School Science Lessons
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Chemistry M
Table of Contents
MacConkey agar, Prepare: 6.14
"Mad cow disease", prions:
Magdala red:
Magnesia, Magnesium oxide, MgO
Magnesium, Mg
See: Magnesium Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Magneson, C12H9N3O4
Magnetic stirrers, stirring rods, watch glass: 1.38
Magnetite, Fe3O4
Magnifiers, magnifying glass: 4.129.1
Magnoflorine, C20H24NO4+
Magnolol, C18H18O2
Maillard reaction, non-enzymatic browning:
Maize (Zea mays, corn, Indian corn)
Make, Use "Construct" for equipment or buildings
Make, Use "Prepare" for making chemical compounds
Makeup water, Fill water: 18.7.47 (swimming pools)
Malachite, CuCO3.Cu(OH)2: 35.20.24 (Geology)
Malachite green: 18 (indicator)
Malathion, Maldison, C10H19O6PS2: 16.4.3 (insecticide)
Malic acid, C4H60O5
Malleable, Mechanical properties of materials, elastic, ductile, malleable: 34.5.0
Malonic acid, C3H4O4
Mandelic acid, C8H8O3, Bitter almond:
Manganese, Mn
See: Manganese Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Mangiferin, C19H18O11
Mangostin, C24H26O6, a xanthone, in Mangosteen fruit
Manipulative skills, Teach manipulative skills: 3.2.4
Mannitol, C6H8(OH)6
Marcasite, FeS2
Martensite forms from rapid cooling of a solution of carbon in iron, causing the hardness of quenched steel.
Mascagnite (NH4)2SO4, (Geology)
Masks, Safety masks
Mass and weight: 8.1.0
See: Mass (Commercial)
34.0.0 Materials
Massicot, PbO2lead (II) oxide, lead monoxide
Mastic, gum mastic, resin, used as chewing gum and Greek food flavouring, from Pistacia lenticus, Anacardiaceae
Matches, safety matches
Materials: 34.0
Mathematics, graphs: 2.0.0
Matricarin, C17H22O5
Matrine, C15H24N2O
Matter as particles, size of particles: 3.0.0
Mayer's haematoxylin, Prepare: 3.13.4
Mayonnaise, Prepare mayonnaise and salad dressing emulsions: 16.7.12
MCPA, C9H9ClO3: 16.7.5
Meadow foam oil
Measurement: 6.0 (Physics)
Measurement, Quantity of chemical to be used in experiments: 3.4.2
See: Measurement (Commercial)
3.5.4a Measuring cups, jugs spoons
Measuring cylinders / graduated cylinder: 1.29
See: Measuring Cylinders (Commercial)
Meat, Anatomy and physiology of meat: 19.3.2
Meat, Roasting meat:
Mechanical properties of materials: 34.5.0
Media and solutions, Prepare biology media and solutions: 1.0
MEHQ, C5H8O2, Methyl methacrylate
Meitnerium, Mt
MEKP, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide
Melamine, C3H6N6, Cyanamides:
Melanoidins, Non-enzymatic browning, the Maillard reaction:
Melanterite, Iron (II) sulfate-7-water
Melatonin, C13H16N2O2
Melezitose, Oligosaccharides
Melilotin, C9H8O2
Melting point (m.p.), freezing point (f.p.): 24.5.0
See: Melting (Commercial)
Memory foam (polyurethne):
Mendelevium, Md
Meniscus, Volume of a liquid: 2.1.6.(GIF)
Menthatriene, C10H14
Menthol, C10H20O
Menthone, C10H18O
Menthoxypropanediol, C13H26O3
Menthyl acetate, C12H22O2
Menthylisoborneol, C11H20O
"Mentos", Prepare carbon dioxide with a spearmint candy: 13.7.8
Mephedrone, C11H15NO
