal scalpel or small knife, not a scalpel with detachable blade.
Do not lose small pieces of cut sodium.
Dispose of sodium waste by reacting it with ethanol or methylated spirit in a beaker in a fume cupboard.
The reaction of sodium with an alcohol is less violent than with water, so it is relatively slow and easy to control, but there is still a risk
of fire.
The use of flammable solvents near sodium is always a risk.
Atomic number: 11, Relative atomic mass: 22.9898, r.d. 0.97, m.p. = 97.8oC, b.p. = 890oC.
Specific heat capacity: 1.23 × 103 J kg-1 K-1.

Sodium compounds
Albite, sodium feldspar, Na(AlSi3O8)
Beryllonite mineral, beryllium sodium phosphate
Borax, Na2B4O7.10H2O: 35.13.3.1
Borosilicate glass, Pyrex: 7.9.10
Calcined soda
Cryolite, Na3AlF6, sodium aluminium fluoride: 35.20.13
Disodium 5'-ribonucleotides, E635 (flavouring) (in packets of potato chips, instant noodles, pies)
EDTA: 9.10.0
Glass transition temperature (Tg): 3.4.01
35.20.19 Halite, NaCl, sodium chloride, rock salt
Heat sodium carbonate to form anhydrous sodium carbonate: 12.1.24
Nahcolite, NaHCO3, thermokalite, sodium hydrogen carbonate mineral, in evaporates
Natron, sodium carbonate decahydrate
Soda alum, NaAl(SO4)2.12H2O, sodium aluminium sulfate
Soda ash
Soda cellulose
Soda lime (NaOH + CaO), granules for absorbing carbon dioxide in respirators
Soda lime, Reactions of urea with soda lime: 16.6.16
Soda-lime glass
Sodamide, NaNH2, sodium amide
Sodium acetate (sodium ethanoate).
Sodium acetate trihydrate, CH3COONa.3H2O
Sodium adipate, E356 (acidity regulator, firming agent)
Sodium alginate, NaC6H7O6, E401 (from brown algae, vegetable gum, emulsifier and increase viscosity [texture] of food
Sodium alginate, algin, harmful in excess, sold as "Instant Worms"!
Sodium aluminate, NaAlO2, harmful to mucous membranes if inhaled
Sodium aluminium fluoride, Na3AlF6: 35.20.13
Sodium aluminium phosphate, E541 (emulsifier, acidity regulator) (from alumina + phosphoric acid + sodium hydroxide)
Sodium aluminium phosphate, NaH14Al3(PO4)8.4H2O, E541, phosphate aerator in some baking powders,
Sodium aluminium silicate, AlNa12SiO5 (sodium aluminosilicate)
Sodium aluminium silicate, E554 (anti-caking agent) (in table salt, dried milk, flour)
Sodium aluminium sulfate, NaAl(SO4)2.12H2O, soda alum
Sodium amalgam, Na(Hg), sodium mercuryamalgam, Toxic if ingested, dispose in beaker of water with iron nail then into a mercury
residues bottle
Sodium amalgam with water forms sodium hydroxide, highly corrosive to skin
Sodium amalgam, Highly toxic if ingested
Sodium amide, NaNH2, sodamide, Toxic if ingested, reacts violently with water, Not permitted in schools
Sodium arsenate, Following all called "sodium arsenate": NaH2AsO4.H2O | Na2HAsO4 | Na3AsO4| (colourless salts, Highly toxic!)
Sodium arsenate heptahydrate, sodium arsenate, dibasic, 7-hydrate, Na2HAsO4.7H2O, Highly toxic! (ant baits)
Sodium arsenite, Na3As, Arboricides: 16.8.7
Sodium ascorbate, E301 (sodium salt of vitamin C) (antioxidant)
Sodium azide, NaN3, insoluble metal salts explosive, Toxic, Environment danger, Not permitted in schools,
Sodium azide, motor car airbag: 13.9.3
Sodium benzoate, C6H5COONa
Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3, sodium hydrogen carbonate, "bicarb", "baking soda", bicarbonate of soda, nahalite
Sodium bismuthate, NaBiO3, harmful if ingested
Sodium bitartrate monohydrate, C4H5NaO6.H2O, sodium hydrogen tartrate, tartaric acid monoso dium salt, Toxic if ingested
Sodium borohydride, NaBH4, harmful if ingested, skin irritant
Sodium borohydride with water slowly forms hydrogen gas that may explode when mixed with air and ignited.
Sodium bromide, NaBr, harmful if ingested, may be substituted for potassium bromide
Sodium bromide, Low cost: from swimming pool supply stores as sodium bromide, “bromine base”
Sodium bromide is used to raise the bromine levels in a swimming pool before using bromine tablets.
Sodium butyrate, CH3.CH2.CH2COONa, butyric acid sodium salt
Sodium carbonate Soda ash
Sodium carboxy methylcellulose, food additive E468, carrier
Sodium chlorate, NaClO3
Sodium chloride, NaCl
Sodium chlorite, NaClO2
Sodium chromate, Na2CrO4.4H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 23.4g in 1 L water, Highly toxic if ingested, carcinogenic, skin irritant
Sodium chromate, Solution < 1%, Not hazardous
Sodium chromate: 12.14.4.1
Sodium citrate dihydrate, Na3C6H5O7.2H2O
Sodium cobaltinitrite, Na3Co(NO2)6
Sodium cyanide, NaCN, cyanogran, Extremely toxic by all routes, with acids forms cyanide gas
Sodium cyanide, Not permitted in schools
Sodium cyclamate, C6H11NHSO3Na
Sodium dichlor, dichloro-s-triazinetrione sodium salt (granular chlorine used in swimming pools): 18.7.60
Sodium dichlor, sodium dichloroisocyanurate, C3Cl2N3NaO3, SDIC
Sodium dichromate, Na2Cr2O7.2H2O, sodium dichromate dihydrate,
Sodium dihydrogen citrate, HOC(COONa)(CH2COOOH)2
Sodium dihydrogen phosphate, NaH2PO4, monosodium phosphate, MSP, sodium phosphate monobasic, plant cell cultures
Sodium diphenylamine-4-sulfonate, C12H10NNaO3S
Sodium disulfate (IV), Na2S2O7, sodium metabisulfite, sodium pyrosulfate,
Sodium erythrobate monohydrate, C6H7NaO6.H2O, E316 (salt of erythrobic acid, antioxidant)
Sodium ethanoate, sodium acetate, sodium acetate trihydrate, CH3COONa.3H2O
Heat of crystallization of sodium acetate: 24.1.8
Sodium ethoxide, C2H5ONa, Prepare: 16.1.3.1.2
Sodium ferrocyanide E535 (anti-caking agent)
Sodium fluorescein, Xanthene dyes: 7.9.56.1
Sodium fluoride
Sodium formate, sodium methanoate, Highly toxic if ingested, forms toxic gases with acids
Sodium fumarate, E3120 (salt of fumaric acid)
Sodium fumarate, E363 (Succinic acid) (acidity regulator, flavour enhancer)
Sodium gluconate, E576 (acidity regulator, sequestrant)
Sodium heptaoxodiphosphate, sodium pyrophosphate
Sodium hexametaphosphate, NaPO3(Na2O), "Calgon", water softener (Also calcium hexametaphosphate)
Sodium hexanitrocobaltate (III), Macallum's stain, sodium cobaltinitrite
Sodium hydride, Highly toxic if ingested, corrosive to skin
Sodium hydride, NaH
Sodium hydrogenarsenate
