School Science Lessons
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Chemistry S
Table of Contents
Sabinene, C10H16
Sabinene hydrate, C10H18O
Saccharin, C7H5NO3S
Safety, Laboratory safety and hazardous chemicals: 3.0
3.0 Safety, Laboratory safety and hazardous chemicals:
See: Safety (Commercial)
Safflower oil, Composition of edible oils: 19.2.11 (Table)
Saffron (Crocus sativus), Iridaceae.
Safranal, C10H14O
Safranin, Prepare safranin solution: 3.23
Sagenite, TiO2, mineral
Sakakin, C13H18O7
Sal ammoniac, NH4Cl, ammonium chloride
Salad dressing, Prepare mayonnaise and salad dressing emulsions: 16.7.12
Salad oil
Salicylcaldehyde, C7H6O2, bitter almond smell
Salicin, C13H18O7
Salicylate intolerance: 19.2.1
Salicyclic acid, C7H6O3
See: Salicyclate (Commercial)
Salinity, leaf versus root application of water: 6.55
See: Salinity (Commercial)
Salol, phenyl salicylate, C13H10O3
Salt, salts
Saltpetre (US saltpeter), KNO3, Potassium nitrate
Samarium, Sm
Sand, SiO2, sand purified, silicon dioxide
Sandstone: 35.22.1 (Geology)
Sanidine, Group 1. Alkaline feldspars (Geology)
Sanguinarine, C20H15NO5
Sanshool, hydroxy alpha sanshool, C10H25NO2
Santonin, C15H18O3
Saponification, Hydrolysis of ester: 16.5.4 (See 2.)
Saponify, Drain cleaners, e.g. "Drano": 12.12.10
Sapphire, Corundum: (Geology)
Saran wrap, vinyls, vinyl polymers: 3.6.13 (See: 7. polyvinylidene chloride, PVDC)
Saturated carboxylic acids:
Saturated hydrocarbons, e.g. hexane, C6H14:
Saturation Vapour Pressure, SVP: 12.3.1
Saturation vapour pressure over water: 12.3.2 (Table)
Sauerkraut, Prepare sauerkraut: 4.2.2
Scandium, Sc
Scarlet red, C24H20N4O
3.9.8 Schedules, Scheduling
Scheele's green, C2H3AsCuO4, Copper (II) acetoarsenite, Paris green
Scheelite, calcium tungstate, CaWO4 (Geology)
Schiff bases, C6H5CH:NC6H5, benzylidine aniline and similar compounds
Schiff reagent, Schiff's reagent, Schiff's test
School chalk, blackboard chalk
Schulze's solution, Prepare: 3.24
Science, scientific
Science, Maths and Technology: 1.0
See: Science Fairs (Commercial)
See: "Scientrific" Science Education Resources, (Commercial)
Scillaren A, C36H52O13
Scopolamine, C17H21NO4, hyoscine
Scopolamine, Hallucinogenic drugs, hallucinogens: 11.11.9
Scopoletin, C10H8O4
Scoria, (Geology)
Scorpionate ligands
Scott's blueing solution, Prepare: 1.9
Scouring powders: 12.12.09
Scoville Heat Units (SHUs): 17.2 (chilli peppers)
Screens, Safety screens
Screw compressor: 1.10
Scrimshaw, carving by sailors of the teeth of the sperm whale, and tusksof other marine animals
Seaborgium, Sg
Sealant, Solvent
Sealed lead-acid battery: 15.6.12 (SLA battery)
Sebacic acid, C10H18O4, decanedioic acid
Sebacoyl chloride, ClOC(CH2)8COCl
Second, Time:
Secondary cell, Cells and batteries, dry cells: 33.3.0
Secret writing, Prepare invisible ink:
Sedanolide lactone:
Sedatives, Benzodiazepines:
Sedimentary rocks: 35.22.0 (Geology)
Seed crystal, Prepare crystals from solutions: 3.54
Selenite, Gypsum: 35.22.6 (Geology)
Selenium, Se
Self-heating, Heat of crystallization of sodium acetate: 24.1.8
Self-heating substances and mixtures: 4.11, [Physical hazards]
Self-leavened flour, Prepare self-leavened flour, "self-raising flour":
Self-reactive substances and mixtures: 4.8, [Physical hazards]
Selinene, C15H24
Semipermeable membrane
Senecionine, C18H25NO5
See: Senior Chemistry (Commercial)
Senses, Nervous system, reflexes: 9.12.0 (Biology)
Sensitizing substances, by inhalation, by skin contact: 15.2.6
See: Sensors (Commercial)
Separate pure substances from mixtures: 10.0.0
Serial dilutions, Prepare series dilutions: 5.2.0
Serine, C3H7NO3 (Table of amino acids)
Serine, DNA codons
Serotonin, C10H12N2O, (not an alkaloid)
Serpentine, Mg6Si4O10(OH)8: 35.21.6 (Geology)
See: "Serrata" "Helping you teach is our business!" (Commercial)
Serum albumins, Albumen, albumin
Sesame oil, Composition of edible oils: 19.2.11 (Table)
Sesamin, C20H18O6
Sesamol, C7H6O3
Sesamose, Oligosaccharides
Sesquiterpenoid lactones:
Sesquiterpenes, C15H24:
Sesquiterpenoids, C15:
Sesterterpenes, C25:
Sets of apparatus, Prepare sets of apparatus for the following purposes: 2.7
35.19 Shape or form (Geology)
Shale: 35.22.9 (Geology)
See: Sharps Sharps containers, (Commercial)
Shatavarin IV, C45H74O17
Shear-thickening, stir-thickening, dilatant fluids, rheopectic fluids:
Shear-thinning, stir-thinning, thixotropic:
Shear modulus, modulus of rigidity, G: 34.5.05
Shikonin, C16H16O5
Shogoal, C17H24O3
Shopping chemistry, Food additives and EEC code numbers: 19.4.5
3.3.3 Shower, Eye washing and safety showers
Showers, Eye washing and safety showers: 3.3.3
10.3.1 Shrinking mixture of liquids, lost volume
Shrinking volume: 3.22.0
SI, International system of units, [Système international d'unités (French)]: 6.3.0
Siderite, FeCO3, chalybite, spathose iron (Geology)
Sildenafil, C22H30N6O4S, "Viagra", treatment of erectile dysfunction
Silibinin, C25H22O10
Silica, SiO2, silica gel, silicon dioxide
Silicates, -(SiO4)
Silicic acid, silicon oxyacid, metasilicic acid, H2SiO3
Silicon, Si
Silly putty, Prepare slime, PVA slime: 3.4.11
Silly Putty, Dilatant compound, silicone: 7.2.6
Silver, Ag
Silymarin, C25H22O10
Sinalbin, C14H19NO10S2
Sinapinic acid, C11H12O5
Sinensetin, C20H20O7
Sinigrin, C10H16KNO9S2
Sisomycin, C19H37N5O7
Sitosterol, C29H50O
Size of particles, Particles, matter as particles: 3.0.0
Size of stearic acid molecule: 3.3.3
Skeletal formula, alkanes (GIF)
Skin contamination: 3.4.5
Skin sensitizing, Sensitizing substances, by inhalation, by skin contact: 15.2.6
Slaked lime, Ca(OH)2, calcium hydroxide
Slate: 35.23.6 (Geology)
Slime, Prepare slime, PVA slime: 3.4.11
Smelling chemicals, Chemical vapours and smelling chemicals:3.4.8
Smelling, Nose and smelling, taste, flavour, odour: 9.6.0
Smelling salts, Heat ammonium carbonate (smelling salts):
Smells, Geosmin: (C12H22O)
Smells, Perfumes and smells: 19.7.1 (fragrance, cosmetics)
Smithsonite, ZnCO3: 35.20.40 (Geology)
Smoke alarms: (Safety)
Smoke alarms, Ionization by radioactivity, smoke alarms, electroscope:
See: Safety Smoke Alarms, (Commercial)
Soap, soap bubbles
Soda pop can, Beverage can
Soda water, H2CO3, Carbonic acid: 3.34.3a
Sodalite, Na8(Al6Si6O24)Cl2, igneous, plutonic mineral, changes colour in sunlight, self-adjusting sun glass
Sodium, Na
Soft drinks: 15.8.6
Soft water, Hardness in water, water hardness: 12.13.0
Soil science: 6.0.0
See: Soil Testing (Commercial)
Solanidine, C27H43NO
Solanine, C45H73NO15, glycoalkaloid
See: Solar (Commercial)
Solasodine, C27H43NO2
Soldering, solders, fluxes: 2.31.0
See: Solder, Soldering (Commercial)
Solid acids, solubility: 19.1.1
Solid, liquid and gas: 3.43 (Primary)
Solid, States of matter, solid (s), liquid (l), gas (g), aqueous solution (dissolved in water) (aq)
Solids in water, Tests for insoluble solids in rain water: 18.2.1
Solids in water, Total dissolved solids and suspended solids, Beer-Lambert law: 18.2.0
Solubility and solutions: 3.9.0
Solute: 7.9.48
Solvay process, Prepare sodium carbonate: 12.16.7
Soot from a candle flame, Carbon: 8.1.2a
Sophoricoside, C21H20O10
Sorbic acid, C6H8O2,
Sorbitol, C6H14O6, D-glucitol
Sotolone lactone:
Sourdough, Prepare lactic acid with sourdough: 4.2.3 (Cooking)
SOx, Acid rain, from burning sulfur or sulfur compounds:
Soybean oil, Composition of edible oils: 19.2.11 (Table)
SPADNS fluoride reagent solution, 500 mL (HO)2C10H3(SO3Na)2N=NC6H4SO3Na, indicator for zirconium, thorium
Spark plugs:
Sparklers, make sparklers:
Sparklers, Reactions of magnesium with carbon dioxide, sparkler experiment:3.77
Sparteine, C15H26N2
Spatula: 1.11
See: Spatulas, (Commercial)
Specific gravity: 5.1.12
Specific heat capacity, calorimeters, heat measuring devices: 22.5.0 (Physics)
See: Spectrophotometers (Commercial)
Spectroscope, diffraction grating: 4.134
See: Spectroscope (Commercial)
Speculum metal, alloy of brass or copper with tin, polished to make telescope reflective surfaces or mirrors
Speed and Base: (abuse of volatile substances)
Speed (Velocity): 6.3.03 (Physics)
Spessartite, Mn3Al2[SiO4)3, Garnet: (Geology)
Sphalerite, ZnS: 35.20.41 (Geology)
Sphereification: 19.3.6 (Cooking)
Spills, Chemicals spill kit: 3.4.12
See: Spill Kits (Commercial)
See: Spin bars (Commercial)
Spinel, Al2MgO4 (Geology)
Spirit burner, alcohol lamp: 8.1.2
Spirits of salts, HCl, Hydrochloric acid
"Splenda": Sucralose
Spontaneous combustion, Sugar with potassium chlorate: 17.3.4
Spontaneous process: 7.9.50
Spoon volume: 3.5.1
Sports drinks, Soft drinks: 15.8.6
Spotting tile, Porcelain, laboratory items: 1.23
See: Spotting Plates, (Commercial)
Sprays, dusts, white oils: 16.9.0 (Agriculture)
Sprayers and dusters: 16.19.0 (Agriculture)
Spume, sea foam, surfactants from algae cause foam-tipped waves, whitecaps
sqrt √ 16.7.6
Stabilizers, thickeners, food additives: 19.4.26
Stachydrine C7H13NO2
Stachyose, Oligosaccharides
Stain removal:
Staining techniques, Microscopes, care, use: 2.22.0
Stainless steel
Stalactites and stalagmites, Calcite: 35.19.0 (Geology)
Standard buffer solutions, Prepare: 39.0
Standard electrode potential of metals, reduction potential, E0: 3.84.6
Standard solution, Prepare standard sodium carbonate solutions: 5.3.6
Standard solution, Prepare stock solutions, standard solutions: 5.3.0
Standard temperature and pressure, STP, standard atmosphere: 20.0.6
Stannic chloride, SnCl4: Tin (IV) chloride
Stannous chloride, SnCl2: Tin (II) chloride
Staphyloxanthin, C51H78O8
State of matter, Standard temperature and pressure, STP., density of gases at STP
States of matter, Aqueous solutions:
Statins: 16.9.18
Steam distillation to measure water and fat content of food: 10.5.5
Stearic acid, C18H36O2, octadecanoic acid
Stearine, fatty acids C16-C18, animal fats most, vegetable oils least (in food products and cosmetics)
Stearyl alcohol, C18H38O, octadecan-1-ol:
Steel, Cast iron alloy, steel, wrought iron: 5.5.12
Steel, Iron:
Steel wool
Stelvin capsule, Cork taint of wine, "corky" wine (2, 4, 6-TCA): 3.29
Sterile media or solutions, Prepare: 9.2.11
Steroidal glycosides, Cardiac glycosides
Steroid alkaloids, Pseudoalkaloids: 16.3.25
Steroids, sterols:
Steviol, C20H30O3
Stevioside, C38H60O18
Stilbenes - Polyphenols:
Stilbenoid glucoside, C20H22O8, piceid
Stibnite, Sb2S3: 35.20.42 (Geology)
Stilbite, Ca(Al2, Si7, O18).6H2O: 35.20.43 (Geology)
Stirrers, magnetic stirrers, hotplates: 1.38
See: Stirring rods (Commercial)
Stock control: 2.9 (in science laboratory)
Stock materials and apparatus: 2.6 (in science laboratory)
Stone dust, Limestone: 35.22.7 (Geology)
Stoppers, cork stoppers, rubber stoppers: 1.8
See: Stoppers (Commercial)
See: Storage, (Commercial)
Storing chemicals: 3.4.13
Storm glass, Crystals of different salts:
Straws, Drinking straws, soda straws, "straws (Physics)"
STP, Pressure definitions: 12.1.01
STP, standard temperature and pressure, standard atmosphere: 20.0.6
Streptomycin sulfate, pharmaceutical: Streptomycin sulfate salt, C21H39N7O12.1.5H2SO4
Strontium, Sr
See: Strontium Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
35.12 Streak (Geology)
See: Stress Geology, (Commercial
Strophanthin, C36H54O14
Structural forms of proteins:
Struvite, [(NH4)MgPO4.6H2O], ammonium magnesium phosphate (Geology)
Strychnine, C21H22N2O2
Sublimation, Heat substances, melting, decrepitation, Loss of: 11.3.4
Sublimation, iodine, camphor and naphthalene, thermal decomposition: 3.30.12
Substitution reactions, displacement reactions:
Substitution reactions (organic chemistry): 16.1.02
Substrate: 7.9.51
Subtilisin, serine endopeptidase, protease from Bacillus subtilis, in laundry powders, e.g. Clorox 2 laundry bleach.
Succinic acid: C4H6O4, butanedioic acid,
Sucralose, C12H19Cl3O8: 16.9.51
Sudan black B, C29H24N6
Sudan III, C22H16N4O
Sudan IV
Suds, height of suds, hydrogen peroxide and manganese (IV) oxide: 17.1.5
Suffix, Functional groups: 2.0
Surfactants: 19.0.3
Surfactants in herbicides, weedicides, dishwashing liquids: 16.8.13
Surfactants in detegents
Sulfamic acid, NH2.SO2OH
Sulfanilamide, H2NC6H4SO2NH2, p-​Aminobenzenesulfonamide
Sulfanilic acid, H2NC6H4SO2OH
Sulfate ion: SO42-
Sulfates, -SO42-
Sulfation, Prepare lead acid battery electrolyte: (See: 4.)
Sulfide ion: S2-
Sulfite ion: SO32-
(Sulfamethoxazole, "TMP-SMZ", C10H11N3O3S)
(Sulfasalazine, C18H14N4O5S)
(Sulfisoxazole, C11H13N3O3S)
Sulfonamides, sulfa drugs: 9.4.0
Sulfonation, -SO3H, Ionic surfactants in washing powders:
Sulfonic acids, group: R-SO2OH
Sulfonium compounds: R3S+:
Sulforaphane (sulfurophane), C6H11NOS2, broccoli extract
Sulfosalicyclic acid, C7H6O6S, urine tests, precipitates proteins, measures turbidity
Sulfoxide, R–S(=O)–R':
Sulfur, S
Sulfuric acid, H2SO4
Sulfurous acid, H2SO3
Sunscreens and sun-protective clothing: 19.7.4
Sunstones, Ca(Al2, Si3, O3)Na(Al, Si3, O8) (Geology)
Sunstones, Feldspars group: 35.15.0 (Geology)
Super ball: 3.4.04
Supercritical, Caffeine, extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide, critical point:
Superglue, ethyl cyanoacrylate, C6H7NO2, ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate, Cyanocrylates:
Superphosphate production: 12.14.5
Superphosphate, Straight fertilizers, simple fertilizers, NPKS: (Agriculture)
Supervision of students: 3.2.1
Surface-acting agents: 16.18.7 (Agriculture)
Surface / volume ratio of soil particles: 6.6.3
Surfactants, synthetic detergents (syndets): 12.12.03
Sulfaguanidine sulfonamide, C7H10N4O2S,
Surgical spirit, Rubbing alcohol: 16.5.10
Suspensions and precipitates: 7.6.0
See: Swabs (Commercial)
Swainsonine, C8H15NO3
Sweeteners, food additives: 19.4.25
Swimming pool chemistry: 18.0.0
Sylvite, KCl, potassium chloride (Geology)
Symbol of an element, e.g. H: 2.12.0
Symbols (in computer)
Sympathetic ink, Prepare ink:
SYNDET, Synthetic Detergents
Synephrine, C9H13NO2
Synergism: 7.9.53
Synthesis reactions, combination reactions, reactions of two elements:
Synthetic detergents, soaps and synthetic detergents (syndets): 12.12.0
Synthetic fibres
Synthetic food colours approved for use in Australia: 19.4.1
Syrup, solubility of sucrose (cane sugar), syrup: 7.7.9 (Cooking)
Syrups, herbal syrups: 5.04.2.