Sodium hydrogencitrate, HOC(COOH)(CH2COONa)2.1.5 H2O, disodium hydrogen citrate sesquihydrate
Sodium hydrogen carbonate, baking soda, NaHCO3
Sodium hydrogen glutamate, monosodium glutamate, MSG
Sodium hydrogen glutamate, monosodium glutamate, MSG, intolerance: 19.2.3
Sodium hydrogen orthophosphate anhydrous
Sodium hydrogen phosphate, Na2HPO4,
Sodium hydrogen sulfate, sodium bisulfate, NaHSO4
Sodium hydrogen sulfite, sodium bisulfite, NaHSO3
Sodium hydrogen tartrate, NaO2CCH(OH), CH(OH), CO2H, sodium bitartrate, tartaric acid monosodium salt
Sodium hydrosulfite, Na2S2O4.2H2O, sodium dithionite, Toxic by all routes
Sodium hydrosulfite with water, acids, on heating forms sulfur dioxide
Sodium hydrosulfite, Prepare sodium hydrosulfite solution: 5.4.9
Sodium hydroxide
Sodium hypochlorite
Sodium hypophosphite
Sodium iodide, NaI, For 0.1 M solution, 15 g in 1 L water, harmful if ingested
Sodium iodide (if I2 makes solution yellow, make colourless by adding sodium hydrogen sulfate)
Sodium iodate, NaIO3
Sodium L-ascorbate
Sodium lactate E325, from milk, salt of lactic acid, humectant, bulking agent, problem lactose intolerant children
Sodium laureth sulfate
Sodium maleate dibasic, E350 (DL-sodium malates (acidity regulator, humectant)
Sodium meta arsenite, NaAsO2
Sodium metabisulfite, Na2S2O5, sodium disulfite, sodium pyrosulfite
Sodium metasilicate pentahydrate, NaSiO3.5H2O
Sodium methanoate, sodium formate
Sodium methoxide
Sodium methyl p-hydroxybenzoate, E219 (preservative)
Sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na2MoO4.2H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 24.2 g in 1 L water, harmful if ingested
Sodium monofluorophosphate, sensitive toothpaste and Colgate "Triple Action", 1.196 (1450 ppm of Fluoride)
Sodium monopersulfate: 18.7.61 (Swimming pools)
Sodium niobate
Sodium nitrate, NaNO3
Sodium nitrite
Sodium nitroferricyanide (III) dihydrate
Sodium nitroprusside dihydrate, sodium pentacyanonitrosylferrate (II) or (III), Highly toxic if ingested
Sodium nitroprusside dihydrate, forms cyanide vapour when heated, skin irritant
Sodium oleate
Sodium orthophenyl phenol, food additive, E232, preservative, anti fungal
Sodium orthovanadate, harmful if ingested, or absorbed through skin (replace with ammonium vanadate)
Sodium oxalate, Na2C2O4, For 0.1 M solution, 13.4 g in 1 L water
Sodium oxalate, sodium ethanedioate, harmful if ingested, skin irritant, toxic fumes when heated
Sodium oxalate, Solution / mixture < 25%, Not hazardous (maximum solubility in water 3.6%)
Sodium oxide, Na2O
Sodium p-hydroxybenzoate, E217 (preservative)
Sodium pentachlor phenate, C6Cl5NaO, Poison, used to clean gravestones
Sodium perborate
Sodium percarbonate, 2Na2CO3.3H2O2, in washing powders
Sodium perchlorate, Toxic if ingested, corrosive to skin, Not permitted in schools
Sodium perchlorate monohydrate, oxidizing agent, explosive mixtures with combustibles and organic compounds
Sodium periodate, NaIO4
Sodium peroxide, Na2O
Sodium peroxycarbonate, Na2CO4
Sodium peroxydicarbonate, Na2C2O6
Sodium persulfate, Na2S2O8, sodium peroxodisulfate: 18.7.62
Sodium phosphate
Sodium phosphate dibasic, Na2HPO4, disodium hydrogen phosphate
Sodium phosphinate, sodium hypophosphite
Sodium phosphite dibasic pentahydrate
Sodium polyacrylate, Super Expanding Creatures,
Sodium potassium tartrate tetrahydrate, E337 (food acid, acidity regulator, stabilizer)
Sodium polyacrylate, acrylic sodium salt polymer, ASAP: 3.4.2.5.1
Sodium polysulfide (photography developer, but should not be stored in schools), harmful if ingested
Sodium polysulfide, photography brown sepia toner, with water or acids forms caustic solutions and H2S gas
Sodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acids, E470a (emulsifier, stabilizer)
Potassium sodium tartrate, KNaC4H4O6.4H2O, potassium sodium tartrate, rochelle salt
Sodium propionate E281 preservative, in pastry
Sodium pyrophosphate dibasic, Na2H2P2O7, sodium pyrophosphate decahydrate, disodium dihydrogen pyrophosphate
Sodium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate
Sodium pyrophosphate tetrabasic, Na4P2O7
Sodium pyrosulfite, Na2S2O5, sodium disulfite, sodium metabisulfite
Sodium pyruvate, CH3COCOONa
Sodium saccharin, C7H4NNaO3S.xH2O, 2-Sulfobenzoic acid imide sodium salt, o-Sulfobenzimide sodium salt,
Saccharin sodium salt hydrate, Saccharin soluble
Sodium salicylate, sodium 2-hydroxybenzoate
Sodium selenate, Na2SeO4
Sodium selenite, Na2SeO3
Sodiun sesquicarbonate, Prepare: 12.1.28
Sodium silicate
Sodium sorbate (preservative, antifungal): E201
Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate, E481 (sodium oleylltostearoyl lactylate, emulsifier)
Sodium succinate dibasic hexahydrate, NaOOCCH2CH2COONa.6H2O
Sodium sulfate, Glauber's salt, mirabilite, sodium sulfate, Na2SO4.10H2O, glauberite mineral
Sodium sulfide
Sodium sulfite
Sodium tartrate dihydrate, Na2C4H4O6.2H2O, sodium bitartrate, crystals, sodium (+) tartrate,
Sodium tartrate dihydrate, E335 (acidity regulator, sequestrant, food acid), [salt of tartaric acid (CHOH)2(COOH)2]
Sodium tauroglycocholate, surfactant, bile salts, emulsifies fats, sodium taurocholate, [Taurocholic acid, C26, H45NO7S]
Sodium tetraborate, Na2B4O7, borax fused
Sodium tetrafluoroborate, sodium borofluoride, NaBF4
Sodium tetraphenylborate, NaB(C6H5)4
Sodium tetrathionate dihydrate, Na2S4O6.2H2O, harmful
Sodium thiocyanate, NaSCN, sodium sulfocyanate, test for Fe3+ ions, harmful, Toxic fumes when heated
Sodium thioglycolate, C2H3NaO2S, used to find oxygen needs of organisms
Sodium thiosulfate, harmful if ingested
Sodium tripolyphosphate, detergents: 12.12.04
Sodium tungstate, Na2WO4, sodium tungstate dihydrate, source of tungsten
35.20.43 Stilbite, lamellar zeolite, hydrated sodium aluminium silicate
Trisodium phosphate, TSP "sodium phosphate", E339, Na3PO4, Na3PO4.12H2O
Trisodium phosphate (V), sodium orthophosphate, Na3PO4
Trisodium phosphate, Na3PO4.12H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 38 g in 1 L water
12.1.28 Trona, Na3H(CO3)2.2H2O, Prepare bath salts with sodium carbonate and with sodium sesquicarbonate
35.13.3.1 Ulexite.