Safety equipment
Safety, websites
Safety face shield (chemical, anti-splash face shield)
Safety glasses, safety goggles (polycarbonate lens glasses)
Safety gloves rubber, rubber safety gloves (small/medium/large rubber gloves) (rubber, caoutchouc)
Eye-wash bottle, eye-wash cup
First Aid kit, portable First Aid kit
Safety apron, PVC (resists strong acids).

Salad oil
Salad oil is any vegetable oil used in a salad dressing, so a non-specific recipe lets you use coconut oil, corn oil, sunflower oil,
safflower oil, canola oil, peanut oil, a light olive oil, or any other fairly bland vegetable oil.

Salicyclic acid
Salicyclic acid:
Salicyclic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, C7H6O3, [C6-C1], 2-Hydroxybenzoic acid, C6H4(OH)COOH, Harmful, skin irritant
Salicyclic acid is a bitter-tasting derivative of phenol, used to make fungicides and aspirin
Aspirin, acetylsalicyclic acid.

Salt, salts
Salts, acid salt, sodium chloride, "table salt": 12.10.0
Basal salt solutions, biology solutions: 1.8
See: Salinity, (Commercial)
Salt, NaCl, sodium chloride, saline, salinity
Salt bridge, Voltaic cell (Galvanic cell), Daniell cell: 33.3.2
Salting, Meat treatments: (See: 2.)
Saltpetre, NaNO3, sodium nitrate
Saltpetre, KNO3, potassium nitrate
Salts (organic salts):
Smelling salts, Ammonium carbonate:

Acids and salts, prepare salts: Method 6
Alkalis with salts, hydroxides: 12.7.4
Bath cleaning, borax: 19.6.4
Boiling point of sodium chloride solution: 3.5.1
Crystals of different salts:
Decomposition of hydrous salts: 3.30.8
Electrical conductivity of liquids: 15.59.4
Flame tests of salts:
Hydrolysis of salts: 12.10.3
Lift ice cube with salt: 24.1.2
pH of salt solutions: 12.10.4
Plants need mineral salts, maize: 6.5.3
Precipitation reactions:
Prepare bath salts: 12.1.28
Prepare fruit salts, health salts: 16.7.13
Prepare potash alum from its constituent salts: 12.14.1
Prepare reagents, dissolve in 1 litre of distilled water: 10.0
Prepare salt solutions: 8.0
Prepare salts by chemical reactions: 12.2.1a
Prepare salts by different methods: 12.10.2
Prepare salts by neutralization of sodium hydroxide: 12.1.8
Prepare seawater crystals, composition of seawater: 3.54.1
Prepare zinc sulfate crystals:
Reactions of salts: 12.10.10
Reactions of salts with water: 3.75
Salt bridge, Voltaic cell with salt bridge: 33.84.2 (Physics Salt effect on buffer solutions:
Salt solutions with another salt:
Salts with clay suspensions: 7.6.2
Separate salt and sand mixture: 10.01.7
Soil salts: 6.20
Solubility test, prepare a solution for group analysis:
Stain removal:
Table salt and rock salt: 19.1.16
Tests for an unknown substance, qualitative analysis:
Tests for solubility of salts in water: 3.71.2.