Soda lime
Soda lime, CaO/NaOH, ACS reagent, granular, +100 mesh particle size.
Soda lime, CaO/NaOH, with indicator, pellets.
Soda lime, activated, soda lime non-indicating, soda lime self-indicating, (4-14 mesh sizes).
"NaOH + CaO", mixture of sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide prepared by dissolving calcium oxide with sodium hydroxide
solution, then drying the products.
Its reaction is milder than sodium hydroxide, so is used to avoid violent reactions.
Also, CaO is used with sodium hydroxide to keep it dry because sodium hydroxide is hygroscopic.
Tests for CO2 (if off-white: active, if violet: exhausted).
For anaesthetics, the pH indicator ethyl violet is added to tell whether the soda lime can still absorb carbon dioxide.
The critical pH is 10.3.
It turns from colourless to violet.

Sodium benzoate
Sodium benzoate, C6H5COONa, benzoic acid sodium salt, sodium benzenecarboxylate, food preservative against yeast and
bacteria, but may cause cirrhosis, damage DNA and increase ageing, effective pH 2.5 to 4.2, dyes, antiseptic.

Sodium carbonate
Sodium carbonate monohydrate, mineral evaporate, Na2CO3.H2O
Acids with sodium carbonate: 12.1.25
Alkalis with sodium carbonate: 12.7.8
Dilute hydrochloric acid with sodium carbonate: 12.3.9.2
Expose sodium carbonate decahydrate to the air: 5.0
Heat sodium carbonate to form anhydrous sodium carbonate: 12.1.24
Hydrolysis of sodium carbonate: 12.10.3
Iron (II) sulfate with sodium carbonate: 12.1.1
Magnesium sulfate with sodium carbonate: 12.4.11
Natron, sodium carbonate decahydrate
Prepare fruit salts, health salts: 16.7.13
Prepare bath salts: 12.1.28
Prepare hydrogen, Al with Na2CO3: 3.41.0
Prepare sodium hydrogen carbonate with sodium carbonate: 12.1.27
Prepare sodium hydrogen carbonate: 12.16.2
Prepare sodium carbonate, LeBlanc: 12.16.8
Prepare sodium carbonate, Solvay: 12.16.7
Remove water hardness: 12.13.0.2
Sodium carbonate: 18.7.59 (swimming pools)
Sodium carbonate efflorescence: 12.1.23
Sodium carbonate precipitates: 12.1.26
Solid acids, add sodium carbonate: 19.1.3
Washing clothes with washing soda: 19.5.5
Washing powders: 19.6.2.

Sodium carbonate, Anhydrous sodiun carbonate, calcined soda, soda ash, Na2CO3
Sodium carbonate decahydrate, natron mineral, washing soda, Na2CO3.10H2O
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, sodium carbonate anhydrous, sodium carbonate-10 water, harmful, skin irritant
Sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate, For 0.1 M solution, 28.6 g in 1 L water, Solution < 20%, Not harmful
Sodium carbonate heptahydrate, Na2CO3.7H2O, (not a mineral)
Low cost: from supermarkets as washing soda, from pottery supply stores as soda ash, by heating a thin layer of sodium bicarbonate,
(baking soda), in the oven for an hour
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, calcined soda, carbonic acid disodium salt, soda ash (Na2CO3.10H2O, sodium carbonate decahydrate),
sodium carbonate crystals, [formerly "nitre" (US niter)], soda crystals, sal soda, crystal carbonate, black ash, trona, E500 white,
colourless or white crystals, odourless powder, hygroscopic, readily soluble in water to form strong alkaline solution
Sodium carbonate is NOT decomposed by heat (also anhydrous sodium carbonate, soda ash anhydrous, Na2CO3.), r.d. 2.53,
m.p. 851oC, used in glass production, softens "hard" water, used to removes grease, constituent of washing powders and bath salts,
over half the weight of the crystals is water because of the water of crystallization.
Soda ash is sold as "sodium carbonate".
If sodium carbonate solution is left on the skin it may produce blisters.
Sodium carbonate as washing soda allows sodium ions to displace calcium ions in clay particles so that clay particles in mud can be
dispersed and held in suspension in the washing water.
Common name: Washing soda, dissolves grease, disinfectant, softens water, cleans stains, absorbs odours, used to prepare dish
washing soap.
Use washing soda solution to clean silverware tarnished by eggs by putting in aluminium pan.
Use washing soda solution to remove coffer stains on pottery.

Soda cellulose
Reaction of 18% caustic soda on wood pulp, a mixture of celluloses, to make paper.
(C6H10O5)n + NaOH --> [(C6H10O5)2.NaOH]
alpha cellulose + sodium hydroxide --> swollen, insoluble soda cellulose + soluble soda celluloses from other celluloses, hemicelluloses.

Sodium chlorate, NaClO3
Sodium chlorate, NaClO3, Not permitted in schools
Sodium chlorate (V), NaClO3, Prepare: 5.4.16
Prepare sodium hypochlorite: 12.1.13
Store sodium chlorate: 3.4.13.10.

Sodium chlorate, NaClO3, white solid, crystalline, bleach, weed killer, Oxidizing (OXD 1495).
Sodium chlorate forms violently explosive mixtures with combustibles, organic compounds, ammonium compounds, sulfur, sulfides and
finely divided metals, that may detonate from friction, contact with strong acids by ignition.
Sodium chlorate with concentrated sulfuric acid forms chlorine dioxide gas.
Wood soaked in sodium chlorate becomes explosive.

Sodium chloride, NaCl
Sodium chloride, NaCl, "salt", table salt, common salt, cooking salt, household salt, rock salt, sea salt, halite
See: Sodium chloride, Models, (Commercial)
Table salt may come from a mine or the sea, then dissolved in clean water, then recrystallized to remove any impurity.
Usually, anti-caking chemicals are added, e.fg. sodium aluminosilicate or magnesium carbonate or sodium hexacyanoferrate E535.
Iodised salt also contains potassium iodate.
Table salt brands include "Saxa", "Malden Sea Salt".
Each day the body loses about 3g 0f sodium and 3.5.g potassium, to be replaced from food.

Sodium chloride (solution), brine, NaCl, For 0.1 M solution, 5.8 g in 1 L water
Basal salt solutions, biology solution: 1.8
Saline tablets, Phosphate buffered saline tablets
Salinity (dissolved salt solutions): 18.2.5
Boiling point of sodium chloride solution: 3.5.1
Common ion effect to precipitate sodium chloride from solution: 17.5.5.3
De-icers, ice melts: 7.4.3.3
Electric writing, sodium chloride with litmus paper: 3.4.4
Electrolysis of sodium chloride solution: 15.5.12.0
Electrolysis of sodium chloride, Nelson cell: 15.5.13
Flame tests for sodium chloride: 12.1.29
Halite, rock salt, sodium chloride, mineral: 35.20.19
Halide salts with hot concentrated sulfuric acid: 12.19.3.1
Low cost: from supermarkets as table salt, or cooking salt, but check whether it has added potassium iodide
or anti-caking agents.
However, "popcorn salt" and "kosher salt" do not contain potassium iodide.
Prepare chlorine with sodium chloride: 13.4.1.3
Prepare cubic crystals of sodium chloride: 12.1.32
Prepare hydrochloric acid: 3.42.01
Prepare hydrogen chloride: 3.42.0
Reactions of sodium chloride: 12.19.8.1
Salinity, leaf versus root application of water: 6.55
Sodium chloride, invisible writing ink: 3.2.5.6
Separate sand and salt mixture: 10.3.1
Separate sodium chloride from sodium nitrate: 10.9.1
Separate sodium chloride from iodine: 10.13.1
Sodium chloride solution with copper sulfate solution: 3.71.2
Sulfuric acid with sodium chloride: 12.18.5.6
Table salt and rock salt: 19.1.16.