, Sm (V.Samarskiǐ-Vykhovets, 1803-70, Russia), in samarskite and monazite and rare earth minerals, hard, grey
Samarium-153, reactor-produced medical radioisotope, half-life 46.7 hours, used to treat pain from primary tumour metastases.

, Sc (Latin Scandia, Scandinavia Scandinavia), transition metal, silver but pink-yellow, tarnishes in air, soft, in some tin
and tungsten ores
Scandium trifluoromethanesulfonate
Scandium, Coelestine, SrSO4
Scandium trifluoride (ScF3), negative thermal expansion.

Scarlet red
Scarlet red, C24H20N4O, sudan IV, (C.I.Solvent Red 24) (stains fats and oils), Harmful if ingested.

Schiff reagent
Schiff reagent, Schiff's reagent, Schiff's test
Schiffs reagent is a mixture of fuchsine and sodium bisulfite or sulfurous acid to decolorize it that forms red-violet (magenta purple),
colour in unknown solution as test for aldehydes, called "Schiff's test".

School chalk
School chalk, blackboard chalk, safety: 3.71.5
School chalk, blackboard chalk with weak acids: 3.71.7
Solubility of school chalk, blackboard chalk, in water: 3.71.6.

Science, scientific
See: Science Fairs (Commercial)
See: Science Equipment Suppliers (Commercial)
Science Fairs (websites): Part 17a
What makes an activity scientific? 2.1 (Primary)
Why are "hands-on" science activities so effective for student learning? 2.0
Science, maths and technology: 1.0
Scientific Literacy, PISA, 2.7
Science, Kid's science, popular science (Websites): Part 14
Science, scientific, science jobs (Websites): Part 17
Scientific investigation and design of experiments (Experiments):>
Scopoletin, C10H8O4, chrysatropic acid, plant growth factor in root of Scopolia carniolica
a source of former anaesthetic Scopolamine.

, Sg (Glen Seaborg, USA, 1912-1999), artificially produced unstable radioactive element.

Cations and anions in rain, rivers and seawater: 18.2.7
Chlorides in groundwater:
Clay soil suspension: 3.58
Copper-nickel alloys: 5.5.9
Distil seawater: 10.5.3
Fractional crystallization of seawater: 7.7.14
Osmosis and osmotic pressure, reverse osmosis: 9.164.0
Prepare seawater crystals, composition of seawater: 3.54.1
Seawater substitute, biology solution: 1.10
Water lens in atolls: 6.47.

Sebacoyl chloride
Sebacoyl chloride, ClOC(CH2)8COCl, decanedioyl dichloride (COR 1760)
Toxic by all routes, skin irritant
Sebacoyl chloride with water forms hydrogen chloride gas, toxic.
Nylon polyamide:
Poisons and First Aid: 3.10.0 (See: Sebacoyl chloride).

, Se, Table of Elements
Selenium properties:
Selenium (keep exhibition specimen in sealed container).
Use fume cupboard or small quantity in well-ventilated area.
The mineral called "selenite" does not contain the atom "Selenium", Se!

Semipermeable membrane
Cellophane as a semipermeable membrane: 9.165
Copper ferrocyanide as a semipermeable membrane: 9.167
Measure osmosis: 9.12.0
Prussian blue as a semipermeable membrane: 9.168
Root pressure, Fuchsia, busy Lizzie: 9.3.15
Cellulose triacetate, TAC, triacetate, [C6H7O2(OOCCH3)3]n, used in clothing fibres, semipermeable membrane.

"Semtex", powerful plastic explosive, contains:
PETN (pentaerythritol tetranitrate, C6H8N4O12), and
RDX (C6H8N4O12).

Senna, senna glycoside, C42H38O20, sennoside, anthraquinone glycoside, in Candle bush (Senna alata).

EDTA, synthetic chelating agent: 16.4.4
Sequester: 7.9.47
Sequestering agent, EDTA: 9.10.0
Sequestering agent, chelating agent: 18.7.57, swimming pools
Sequestrant food additives: 19.4.6

Shellac comes from resinous excretions of the lac insects Coccus lacca or Tachardia lacca (varnish, polish, sealing wax).
French polish is shellac solution in methylated spirit), E90.
Shellac solvent is highly flammable, may irritate nasal surfaces, and is Toxic if ingested.
Shellac is thermoplastic, soluble in alcohol and is a good electrical insulator and is also used for paints.
Shellac is used as a fancy nail polish and is used in extruders or by injection, to make buttons, boxes, frames, dentures and technical
Formerly, shellac was used to make gramophone records.
Shellac is sold as dry flakes.

Silica, SiO2, silicon dioxide, silicon (IV) oxide, cristobalite, flint, obsidian, opal, quartz, quartz sand
Prepare silica gel:
Quartz, silica, SiO2: 35.14.0 (Geology)
Quartzite, SiO2: 35.23.5 (Geology)
Sandstone: 35.22.1 (Geology).

Silica, SiO2, fumed, silicic anhydride, silicon dioxide amorphous, silicon (IV) oxide, silicon oxide, silicon dioxide, E551, quartz sand.
Silica gel drying agent (desiccant), is hygroscopic amorphous hydrated silica.
It may have added CoCl2, as a self-indicating moisture test, e.g. "Tell-Tale".
Bags of silica gel drying agent are usually included in the packaging of food and goods that must be kept dry.
The bags usually have the warning: "DO NOT EAT"!
Silica powder is used a non-reactive bulking material in medical tablets.
Silica, acid washed, silica gel (orange) self indicating, silica gel desiccant, can be regenerated by heating to 110oC overnight
Silica, silica gel beads, silica gel self-indicating (contains cobalt (II) chloride),
Silica, 3-6 mm, silicon fused, Kiesel gel, grade C,
Silica (hydrated silica gel)
(Siliceous: contains silica, silicated: combined with silica, silication : rock or mineral replaced by silica).

Silicates (salt or ester of silicic acid)
Crystal Tree (Capillary forces move salt solution up paper tree.), (toy product)
Silicates group, polysilicates, polysilicon: 35.14.1 (Geology)
Silicates, Oxides, acidic, basic, amphoteric, neutral and mixed oxides: 12.17.0
Borosilicate glass, Pyrex: 7.9.10
Chalcedony, SiO2: 35.14.4 (Geology)
Decomposition of silica: 3.30.13
Jadeite (in Hornblende): 35.17.0, (Geology)
Jasper (in Quartz), SiO2: 35.14.0 (Geology)
Kaolinite, kaolin-type clays, Al4[(OH)8Si4O10]: (Geology)
Kyanite, disthene, Al2(OSiO4): (Geology)
Opals, SiO2.nH2O: 35.14.2 (Geology)
Prepare silicate gardens: 7.2.5
Rhodonite, manganese silicate (Mn, Ca)SiO3: 35.20.36 (Geology).

See: Silicon Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Silicon crystals, metallurgical grade (Industrial)
Silicon, Si, Table of Elements
Silicon properties:
Silicon chemical reactions: 12.15.0
Prepare silica and silicon: 12.15.1
Silicon reverse resistance temperature effect: 12.15.2.

Silicon compounds, glass, lump (powder)
"Silly Putty™", silicon-based polymer, non-Newtonian dilatant (toy product)
Silicon alkoxides, silica aerogel, Aerogel (Industrial)
Silicon carbide, SiC (carborundum)
Silicon dioxide, silica, silica dust, silica gel, sand, quartz, fine particles toxic by inhalation, causing silicosis lung disease
Silicon dioxide, SiO2, tridymite mineral
Silicon dioxide, Opal, SiO2.nH2O
Silicon dioxide, glassy opal, SiO2.H2O, Hyalite mineral
Silicon compounds, glass: 7.2.3
Silicon tetraacetate, C8H12O8Si, off-white crystalline, sol-gel reactions, rapid gel reaction
Silicon tetrachloride with water:
Prepare silica and silicon, SiO2, Si: 12.15.1
Prepare silicon glass in a furnace:
Prepare silicon glass: 7.2.4
Quartzite, SiO2: 35.23.5, (Geology)
Separate sand and lead powder by panning: 10.8.1
Separate a sand and salt mixture: 10.3.1
Solar panels, CSP, CPV: 39.1.0
Zeolite: 35.20.49 (Geology).

Silicones, polymeric unbranched siloxanes, Formula: (-OSiR2-)n, (R not equal to H)
"Melting Snowman", silicone-based liquid and solid jumping putty (toy product)
Silicones, plastics, silicone grease, Harmful if ingested: 3.8.1
Silicone grease:
Silicone grease (For burettes, use Vaseline not silicone grease, because it is difficult to remove.)

Silicone, "Silly Putty", polyborosiloxane, bouncing putty (Dow Corning 3179 dilatant compound),
Silicone, "Tricky Putty":
Silicone, Prepare slime balls, "Silly Putty", polymer to amuse children: 3.4.11
Silicone rubbers, PVMQ: 7.2.7
Silicone sealant, "Bathtub Caulk", "Silicone Sealer" for fish tanks.

See: Silver Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Silver, Ag, Table of Elements
Silver, natural silver, Ag: 35.20.39, (Geology)
Silver properties:
Silver chemical reactions: 12.16.0
Silver compounds
Silver mirror tests for aldehydes, Tollens' test:
Silver-oxide battery: 33.3.03
Silver plating of copper or nickel, electroplating: 15.1.5
Silver residues:
Silver toxicity: 3.6.13
Silvering and desilvering, plating and deplating silver: 15.1.9
Recycle silver: 12.16.2
Clean tarnished silver: 15.3.16
Group 1 tests for Ag+, Pb2+:
Tests for silver:, (See 8.)
Tests for silver, potassium chromate test, rhodanine test:

Silver compounds
Argentic, Ag (II) compounds
Argentite mineral, silver glance, Ag2S
Argentous, Ag (I) compounds
Silver toxicity: 3.6.13
Silver acetate, AgC2H3O2, hydrates, silver ethanoate, Toxic if ingested, stains skin black, corrosive to skin and eyes
Silver acetate (use to test for cations)
Silver bromide Ag Br, silver (I) bromide, Ag Br, yellow solid, dissolves in concentrated ammonia solution (photography emulsions
used in the early daguerreotypes)
Silver chloride
Silver fluoride: [silver (I) fluoride (silver monofluoride), AgF], [silver (II) fluoride (silver difluoride), AgF2], [disilver fluoride, Ag2F]
Silver fulminate, AgCNO, contact explosion, extremely sensitive so useless, except tiny amounts in children's noise-making toys
Silver hexafluorophosphate, AgPF6, corrosive white-grey powder, chemical agent
Silver iodate, AgIO3, insoluble white crystals
Silver iodide
Silver lactate, AgC2H3O2, photosensitive white crystals, horrible metallic taste, Harmful if ingested, corrosive to skin
Silver nitrate
Silver nitride, Ag3N, contact explosive unstable, occasionally unwelcome occurrence in silver experiments
Sodium nitrite, AgNO2
Silver oxide battery: 33.3.03
Silver perchlorate, AgClO4 (perchlorates can be unstable!)
Silver residues:
Silver sulfate, Ag2SO4
Silver tetrafluoroborate, AgBF4, white soluble solid
Silver trifluoromethanesulphonate, silver triflate, CAgF3O3S
Reactions of silver compounds, Ag: 12.16.1
Reactions of silver halides, photography:
Recover silver from silver chloride, AgCl2:

Silver chloride
Silver chloride precipitate in photography:
Compare the chloride, bromide and iodide of silver, AgCl, AgBr, AgI:

Silver chloride (99.999%), AgCl, silver (I) chloride, white solid, cerargyrite, horn silver, kerargyrite, occurs in silver veins, dissolves
in ammonia solution (photography emulsions, pottery glaze), expensive!
Silver chloride, kerargyrite, cerargyrite, occurs in silver veins.

Silver iodide
Cloud seeding, rain making: 37.37.4
Compare silver chloride, silver bromide and silver iodide:
Tests for iodides:

Silver iodide, silver (I) iodide, AgI, does not dissolve in ammonia solution, yellow solid
Silver iodide crystals similar to ice, so used in cloud seeding
Ionic solid silver iodide, AgI, is insoluble in water.

Silver nitrate
Silver mirror tests for aldehydes, Tollens' tests for acetaldehydes:
Silver nitrate, For 0.1 M solution, 17 g in 1 L water or dissolve 10 g of silver nitrate in 100 mL of deionized water
Coloured precipitates, double decomposition reactions: 12.2.1c (See 2.)
Electrolysis of silver nitrate solution, with an OHP: 3.69.6
Silver nitrate, Silver chloride precipitate in photography:
Magnesium with silver nitrate: 13.3.5
Prepare preserving agents for cut flowers: 19.6.5.

Silver nitrate, AgNO3, nitric acid silver (I) salt, large, odourless, transparent, rhombic crystals or small white crystals, lunar caustic sticks
for cauterizing, r.d. 4.35, m.p. 212oC, water soluble, becomes dark with organic matter, test for halogens, store in dark-coloured
dropping bottle in a cool dark place.
Low cost: (but still expensive!), from pottery suppliers, in some test reagents as 1% or 10% aqueous solution
Silver nitrate, AgNO3, Toxic if ingested, stains skin and clothing black, corrosive to skin and eyes
Silver (I) nitrate, silver nitrate pure (costs 25 GBP in UK), silver nitrate 0.1 M, solution 2% W / V
Use Tollens' reagent to demonstrate the reduction of silver nitrate solution by formic acid, to form a mirror on the inside of the test-tube.
It forms explosive mixtures with combustibles, e.g. sulfur, phosphorus, ethanol, metal powders.
Silver nitrate is used in redox reactions, metal displacement reactions, testing for chloride ions, preparation of Tollens' reagent.