Sodium chloride, NaCl, white, cubic crystals (colourless if large), or granules, r.d. 2.17, m.p. 804oC, common salt, table salt, sodium
chloride technical grade, rock salt, halite mineral, sea salt, brine, salt, white cubic crystals.
Sodium chloride is NOT hygroscopic if pure, for chemistry experiments use "uniodized" table salt, dissolves readily in water to form a
neutral solution often called brine.
Used for cooking and flavouring and food preservative, making butter, curing fish, manufacturing chemicals, e.g. chlorinating swimming
pools, animal licks, wine spills, carpet cleaning.
Sodium chloride is essential in the diet and a supplement is needed after excessive dehydration and sweating, but high intake cause of
high blood pressure, stroke, heart disease.
Sodium chloride known as "Canning salt" or "Pickling salt" has no iodine added, unlike table salt.
Use salt, sodium chloride, NaCl, on a piece of lemon to polish brass and copper, sprinkled over spilled wine then
vacuum the carpet when dry, sprinkled over the carpet before vacuuming or sweeping to remove dirt and fluff, to
remove stains from teacups, to remove the powder taste of powdered milk. Use salt + lemon to clean copper.
Use salt + vinegar to remove burnt food in aluminium pans.
Use salt + water to remove coffee stains on pottery.
Use salt + lemon juice to remove rust stains on linen.
Use salt to make smokeless candle wicks.
The sea is refered to as the "briny" because it is salty like brine.

Sodium chlorite NaClO2,
Sodium chlorite NaClO2, water-purification and bleaching drops "activated" with citric acid.
Fake medicines containing sodium chlorite
Solutions known as "Miracle Mineral Supplement", "Master Mineral Solution, MMS", "CD protocol", "Chloriner Dioxide Solution,
CDS", are toxic solutions of sodium chlorite, illegallally marketed as cure for cancer, HIV, malaria, viruses, and autism in the form of
enemas, after being to be "activated" with citric acid to form chlorine dioxide solution.
These fake medicines can cause vomiting, stomach pains and diarrhea and can be very harmful to children.

Sodium citrate, Na3C6H5O7.2H2O,
Sodium citrate, sodium citrate dihydrate, Na3C6H5O7.2H2O, [HOC(COONa)(CH2COONa)2.2H2O], citric acid trisodium salt
dihydrate, sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate, trisodium citrate dihydrate, crystalline trisodium citrate,
trisodium-2-hydroxypropane-1, 2, 3-tricarboxy (food buffer), E331.

Sodium cobaltinitrite, Na3Co(NO2)6
Sodium cobaltinitrite, Na3Co(NO2)6, yellow-brown crystals or powder, solution decomposes unless acetic acid added, harmful
Sodium cobaltinitrite, sodium hexanitrocobaltate (III), powerful oxidizing agent, if hot, can start fires if mixed with combustibles.

Sodium dichromate, Na2Cr2O7.2H2O>
Sodium dichromate, sodium dichromate dihydrate, Na2Cr2O7.2H2O, sodium bichromate, orange crystalline
Sodium dichromate, Highly toxic if ingested, or skin absorption, carcinogenic
Sodium dichromate reacts violently with active metals, e.g. Na, Al, Mg, and C, S, P, and easily oxidized organics
Sodium dichromate, do not isolate and dry chromate precipitates.
Sodium dichromate, Toxicity 3.10.0
Sodium dichromate, ionization reaction: 12.5.7
Sodium dichromate, Solution < 0.5%, Not hazardous.

Sodium dihydrogen phosphate (V), NaH2PO4.2H2O
Sodium dihydrogen phosphate, Prepare sodium dihydrogen phosphate solution: 5.4.17
Prepare baking powder: 19.1.9
Prepare self-leavened flour, "self-raising flour": 19.1.8.1.

Sodium dihydrogen phosphate (V), NaH2PO4.2H2O, sodium phosphate monobasic, monosodium orthophosphate
sodium dihydrogen orthophosphate
Sodium dihydrogen phosphate, hydrated, NaH2PO4.2H2O, sodium dihydrogen phosphate (V)-2-water, di-Sodium hydrogen phosphate
Sodium dihydrogen phosphate, NaH2PO4, sodium phosphate monobasic, powder, monosodium dihydrogen orthophosphate,
monosodium phosphate, sodium dihydrogen orthophosphate, monosodium orthophosphate, sodium phosphate monobasic dihydrate,
sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate, NaH2PO4.2H2O, white, odourless, rhombic crystals, insoluble in alcohol, slightly deliquescent,
anhydrous at 100oC, in baking powder, food additive, buffers, E339.
Sodium phosphate monobasic monohydrate is NaH2PO4.H2O.

Sodium ethanoate, CH3COONa,
Sodium ethanoate, sodium acetate anhydrous, CH3COONa, ethanoic acid sodium salt,
For 00.1 M solution, 13.6 g in 1 L water
Sodium ethanoate hydrated, CH3COONa.3H2O, sodium acetate trihydrate, sodium ethanoate-3-water, E262
Sodium acetate, sodium ethanoate, E262 (acidity regulator, preservative), alkaline skin irritant
Sodium acetate with potassium nitrate may explode.
Sodium acetate heat pack: 14.1.11
Sodium ethanoate and ethanoic acid: 17.5.2
Sodium ethanoate: 16.1.5.3
Prepare solutions, pH 3 to 11: 12.10.8.0.

Sodium fluoride, NaF
Sodium fluoride, NaF, Highly toxic if ingested, skin irritant.
Sodium fluoride with concentrated acids forms hydrofluoric acid, Extremely toxic, Not permitted in schools
Sodium fluoride, Solution < 3%, Not hazardous
Teeth and toothpaste: 9.226.

Sodium hydrogen carbonate, NaHCO3
Sodium hydrogen carbonate, NaHCO3 (sodium bicarbonate, bicarbonate of soda, baking soda)
Baking soda, sodium hydrogen carbonate
Sodium hydrogen carbonate, For 0.1 M solution, 8.4 g in 1 L water, with acids forms carbon dioxide
Sodium hydrogen carbonate, flour: 19.1.8.1
Sodium hydrogen carbonate, acetic acid, 12.16.6
Sodium hydrogen carbonate with citric acid, is sold in "Bomb Bags"
Sodium hydrogen carbonate, dilute acids: 12.3.10
Sodium bicarbonate, pools: 18.7.58
Acids with baking soda: 12.1.18
"Alka-Seltzer"
Dyes with a mordant: 19.5.3
Effervescent tablets, health salts, sodium bicarbonate (baking soda): 12.1.1
Egg in a bottle: 12.3.27
Flour, plain flour and self-raising flour: 19.1.8.1
Heat baking soda, decomposition: 12.1.17
Heat hydrogen carbonates 12.16.4
Hydrolysis of salts, sodium carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate, ammonium chloride: 12.10.3
Hydrolysis of sodium hydrogen carbonate: 12.10.3.1
Nahcolite, thermokalite, sodium hydrogen carbonate mineral, NaHCO3, in evaporates
Precipitates from sodium bicarbonate: 12.1.19
Prepare baking powder, sponging agent: 19.1.9
Prepare imitation volcano with baking soda: 12.16.6
Prepare sodium carbonate: 12.1.22
Prepare sodium hydrogen carbonate: 12.16.2
Simulated boiling: 13.7.13
Soda-acid fire extinguisher: 3.34.6
Sodium bicarbonate prevents milk from going sour: 12.1.21
Sodium bicarbonate, milk going sour: 12.1.21
Test for sodium bicarbonate: 12.1.20.

Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3, sodium hydrogen carbonate, "bicarb", "baking soda", bicarbonate of soda, nahalite
Sodium hydrogen carbonate, bi-carb soda, carb soda, soda lye (saleratus, "aerated salt", "Dwight's saleratus")
Sodium hydrogen carbonate, crystalline, white, odourless monoclinic crystals or granules, alkaline salt, r.d. 2.16 - 2.22.
Sodium hydrogen carbonate occurs naturally in soda lakes, soda beds.
It decomposes to lose CO2, forms sodium carbonate above 50oC.
It may be marketed "aluminium free".
About, 2 g of baking soda is neutralized by 24 mL (1 cup), of milk.
Sodium hydrogen carbonate is in antacids, baking powders, cream of tartar mixes, sourdough, bath salts, burn treatment, cow and
cattle feed, degreasers, denture cleaning, deodorizers, effervescing health salts, e.g. "Alka-Seltzer", fire extinguishers, general cleaners,
general neutralizers, kitchen and bathroom cleaners, paint stripping, self-raising flour, soils contaminated with PCBs, toothpaste.
Sodium bicarbonate is a soft white powder that dissolves to a small extent in cold water.
It is decomposed by hot water to form a very weak alkali.
It turns red litmus blue, but is too weak an alkali to affect phenolphthalein.
It is used in cooking as a leavening agent to form bubbles of carbon dioxide to expand bread dough, cake mix and pastry dough,
to make them light and pleasant to eat.
Sodium bicarbonate is used to clean barbecues, children's plastic toys, microwave ovens, and vacuum flasks, to deodorize carpets,
refrigerators and shoes, to freshen dishcloths and laundry towels, to remove fruit juice stains and perspiration from clothing, and to
dissolve grease, to soften woollen socks, to add to bath water for relaxing feet soak, to precipitate toxic heavy metal ions and neutralize
acid wastes before disposal, neutralize acid spills and to extinguish fires.
Scientists have found that baking soda can remove far more pesticide from the skin of apples than just tap water or bleach rinse.

Sodium hydrogen phosphate, Na2HPO4,
Sodium hydrogen phosphate, Na2HPO4, sodium monohydrogen phosphate, disodium hydrogen phosphate
Sodium hydrogen phosphate, Na2HPO4, standard buffer solutions
Sodium hydrogen phosphate, sodium phosphate dibasic, disodium hydrogen orthophosphate
E450 Diphosphate.

Sodium hydrogen sulfate, NaHSO4
Copper oxide with sodium hydrogen sulfate: 12.3.5.01
Halide salts with hot concentrated sulfuric acid: 12.19.3.1
Heat sodium bicarbonate: 12.1.17
Iron with sodium hydrogen sulfate: 12.3.3.3
Magnesium with sodium hydrogen sulfate: 12.3.3.2
Prepare sodium hydrogen sulfate: 12.10.6
Prepare hydrogen gas: 3.41.2.0 (See 2.)
Sucrose with sodium hydrogen sulfate: 12.7.17.

Sodium hydrogen sulfate anhydrous, NaHSO4, sodium bisulfate
Sodium hydrogen sulfate, Toxic if ingested, corrosive to skin and eyes, heated solution forms sulfur dioxide gas
Sodium hydrogen sulfate, sodium bisulfate monohydrate, NaHSO4.H2O, sodium hydrogen sulfate
monohydrate, deliquescent, anhydrous, nitre cake, sodium bisulfate, swimming pool acid (COR 1821), white crystals, very soluble in
water to form acid solution, deliquescent crystals when exposed to the air to eventually form a solution, so keep crystals in stoppered
container, can be a substitute for dilute sulfuric acid in some experiments, preparation requires use of concentrated sulfuric acid so use
crushed solid sodium hydrogen sulfate, the solid and the solution are corrosive so handle with care and avoid spills.
If a sodium hydrogen sulfate spill occurs, wipe up spilled material immediately with a wet cloth and neutralize any remaining acid with
dilute ammonia or baking soda until no longer an acid reaction with blue litmus paper.
Sodium hydrogen sulfate, fused, is Na2S2O7.NaHSO4.

Sodium hydrogen sulfite, NaHSO3
Sodium hydrogen sulfite, NaHSO3, sodium bisulfite, skin irritant, food additive E222, Toxic, use fume cupboard
Sodium hydrogen sulfite solution (40%), antiseptic and bleach, sterilizer in wine industry
Sodium hydrogen sulfite with acids forms sulfur dioxide gas
Sodium hydrogen sulfite, deliquescent, white solid, but dissolves in water to form yellow solution
With heat, sodium hydrogen sulfite, is decomposed to form sodium sulfate, sulfur dioxide and sulfur, so it is used to sterilize wine casks
and other containers in brewing industry.
If KI solutions become yellow from iodine formation, add sodium hydrogen sulfite solution to make solution colourless again.
Sodium bisulfite ACS reagent may be a mixture of NaHSO3 and Na2S2O5.

Sodium hydroxide, NaOH, caustic soda,
Extremely toxic if ingested, highly corrosive to skin and eyes, releases heat when dissolved in water
Caustic Soda / Flake / Solid / Pearl, 96% (Na2CO3 1% maximum| NaCl 2% maximum| Fe2O3 0.01% maximum)
Sodium hydroxide is used as a photography developer replenisher.
Sodium hydroxide, > 4 M (16%), Extremely toxic if ingested, highly corrosive to skin and eyes
Sodium hydroxide, < 4 M (16%), Extremely toxic if ingested, highly corrosive to skin and eyes
Sodium hydroxide, < 4 M (16%), > 1 M (4%), Toxic if ingested, corrosive to skin and eyes
Sodium hydroxide, > 1 M (4%), > 0.25 M (1%), Toxic if ingested, corrosive to skin and eyes
Sodium hydroxide, < 0.25 M (1%), Not hazardous
Sodium hydroxide, 3 M, Dissolve 126 g sticks, 95%, in water and dilute to 1 litre of water
Sodium hydroxide, 4 M, Dissolve 160 g sodium hydroxide in 500 mL water, then dilute to 1 litre of water
Sodium hydroxide, 8.5 M, Dissolve 330 g sodium hydroxide in water, dilute to 1 litre of water (For CO2 absorption)
Sodium hydroxide solution, Etchants: 7.9.20.1
Sodium hydroxide, Prepare sodium hydroxide: 12.1.14
Sodium hydroxide with ammonium: 11.3.7
Sodium hydroxide with dilute acids: 12.8.7
Sodium hydroxide with ethyl acetate: 17.3.15
Sodium hydroxide with hydrochloric acidl: 12.8.2
Sodium hydroxide with zinc chloride: 12.7.7.1
Alkalis with metals, sodium hydroxide: 12.7.3
Alkalis with salts, copper salts: 12.7.4
Aluminium with sodium hydroxide: 12.1.2
Carbon dioxide with sodium hydroxide solution: 12.17.3.1
Heat of neutralization: 14.1.5.1
Prepare ammonia gas: 3.33.0
Prepare soap, household soap: 19.6.6
Prepare hydroxides by precipitation: 12.1.33
Prepare salts by neutralization of sodium hydroxide: 12.1.8
Prepare sodium carbonate with caustic soda: 12.1.34
Rainbow reactions, butyl chloride, sodium hydroxide: 12.1.11
Test the soapy feel of sodium hydroxide: 12.1.15
Test substances with sodium hydroxide: 11.3.7
Titrate dilute hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide solution, with a burette: 12.8.4.0
Titrate dilute hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide solution, with a burette (second method): 12.8.4.1.