Silver sulfate, Ag2SO4, used in silver plating, Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed, dust irritateseyes and skin
Silver sulfate, Soluble in hot water, ammonium hydroxide, nitric acid, sulfuric acid.

Sisomicin, C19H37N5O7, broard-spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotic, similar to gentamicin C1A, produced by bacterium
Micromonospora inyoensis, effective against gram-positive bacteria, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Enterobacter, Proteus3, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Sisomicin sulfate salt, 2C19H37N5O7.5H2SO4.

See: Soap (Commercial)
See Models, organic Soap, "Scientrific" (Commercial)
Soap, soap bubbles:
"Super Bubble Concentrate", 1 L, "World’s Largest Free Floating Bubble” (toy product)
"Touchable Bubbles in a Test-Tube", free-floating long-lasting bubbles, (toy product)
Bubbles in water and aqueous solutions: 19.1.2
Burn butane bubbles:
Blow soap bubbles (Primary): 1.40
Blow soap bubbles: 4.220
Bubbles in the air: 19.0.2
Count bubbles, dilute hydrochloric acid with zinc: 17.1.1
Hydrolysis of esters: 16.5.4
Make soap suds with hard water and soft water: 12.13.14
Move a boat with surface tension, detergent, soap: 4.219
Prepare soap: 12.12.1
Soap as emulsifying agent:
Soap film and sliding wire, soap film minimal surfaces: 19.3.22
Soaps, bleaches, disinfectants, deodorizers: 12.12.11
Soaps and synthetic detergents: 12.12.0
Soap and surface tension: 4.212
Soap bubble support: 4.221
Synthetic detergents, soaps and synthetic detergents (syndets): 12.12.0 Tests for water hardness using standard soap solution: 12.13.10.

Soap, bulk liquid soap, hand soap bars, hand sanitizer, abrasive soap (contains sand)
Soap, white Castile soap powder, Clarke's soap solution, Wanklyn's soapsolution
Soap, bulk liquid soap, hand soap bars, hand sanitizer, abrasive soap, (contains sand)
Soap was formerly manufactured from beef and mutton fat, but nowadays mainly vegetable oils are used, e.g. olive oil, palm oil,
coconut oil.
These oils are compounds of glycerine with three organic acids, stearic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid.
When the fat or oil is boiled with sodium hydroxide solution it splits into glycerine and the three organic acids.
The organic acids combine with the alkali to form soap, i.e. a mixture of sodium stearate, sodium palmitate, and sodium oleate.
Equation for stearic acid: glyceryl stearate (fat) + sodium hydroxide --> glycerine + sodium stearate (soap).
When the boiling is complete the soap is precipitates and made to float on the surface of the solution by adding salt.
The soap is separated from the underlying liquid and left to set.
After it has dried it is cut to the needed size, stamped, and packed.
Use soap to lubricate zippers, prevent soot sticking to pots, stop insect bites from itching, lubricate furniture drawers and windows,
make a pin cushion for sharp instruments, lubricate hand saw blades, nails and screws, fill small small holes in walls.

Solder: Soft Pb and Sn alloys, resin-cored solder, wire form (Soldering flux, soldering resin).
Low melting point alloys: 5.5.4
Eutectic mixture: 5.5.1
Soldering, solders, fluxes, methods: 2.31.0
Weight of tin in solder: 17.6.6

Aqueous solutions, States of matter:
Boiling point of sodium chloride solution: 3.5.1
pH of salt solutions: 12.10.4
Prepare basal salt solutions: 1.8
Prepare crystals from solutions (sucrose): 3.54
Prepare salt solutions: 8.0
Prepare Schulze's solution: 3.24
Prepare Scott's blueing solution: 1.9
Prepare solutions of known concentration: 5.4.0
Prepare standard buffer solutions: 39.0
Prepare sterile media or solutions:  9.2.11
Prepare stock solutions: 5.3.0
Salt effect on buffer solutions:
Salt solutions with another salt:
Soil salts, soil minerals in solution: 6.20
Sol, sols, starch solution, smoke:
Solid, States of matter, solid (s), liquid (l), gas (g), aqueous solution (dissolved in water) (aq)
Solubility and solutions: 3.9.0
Tests for solubility, prepare a solution for group analysis:
Solute: 7.9.48
SPADNS fluoride reagent solution

Solvent: 7.9.49
Sealant, non-solvent sealant, Silicone, Harmful if ingested
Sealant, solvent-based sealant, e.g. Duraseal, Harmful if ingested, skin irritant, do not inhale vapour
Solvent extraction of oil from peanuts: 10.12.1
Solvent for Sudan III:
Sudan IV, C24H20N4O, scarlet red (C.I. Solvent Red 24) (stains fats and oils), Harmful if ingested
Sudan black B, C29H24N6, Ceres black BN, Fat Black HB, Solvent Black 3, histology stain

Spaghetti Breaking spaghetti (Physics)
9.221 Digestion in the stomach, reaction of pepsin (See 2.)
38.5.3 Moisture detector, water indicator (spaghetti insulation)
3.44 Squeeze materials (Primary) Superheating in a microwave oven (Cooking)

See: Starch (Commercial)
Starch (C6H10O5)n, starch maize, starch potato, soluble starch, starch solution 2% W / V
Breakdown starch during germination: 9.112
Breakdown starch to sugars (laundry starch): 3.95
Cornstarch, cornflour slime, isotropy and thixotropy 13.6.1
Food allergies and intolerances (See 6. Starch allergy): 19.2.0
Heat different foods: 9.128 (See: 2. Starch)
Heat starch to form carbon: 12.7.12
Laundry starch:
Mashed potato, pommes purée (starch granules):
Prepare glucose with starch: 12.7.15
Prepare starch solution: 5.4.11
Prepare starch solution: 3.95 (See: 1.)
Polysaccharides:, (See: Starch)
Secret writing inks, starch, cornstarch suspension:
Starch nutrient agar medium:
Starch solution, 1%: 5.4.11
Starch with water, iodine test: 12.7.13
Starches, amylum, glycogen:
Starchy root crops: 6.6.4 (Agriculture)
Starches, amylum, glycogen:
Tests for starch in adhesive paste: 12.7.14
Tests for dextrins in toast:
Tests for glucose and starch, "Testape": 9.182
Tests for hydrolysis of starch: 16.10.1
Tests for starch, Grams iodine solution: 1.6.2
Tests for starch in adhesive paste: 12.7.14
Tests for starch in potato tuber cells: 9.133
Tests for starch, iodine solution: 1.6
Tests for starch with Fehling's solution: 9.142.3
Tests for hydrolysis of starch, iodine test, Fehling's solution: 16.10.1
Tests for starch, iodine tests for starch: 9.132
Tests for starch, Iodine with starch:
Wheat starch and gluten:

Starch, soluble starch, corn starch, tapioca starch, sorghum gum, amylodextrin, amylopectin, amylum, arrowroot starch, soluble
laundry starch, starch gums adhesives, amylum (C6H10O5)n, where n = 40 to 50, farina (test for iodine, forms blue colour).
Starch, like glucose, is a carbohydrate and contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the proportion C6H10O5, in a very complex
Starch is present in nearly all plants.
Potatoes, barley, wheat, and rice are used as industrial sources.
It is used for stiffening linen in laundries, adhesive pastes and manufacture of glucose.
Cornflour starch is a powdery starch synthesized from maize and used as a cooking thickener, in USA "cornstarch", in Australia
"cornflour" is actually "wheaten starch".