Sodium hydroxide, NaOH, ACS reagent, pellets, solid, white rods, pearl, flakes, lumps, granules, very hygroscopic and absorbs
CO2 from air, r.d. 2.13, m.p. about 318oC, caustic soda, soda, soda lye, white caustic, caustic drain cleaner 5%, in "Drano", E524,
(emulsifier), 1.22 gm cm-3, cakes if stored for long period, a caustic alkali, pH solution >10, soap making, rayon and paper industry,
(used in experiments for reaction of oxides of Period 3 elements and an analytical reagent, preparing soap and making paper, cleaning
cookers and removing old paint, dissolves grease in drains), very dangerous to eyes, release heat when dissolved in water, must be pure
white colour to be pure sodium hydroxide, store in a bottle with a tightly fitting cork or rubber stopper, NOT glass stoppers or metal
screw caps that tend to become cemented to the glass, solid or solution must NOT be handled because it destroys skin and causes
painful blisters, also corrodes clothing.
Treat accidental splashes of sodium hydroxide with plenty of water, then neutralize with vinegar, citric acid or tartaric acid.
Test the part affected with red litmus paper until it fails to turn blue.
Always use sodium hydroxide in dilute solution.
Low cost: from hardware stores as “crystal drain opener”, but check whether it is 100% sodium hydroxide,
e.g. "Drano" contains sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and sodium chloride.
Use caustic soda to dissolve grease in a blocked sink, then use a plumber's suction cup.

Sodium hypochlorite, NaClO
Sodium hypochlorite, NaClO, Highly toxic by all routes, forms chlorine gas, skin irritant, corrosive
Sodium hypochlorite: 18.7.2.2.2, (Swimming pools)
Sodium chlorate (I), domestic bleach, oxidizing agent
Sodium hypochlorite, Highly toxic by all routes, forms chlorine gas, skin irritant, corrosive
Sodium hypochlorite solution, 16%, bleach, Highly toxic, forms chlorine gas, skin irritant, corrosive
Sodium hypochlorite solution, 5-16%, bleach, Highly toxic, forms chlorine gas, skin irritant, corrosive
Sodium hypochlorite solution, < 5%, Not hazardous
Sodium hydrochlorite bleach: 12.1.10
Sodium hypochlorite, decomposition, cobalt sulfate catalyst: 17.3.14
"Domestos" solution, NaClO: 9.2.26
Low cost: from supermarkets as laundry bleach having about 6% solution of sodium hypochlorite + sodium
hydroxide + "whiteners", scents etc.
For example Clorox® Regular-Bleach contains sodium hypochlorite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate,
sodium hydroxide, sodium polyacrylate.
The cheapest laundry bleach may be the purest!
Prepare oxygen gas with bleaching fluid: 12.1.11
Prepare preserving agents for cut flowers: 19.6.5
Prepare sodium chlorate (I): 12.1.13
Reactions of urea with sodium hypochlorite: 16.6.14.

Sodium hypochlorite, NaOCl (aq), sodium chlorate (I), domestic bleach, bleaching fluid, e.g. "Chlorox" bleach, oxidizing agent, 12.5%
solution, liquid bleach, colourless, strong odour, heat decomposes (4% Cl2), solution (store below 25oC) (household bleach,
domestic bleach, 5% NaOCl, bleaching fluid, disinfecting sinks and drains), chlorine water, chloride of soda, chlorine bleach, water
treatment of swimming pools.
NaOCl (aq) bleach evolves chlorine gas that is highly irritant to the lungs.
If acid is added to bleach, large amounts of chlorine are produced.
The mixture becomes hot and may boil violently.
Do NOT add concentrated ammonia to bleach.
Under some circumstances, nitrogen trichloride (NCl3), forms.
This is a violently unstable liquid, liable to explode without apparent reason.
NaOCl can bleach materials like flower petals, leaves and human hair.
NaOCl is a good source of chlorine gas for other experiments.
Add dilute hydrochloric acid from a dropping funnel to bleach solution in a conical flask fitted with a rubber stopper and gas collection
system.
Keep sodium hydroxide solution nearby to stop the reaction.
Sodium hypochlorite does NOT exist in solid form.
A very weak solution may be sold as a gargle, e.g. Milton, but strong solutions are poisonous.
Sodium hypochlorite with acids forms chlorine gas, toxic.
Do NOT store near acids.
Sodium hypochlorite, NaOCl, solution 5-16% chlorine bleach, 12.5% solution,
Highly toxic by all routes, skin irritant, corrosive.
Sodium hypochlorite decomposes in sunlight, store in dark cupboard, bottles in light build up pressure and may explode.
Sodium hypochlorite solution, reagent grade, available chlorine 10-15%.

Sodium iodate, NaIO3, INaO3
Oxidizing agent, causes fire with combustibles oreducing agents, iodic acid sodium salt, preparation sodium hydroxide + iodic acid
aqueous solution neutral, when heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes.

Sodium periodate, NaIO4
Sodium sodium periodate, sodium (meta) periodate, harmful, may ignite with combustibles or organics.

Sodium peroxide, Na2O
Sodium peroxide, Na2O, Toxic, corrosive, explosive mixtures with organics, Not permitted in schools.

Sodium laureth sulfate, CH3(CH2)11(OCH2CH2)nOSO3Na, sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) (also called "lauryl sulfate"), detergent,
surfactant
Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), C12H25SO4Na, sodium dodecyl sulfate,
Sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS or NaDS), Sodium dodecyl sulfate, harmful, skin irritant, anionic surfactant in cleaning and hygiene
products, foam stabilizer, lowers surface tension, allows bubbles to last longer
The above inexpensive chemicals are widely used in skin care and personal hygiene products, e.g. shampoos, mouth washes,
toothpastes, soaps.
High concentration mays be irritating, but do not cause cancer as reported by unscientific opinions.

Sodium metabisulfite, Na2S2O5
Sodium metabisulfite, Na2S2O5, Na-O-(S=O)-O-(S=O)-O-Na, Toxic if ingested, skin irritant
Old Nassau flag clock reaction: 17.1.7
Sodium metabisulfite ions, mixture of dithionite ion S2O42- and dithionate ion S2O62-
Sodium metabisulfite, sodium bisulfite, sodium pyrosulfite, disodium metabisulfite, E223, white powder of crystals, reducing agent
Sodium metabisulfite, Hair products: 19.7.3
Sodium metabisulfite, sterilizing "Campden" tablets, home beer-making and wine-making, food preservative,
flour treatment agent
Sodium metabisulfite, Prepare: 19.5.6.

Sodium nitrate
Prepare nitric acid, sulfuric acid with sodium nitrate: 12.5.1
Separate a mixture of sodium chloride and sodium nitrate: 10.9.1
Sodium nitrate, NaNO3, sodium nitrate (V), nitrate of soda, soda nitre, Chile saltpetre, nitratine, saltpetre, E251 (meat preservative,
colour fixative), colourless, odourless, transparent, trigonal crystals or white granules, r.d. 2.26, m.p. 308oC, deliquescent in moist air,
Chile saltpetre from caliche deposits, Chile nitre (agricultural fertilizer), E251.