Stearic acid, octadecanoic acid C18H36O2, CH3(CH2)16COOH
See: Models, biochemistry Stearic acid, (Commercial)
Stearic acid, powder, E570 fatty acid, m.p. 68oC to 69.5oC, (in fats), tallow 250 g (anti-caking agent, soaps, waxes)
Electrical conductivity of melted solids, fused solids: 15.59.3
Hydrogenation, cis-trans fatty acids:
Fats in your food (fatty acids, stearic acid):
Fatty acids in oils of natural products: 17.6
Fatty acids in coconut oil: 17.7
Melting point and cooling curve of stearic acid: 7.4.1
Melting point of naphthalene with a capillary tube: 3.3 (See: Repeat)
"Plasticine", modelling clay (said to contain calcium carbonate, stearic acid, petroleum jelly, whiting, ten pigments)
Prepare crystals from a melt: 3.54.2, (See: Repeat)
Size of carbon atom in stearic acid molecule:
Size of stearic acid molecule: 3.3.3
Soaps and synthetic detergents (syndets): 12.12.0
(Stearic acid with basic solutions forms soaps.)

Steel wool, iron
Low cost: from hardware stores, soapless steel wool as steel wool pads for paint removal
New types of steel wool, e.g. stainless steel soap pads "STEELO", made from stainless steel wool,
are guaranteed not to rust, but are not suitable for non-stick cookware or other delicate surfaces.
Burn steel wool and burn iron filings: 13.3.3
Burn steel wool and weigh the products:
Burn steel wool, change in weight: 12.1.2
Burn steel wool in chlorine:
Dilute sulfuric acid with steel wool: 12.3.3
Heat of rusting, steel wool: 14.1.4
Heat steel wool with iodine crystals (synthesis reaction):
Rate of rusting of steel wool: 15.3.11
Reactions of chlorine with steel wool: 13.4.16
Rusting of steel wool: 15.3.3

Strontium, Sr
See: Strontium Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Strontium, Sr, Table of Elements
Strontium properties:
Tests for strontium:

Strontium compounds
Strontianite, SrCO3, strontium carbonate (Geology)
Strontium carbonate, SrCO3, in strontianite mineral, Harmful if ingested, skin irritant
Strontium carbonate, Low cost: from pottery supplies stores
Strontium (II) chloride, SrCl2, strontium dichloride (detected with flame test), Harmful if ingested
Strontium chloride hexahydrate, SrCl2.6H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 26.7 g in 1 L water
Strontium chloride (powder)
Strontium fluoride
Strontium hydroxide, Harmful if ingested, skin irritant, corrosive
Strontium nitrate, AAS Solution, Harmful if ingested, explosive mixtures with combustibles of organic compounds
Strontium toxicity: 3.6.15
Strontium sulfate, SrSO4, celestine
Reactions of strontium compounds: 12.17.1

Styrene, plastics, C8H8, monomer (C6H5CH:CH2)], phenyl ethene, vinyl benzene
Toxic by all routes, do not inhale fumes, skin irritant
ABS, acrylonitrile, butadiene and styrene, thermoset plastics, mixed polymer: 3.7.28
Aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g. benzene, anthracene:
Phenylethene, styrene, monomer styrene (See: Styrenes: 3.7.29
Prepare expanded polystyrene beads with propanone:
Styrene, Mixture < 12.5%, Not hazardous, do not ingest, use fume cupboard or well-ventilated area
Styrenes: 3.7.29
Styrofoam: 3.7.29

Classify substances, pure substances, mixtures, solutions: 7.2.1
Heat substances, sublimation, melting, decrepitation:
Heat substances that decompose when heated, but may be reformed: 8.4.0
Low-cost chemicals and common substances: 15.0.4
Pure substances and impure substances, elements and compounds: 7.2.0
Separation of substances: 10.0.0
Substances that decompose and lose mass when heated, thermal decomposition: 3.30.0
Tests for all substances: 2.0.0

16.9.51 Sucralose, C12H19Cl3O8, trichlorogalactosucrose, E 955, Relative sweetness 650
Sucralose in "Splenda".
Each sachet of Splenda contains maltodextrin, dextrose and sucralose.

Sucrose, cane sugar, "sugar"
Sucrose, C12H22O11, D-Sucrose
SucroseStachyose, Oligosaccharides
See: Sucrose (Commercial)
Models, biochemistry Molymod Model Biochemistry Sucrose, 1 molecule, "Scientrific" (Commercial)
Beet sugar, sucrose extracted from sugar beet, Beta vulgaris, Amanthaceae.
Blood constituents (blood sugar): 9.214
Breakdown starch to sugars (laundry starch): 3.95
Breakdown starch to sugars, hydrolysis of starch, iodine test, Fehling's test: 16.10.1
Brix, sucrose concentration: 9.145
Browning reactions of fruits and vegetables: (Concentrated sugar)
Burning sugar cube, combustible cube:
Cane sugar or milk, invisible writing ink, secret writing ink:
Cane sugar, sucrose solution, invisible writing ink:
Cellophane as a semipermeable membrane: 9.165 (See: 2. sugar)
Children with diarrhoea: 9.229, (See 3. sugar in ORS special drink)
Decomposition of sucrose crystals: 8.2.9
Disaccharides: (sucrose)
Ferment sucrose with yeast: 12.7.20
Heat glycerine with sugar to form carbon: 12.7.7
Invert sugar, C12H24O12, HFCS:
"Magnetic" sugar cube dissolves: 3.17.1
Measure osmosis: 9.12.0
Non-enzymatic browning, caramelization (oxidation of sugar):
Osmosis with dialysis tubing: 9.174
Osmosis with honey on bread: 9.171.1
Prepare glucose with sugar: 12.7.18
Prepare refined white sugar from brown sugar: 10.1.3
Prepare rock candy crystals, sugar crystals: 12.8.4
Prepare sucrose crystals from sugar cane juice:
Prepare sugar crystals from brown sugar: 3.1.10
Prepare toffee candy, sucrose:
Relative sweetness of some artificial sweeteners: 19.2.8
Reducing sugars and nonreducing sugars:
Solubility of sucrose (cane sugar), syrup: 7.7.9
Sucrose with sodium hydrogen sulfate, NaHSO4 (sodium bisulfate): 12.7.17
Sucrose with borax: 12.7.19
Sucrose with sodium hydrogen sulfate: 12.7.17
Sugar alcohols
Sugar cane, Saccharum sp.
Sugar soap, alkaline, grease-removing or paint-removing, looks like sugar, variable contents
Sugar with potassium chlorate, spontaneous combustion: 17.3.4
Sugaring mixture, insect fixing fluid: 4.14
Sulfuric acid dehydrates sucrose (cane sugar): 12.6.3
Syrup, solubility of sucrose (cane sugar), syrup: 7.7.9 (Cooking)
Tests for reducing sugars, Fehling's test: 9.142
Thermal decomposition of sucrose crystals, C12H22O11: 8.2.9
Treacle, molasses, golden syrup, uncrystallized syrup drained from partly-refined raw sugar
Treacle, in Bible Jer, viii, 22, "Is there no tryacle in Gilead."