Sodium nitrite, NaNO2
Sodium nitrite, NaNO2, sodium nitrate (III) (OXD HARM 1500), Toxic if ingested
Sodium nitrite, white to yellow rhombic crystals or granules, r.d. 2.17, m.p. 271oC, hygroscopic granules (inhibits corrosion), E250.
Sodium nitrite, Explosive mixtures with combustibles or organic compounds
Sodium nitrite, Solution / mixture < 1%, Not hazardous
Sodium nitrite, For 0.1 M solution, 7 g in 1 L water, E250 (preservative, colour fixative)
Sodium nitrite with acids forms nitrogen dioxide gas, toxic.
Sodium nitrite with phenol, ammonium salts, thiosulfates, cyanides forms explosive explosive mixtures.

Sodium perborate, NaBO3
Sodium perborate, sodium perborate monohydrate, sodium perborate tetrahydrate
Bleach, synthetic detergents (syndets): 12.12.03.4
Sodium perborate monohydrate, BNaO3.H2O, powder, 20-100 mesh, strong oxidizing agent, for non-chlorine bleach detergents,
Sodium perborate tetrahydrate, crystals, NaBO3.4H2O, (algicide in swimming pools).

Sodium phosphate, Na3PO4
Sodium phosphate, Na3PO4.12H2O, trisodium phosphate (V), TSP, trisodium orthophosphate ("sodium phosphate" Agriculture),
sodium phosphate tribasic dodecahydrate
Sodium phosphate, Na3PO4, trisodium phosphate, trisodium orthophosphate, hygroscopic
Sodium phosphate, sodium orthophosphate, harmful, corrosive to mucous membranes, alkaline skin irritant
Sodium phosphate, E339 (acidity regulator, emulsifier, mineral salt, laxative, textile fixing agent)
Trisodium phosphate (V)-12-water, tripsa, cleaner
E339 Sodium phosphates.

Sodium silicate, Na2SiO3
Sodium silicate, Na2SiO3, Toxic if ingested, alkaline corrosive to skin
Fireproof, cloth, paper, wood: 3.5.11
Prepare sodium silicate precipitates: 12.1.35
Prepare chemical gardens: 12.1.36
Prepare silicic acid and pure silica: 12.1.37
Silicates group, polysilicates, polysilicon: 35.14.1
Sodium silicate, egg preservation: 9.30
Sodium silicate, waterglass, 7.2.3.

Sodium silicate solution, Na2O(SiO2)x.xH2O, sodium trisilicate solution, water glass, soluble glass glassy solid usually sold in strong
solution as a thick syrupy liquid that dissolves in water to form an alkaline solution.
Water glass solidifies on exposure to the air.
Sodium silicate is used as egg preservative, fireproofing fabrics, fresco base.
Sodium metasilicate, Na2SiO3, disodium metasilicate, disodium silicate, sodium silicate, sodium silicon oxide.

Sodium sulfate, Na2SO4
Sodium sulfate, Na2SO4.10H2O, Glauber's salt, mirabilite, sodium sulfate, glauberite mineral
Electrolysis of sodium sulfate solution: 15.5.21
Halide salts with hot concentrated sulfuric acid: 12.19.3.1
Prepare sodium sulfate crystals: 12.1.38
E514 Sodium sulfate (mineral salt) (Health risk, water balance problems)
Movement of ions, sodium sulfate solution: 3.4.2
Dyes: 19.5.2
Weight of sulfate radical in sodium sulfate: 17.6.5
Titrate dilute sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide solution, isolate sodium sulfate crystals: 8.4.2.

Sodium sulfate, Na2SO4, sodium sulfate, threnardite, dyes, mordant, Glauber's salt, mirabilite, salt cake, glauberite mineral
Sodium sulfate (VI)-10-water, Na2SO4.10H2O, sodium sulfate decahydrate, sodium sulfate anhydrous
Sodium sulfate decahydrate, Na2SO4.10H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 32.2 g in 1 L water
Sodium sulfate, anhydrous, granular, Na2SO4 (sodium sulfate decahydrate, crystalline, Na2SO4.10H2O) mirabilite mineral (rhombic)
crystals), hydrated, white efflorescent crystals that dissolve in water to form a neutral solution, Glare's salt, sal mirabile, cake, former
laxative, E514, in many mineral waters (Sodium sulfate anhydrous Na2SO4, white hygroscopic powder, r.d. 2.67, m.p. 888oC),
(glauberite mineral, Na2Ca(SO4)2, has a bitter and salty taste) (J. R. Glauber 1604-1668, Netherlands), prepared by sulfuric acid
with common salt, loses water of crystallization in dry air.

Sodium sulfide, Na2S
Sodium sulfide, Na2S, Toxic, Corrosive, Environment danger, Highly toxic, alkaline corrosive to skin
Sodium sulfide, forms H2S with strong acids,
Sodium sulfide with water forms hydrogen sulfide gas, toxic, Use < 10 mL or 10 g in fume cupboard
Sodium sulfide nonahydrate, Na2S.9H2O, For 0.5 M 120 g in 1 L water
Sodium sulfide, anhydrous. < 30% water of hydration
Sodium sulfide, hydrated, > 30% water of hydration
Sodium sulfide solution, > 95% water of hydration.

Sodium sulfite, Na2SO3
Sodium sulfite: 18.7.63
Sodium sulfite, hydrated, Na2SO3.7H2O, sodium sulfate (IV)-7-water
Sodium sulfite, anhydrous, Na2SO3, white hexagonal crystals or powder, r.d. 2.63, alkaline in water (hydrated,
sodium sulfate (IV)-7-water, Na2SO3.7H2O, E221).
Sodium sulfite with acids forms sulfur dioxide gas
Sodium sulfite can be used to neutralize chlorine or dechlorinate swimming pool water.
Sodium sulfite, E221 (preservative in fresh orange juice as decontaminating agent)
Sodium sulfite, Na2SO3.6H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 23.4 g in 1 L water
Sodium sulfite, Na2SO3, sodium sulfite anhydrous, For 0.1 M solution, 12.6 g in 1 L water.

Sodium thiosulfate, Na2S2O3
Sodium thiosulfate, Na2S2O3, sodium thiosulfate anhydrous (sodium pentahydrate, Na2S2O3.5H2O, sodium hyposulfite, hypo)
Sodium thiosulfate, For 0.1 M solution, 24.8 g in 1 L water, harmful if ingested
Sodium thiosulfate solution, biology solution: 1.11
Sodium thiosulfate heat pack: 14.1.13
Sodium thiosulfate, swimming pools: 18.7.64
Sodium thiosulfate with dilute hydrochloric acid, concentration and rate of reaction: 3.92
Acids with sodium thiosulfate: 12.1.40
Amount of dissolved oxygen, titration: 18.3.3
Chlorine water oxidizes sodium thiosulfate to sodium sulfate and sulfur: 12.1.43
Concentration and rate of reaction: 3.92
Fireproof, cloth, paper, wood: 3.5.11
Heat different crystals: 3.2.3
Heat of solution: 24.1.7
Heat sodium thiosulfate 12.1.39
Heat sodium thiosulfate to form sodium sulfate and sodium pentasulfide: 12.1.46
Hydrogen peroxide with sodium thiosulfate, 17.3.1.5
Prepare sodium thiosulfate, "hypo", 12.18.6.1
Rate of reaction: 3.92
Reactions of copper (II) ions, Cu2+: 12.7.2
Reactions of sodium thiosulfate: 12.18.6.2
Reduce copper (II) sulfate to copper sulfide: 12.1.41
Sodium thiosulfate with bromine water: 12.1.44
Sodium thiosulfate with iodine forms sodium tetrathionate and sodium iodide: 12.1.45
Sodium thiosulfate with dilute hydrochloric acid forms sulfur dioxide and sulfur: 12.1.47
Sodium thiosulfate with silver chloride or silver bromide: 12.1.48
Tests for free chlorine in water: 18.7.4.0.

Sodium thiosulfate, Na2S2O3,
sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate, Na2S2O3.5H2O,
sodium thiosulfate-5-water ("hypo", sodium
hyposulfite), sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate, sodium thiosulfate hydrated, harmful if ingested, colourless, odourless, monoclinic
colourless crystals that dissolve in water to form a neutral solution or white granules, molar mass 158.11 g / mol, density 1.67 g / cc,
m.p. 48.3oC, b.p. 100oC, soluble in water, efflorescent in dry air, sodium hyposulfite is deliquescent in moist air.
Used in photography for the process of fixing, i.e. dissolving the silver bromide of the exposed plate or film.
Sodium thiosulfate loses water of crystallization at 490 K.
Sodium thiosulfate with acids forms toxic gases on heating.
Sodium thiosulfate, Use small quantities for chemical gardens, crystallization and crystal growth experiments,
redox titrations.
Sodium thiosulfate can be used to neutralize chlorine or dechlorinate swimming pool water.

3.73 Reactions of sodium with water
| See diagram 3.2.73: Sodium in water and under kerosene
| See diagram 3.73.1: Sodium with water
Be careful! Check the safety rules in your school system before doing this dangerous experiment.
2Na (s) + 2H2O (l) --> 2NaOH (aq) + H2 (g)
sodium + water --> sodium hydroxide + hydrogen gas
This is a type of redox reaction where the oxidation number of the metal increases.
1. Be careful! Check the safety rules in your school system before doing this dangerous experiment.
Use safety glasses and nitrile chemical-resistant gloves.
The reaction of sodium with water is very vigorous because it floats on the surface, fizzes (spits), and melts because of the exothermic
reaction, to form a strong alkaline solution, pH 12-14.
A safe way of demonstrating the reactions of sodium and water is to drop a very small piece of sodium into a swimming pool.

2. The following experiments use a test-tube to observe the reaction of sodium with water, but some teachers use a beaker full of
water instead to avoid problems of confining the reaction in a test-tube.
Cover the beaker with wire gauze immediately after adding the sodium.
Do not try to hold the sodium in place on the surface of the water to collect the hydrogen produced because the gas may ignite or
explode.
Some teachers have done the experiment using the school swimming pool.

Be careful! Sodium sinks in the kerosene and floats in the water
3. Pour a 2 cm layer of kerosene on to the surface of water in a test-tube.
Drop a 3 mm diameter side cube of sodium into the kerosene.
Adjust the layer of kerosene to be shallow enough to allow the top of the sodium to protrude above the surface.
This reaction of sodium with the water is much slower than if the sodium had been dropped directly on to the water.
You can watch the reaction through a magnifying glass held at the side, but never look down into a test-tube.
Sodium metal is lighter than water but heavier than kerosene.
A small area of the sodium suddenly reacts causing a stream of hydrogen bubbles to appear.
The stream of bubbles at one side causes movement.
The irregular shape of the sodium changes to a sphere.
The sodium melts because the reaction gives off heat.
Note any variations in light refraction and reflection below the sodium that suggests something dissolving in the water.
Slight smoke where the hot sodium is above the kerosene level suggests a slight reaction with air.
Test the gas bubbles for oxygen gas or hydrogen gas.

4. Be careful! Use a piece of sodium the size of a wheat grain or rice grain.
Do not point the open end of a test-tube containing sodium at anybody.
The experiment can be done on an overhead projector or drop the sodium in a swimming pool.
Put water into a Petri dish and add a few drops of phenolphthalein.
Put the Petri dish on an overhead projector.
Use forceps to take a small lump of metallic sodium stored under kerosene and wipe with a piece of filter paper.
Cut a piece of sodium the size of a red bean from the lump and then put it in the Petri dish.
Observe from the screen that the sodium grain floats on the water to melt into a small sphere, which moves very rapidly in all directions,
becoming smaller and smaller.
At last, the sodium sphere wholly disappears and the solution in the dish also changes its colour from colourless to red.

5. Be careful! Observe the reaction through the side of the test-tube.
Do not look down the test-tube!
Put a piece of sodium in 2 cm of water in a test-tube.
Do not point the open end of the test-tube at anybody!
Tests for hydrogen gas with a lighted splint.
Test the contents with litmus paper or phenolphthalein.
The reaction forms sodium hydroxide.

6. Be careful! Observe the reaction through the side of the test-tube.
Do not look down the test-tube!
Pour a 3 mm layer of kerosene (paraffin oil) on to the surface of water in a test-tube.
Drop a small piece of sodium into the test-tube.
The sodium sinks in the kerosene and floats in the water.
The layer of kerosene should be shallow enough to let the top of the sodium protrude above the surface.
The reaction of sodium with water is much slower than if the sodium had been dropped directly on to the water.
A small area of the sodium suddenly reacts, which causes a stream of bubbles to appear.
The irregular shape of the sodium changes to that of a sphere.
The sodium melts because the reaction forms heat.
Something dissolving in the water below the sodium can be seen.
Some smoke where the hot sodium is above the kerosene level suggests a reaction with air.
Test the gas bubbles for hydrogen gas.

7. Support a short length of glass tubing vertically with one end 2 cm below the surface of water.
Test the water with moist litmus paper.
Add litmus paper to the water.
The upper part of the tube must be quite dry.
Drop a piece of sodium down the tube.
Note the reaction.
Tests for hydrogen gas with a lighted splint.
Test the water with litmus paper.
The water becomes alkaline.
2Na (s) + 2H2O (l) -->H2 (g) + 2NaOH (aq).

8. Remove a small lump of sodium from storage under oil.
Observe the layer of oxide / hydroxide on the surface of the sodium.
Cut a pea size piece from the surface of the sodium.
Observe the shiny sodium metal surface that rapidly darkens because of reaction with air and moisture.

9. Demonstrate the reaction of sodium with water in a fume cupboard or outside if students are protected by a safety shield or wearing
safety glasses.
Use a large beaker filled with water to within 1 cm of the top, so that there is no space for air / hydrogen mixture to accumulate.
Add a piece of sodium no greater in size than a rice grain, 3 mm diameter.
Use a wire gauze on top of the beaker to prevent the ejection of sodium.
The sodium fizzes around the surface of the water for a few seconds, reacting violently.
Add an acid / base indicator to the water, e.g. universal indicator or phenolphthalein, to demonstrate the alkalinity of the reaction
products.
Demonstrate the disposal of waste sodium by reaction with ethanol or methylated spirit in a beaker in the fume cupboard as described
above.
The sodium and may catch fire with the following reaction:
Na + H2O –> Na+ + OH- + 1/2H2 (g).

10. Place sodium on wet absorbent paper and observe the ignition of the hydrogen gas.
This experiment can be used to test for the presence of alcohols.

3.71.2 Sodium chloride solution with copper (II) sulfate solution
If neither of the possible products of a reaction is insoluble, then the reaction does not occur and go to completion.
The reaction reaches equilibrium with both forward and reverse processes continuing at equal rates.
1. Add sodium chloride solution to copper (II) sulfate solution.
No reaction occurs to completion because the solubility rules show that both possible products, Na2SO4 and CuCl2, are soluble.
The equilibrium only involves ions interacting with the water.
There is no "Na2SO4" as such.
Na2SO4 + CuCl2 <--> 2Na+ + SO42- + Cu2+ + 2Cl-
2. Repeat the experiment with a mixture of sodium nitrate solution and potassium chloride solution.
Nothing happens.
Check potassium nitrate and sodium chloride in the solubility table.