Sudan III
Sudan III, Sudan III solution alcoholic (C.I. 261000, C.I. Solvent Red 23),
Sudan III, 1-​[4-​(Phenylazo)​phenylazo]​-​2-​naphthol, Cerasin Red, Fat Ponceau G, Fat Soluble Sudan, Scarlet B, Solvent Red 23,
Sudan G, Sudan Red BK, Tony Red (tests for fats, oils, waxes), Harmful if ingested
Sudan III, Find a solvent for Sudan III:
Sudan III, Tests for fats and oils: 9.137 (See 2.)
Sudan III, Epigeal germination: 9.111, (See 3.)

Sulfamic acid, NH2.SO2OH
Reactions of sulfamic acid, NH2.SO2OH: 12.18.7
Sulfamic acid, amidosulfonic acid, Harmful if ingested, skin irritant,
Sulfamic acid, Solution < 20%, Not hazardous
Sulfamic acid is a strong crystalline acid used in cleaning agents.
Sulfamide compounds, SO2(NH2)2
Sulfanilamide, p-aminobenzenesulfonamide, Toxic if ingested, liver toxin

Sulfanilic acid
Sulfanilic acid, H2NC6H4SO2OH, sulfonilic acid, 4-amonobenzene sulfonic acid, Toxic if ingested, skin irritant
Sulfanilic acid, Solution < 25%, Not hazardous, but should not be ingested
Sulfanilic acid (used to make methyl orange)

Sulfates (SO42-)
Aluminium sulfate
Sulfate (SO42-), sulphate (UK)
Decomposition of sulfates: 3.30.6
Hazards: 3.7.15
Heat calcium sulfate, gypsum: 8.3.5
List of sulfates: 1.23
Sulfate of ammonia, agriculture fertilizer, Ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4
Sulfate of ammonia, Straight fertilizers:
Sulfation, lead-acid battery electrolyte:
Tests for sulfates:
Tests for sulfates in groundwater:

Sulfides, (Sulphides), S2-
See: Sulfides Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
See: Test Strips Sulfide, (Sulphide), (Commercial)
Sulfide (thio), S2-, monodentate ligand or bidentate ligand
Hazards: 3.7.16
Hydrogen sulfide waste bottle:
List of sulfides: 1.24
Organic sulfides, RSR (R not equal to H), formerly called thioethers:
Prepare sulfides, S2-: 12.18.2
Tests for sulfides:

Sulfite, -SO2−3
Sulfite, -SO2−3, monodentate ligand
Hazards: 3.7.17
List of sulfites: 1.25
Decomposition of sulfites: 3.30.7
Tests for sulfites:

Sulfonic acids
Aromatic sulfonic acids, e.g. benzene sulfonic acid:
Electroplating, zinc plating of copper: 15.1.6
Ionic surfactants in washing powders:
Sulfonic acids, group: R-SO2OH, e.g. methanesulfonic acid, CH3SO2OH, Salts or esters: sulfonates
Sulfonic acids, HS(=O)2OH / sulfonate, organic compound withfunctional group (-SO3H) / (-SO3- )
Sulfonic acids (acid fuchsine is mixture of basic fuchsine + sulfonicgroups to decolorize it.)
Sulfonic acids (sunscreen, phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid)

Sulfur, S
See: Sulfur Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Sulfur, S, Table of Elements
See diagram 12.18.1: Sulfur crystals
Sulfur, brimstone, "fire stone", former word for sulfur
Sulfur, natural sulfur: 35.20.44, (Geology)
Sulfur compounds (organic chemistry):
Sulfur compounds (inorganic chemistry)
Sulfur deficiency: 1.13.0 (Agriculture)
Sulfur experiments: 12.18.0
Sulfur properties:
Sulfur, wettable sulfur (agricultural fungicide): 16.6.9
Sulfur in methylated spirits (colloidal sulfur):

Allotropes, sulfur, carbon:
Aluminium with sulfur: 12.1.6
Bromine catalyses the oxidation of sulfur to sulfuric acid: 17.3.13
Burn sulfur in oxygen: 13.3.2
Dilute acids with non-metals, carbon and sulfur: 12.3.4
Heat iron with sulfur, synthesis reaction (direct union of elements):
Prepare forms of sulfur, allotropes of sulfur: 7.1.5
Synthesis reactions (combination reactions), mixtures and compounds, sulfur with zinc:

Sulfur compounds
Bromocresol green, C21H14Br4O5S, indicator (pH 3.8 yellow) (pH5.4 dark blue), tracking dye
Heat iron with sulfur (synthesis reaction):
Phenylthiocarbamide, C7H8N2S, C6H5NHCSNH2: 1.13
Lime sulfur, CaSx: 16.6.12, (Agriculture)
Prepare sodium thiosulfate crystals, Na2S2O3.5H2O, "hypo":
Prepare sulfides, S2-: 12.18.2
Prepare sulfur monochloride, S2Cl2:
Reactions of sodium thiosulfate crystals, Na2S2O3.5H2O:
Reactions of sulfamic acid, NH2.SO2OH: 12.18.7
Sulfur dichloride, SCl2
Sulfur dichloride oxide, SOCl2: Thionyl chloride,
Sulfur dioxide, SO2: 3.51
Sulfur hexafluoride, SF6, density 6.12 g / litre, inert gaseousdielectric
Sulfur trioxide, SO3: 13.1.36
Sulfuric acid, H2SO4
Sulfuric ether (CH3CH2)2O, diethyl ether

Sulfur dichloride, SCl2
Sulfur dichloride, SCl2, cherry red liquid
Sulfur dichloride, disulfur chloride, Highly toxic by all routes, use a fume cupboard
Sulfur dichloride with water forms hydrogen chloride gas in a violent reaction.

Sulfurous acid
Sulfurous acid, H2SO3, 6% SO2 solution in water, clear, colourless solution, penetrating SO2 odour
Sulfur trioxide with water forms sulfurous acid.
Sulfurous acid is highly toxic if ingested, very corrosive.
Sulfurous acid oxidizes in air to sulfuric acid.
Sulfurous acid as a reducing agent, ionization reaction: 15.2.15
Sulfuryl chloride, SO2Cl2, sulfur dichloride, Toxic by all routes, extremely irritant vapour, highly corrosive
Sulfuryl chloride with water forms hydrogen chloride gas and sulfuric acid
Tetrasulfur tetanitride, S4N4, unstable contact explosive

Synthetic fibres
Synthetic fibres, polymers, plastics: 2.0.0
Tests for synthetic fibres, burning tests: 4.3.0