Mepracrine, C23H30ClN3O
Merbromin, Mercurochrome
Mercaptans, thiols:
Mercaptomenthone, C10H18OS
See: Mercury (Commercial)
Merschaum, H4Mg2Si3O10:
Mescaline, C11H17NO3
Mescaline, Hallucinogenic drugs: 11.11.9
Mesaconitine, C33H45NO11
Metacresol purple, C21H18O5S: 19 (indicator)
Metaformin, Galegine drug to treat type-2 diabetes
Metaldehyde, C8H16O4
Metalloids: 2.8.0
Metam-sodium fungicide, C2H4NNaS2: 16.6.7
Metamorphic rocks: 35.23.0
Metanil yellow, C18H14N3NaO3S, indicator: 20 (Indicator)
Metaphosphoric acid (sticks), HPO3
Metathesis, Double replacement reactions:
Meters, electricity meters
See: Meters (Commercial)
Methadone, Morphine and derivatives: 11.11.14
Methamphetamine, C10H15N
Methanal solution 40% W / V
Methane-3-8-diol, C10H20O2, Methofuran
Methanethiol from asparagus:
Methanides, aluminium carbide, Al4C3
Methanoic acid, formic acid:
Methanol, CH3OH, methyl alcohol
Methiocarb, C11H15NO2S: 16.4.8
Methionine, C5H11NO2S, (Table of amino acids)
Methionine, DNA codons
Methoprene, C19H34O3, insecticide: 9.1.0
Methyoxybenzene, CH3OC6H5, Anisole
Methoxychlor, C16H15Cl3O2: 16.3.2
2-Methoxyethanol, CH3OCH2CH2OH
Methoxyl, -OCH3
Methyl, CH3-
Methylated spirits
N-Methylcytisine, C12H16N2O
N-Methylephedrine, C11H17NO
Metildigoxin, C42H66O14
Metol, p-methyl aminophenol, 4-methyl aminophenol sulfate, photography film developer, Toxic if ingested
Metre, length:
Metric conversion SI, CGS, FPS: 3.12.0
Meyer's albumen, Prepare Meyer's albumen solution: 2.3
Microbiology: 4.0.0
Microcline, KAlSi3O8: 35.15.0 (See: group1.)
Microcosmic salt, Prepare microsmic salt: 12.13.5
Microemulsions, Ouzo effect: 7.6.01
Micron (mu): 3.5.7
Micronization: 1.1.0
Microscale electrolysis, Electrolysis of copper (II) sulfate solution: 15.5.16
2.22.0 Microscopes, care, use, staining techniques
Microscopes, care, use, staining techniques: 2.22.0
Microscopy adhesives, Prepare microscopy adhesives: 2.0
Microscopy stains, Prepare microscopy stains, histology stains: 3.0
See: Microscopes (Commercial)
See: Microscope Slides Microslides, (Commercial)
See: Microtomes (Commercial)
Microwave, cooking: 19.3.5
Microwaves: 27.27
See: Microwave Physics, (Commercial)
Mifepristone, RU-486
Millerite NiS (Geology)
Millibar, Pressure definitions: 12.1.01
Millilitre, one millilitre (mL), the basic unit of capacity, is equivalent to one cubic centimetre (cc or cm3).
Millon's reagent, Tests for proteins, Millon's test: 16.6.7
Mineral deficiencies, Soil mineral deficiencies: 6.20
Mineral oil
Mineral salts, food additives: 19.4.21
Mineral turpentine
Mineral wool
Minerals, properties of minerals: 35.2.0, (Geology)
Minimal agar solution, Prepare: 9.2.18
Minium, Pb3O4, Lead (II/IV) oxide
Mirabilite, Sodium sulfate, Na2SO4.10H2O
Miraculin glycoprotein, in Synsepalum dulcificum, Sapotaceae.
Miscellaneous measures, Common measures: 3.5.4
Misch metal, alloy
Mixture, mix
Modelling clay, "Plasticine"
Models, Molecular models: 3.5.1
Models molecules
Mohr's salt: Iron (II) ammonium sulfate
Mohs' scale of hardness: 35.10
Moisture and ash content, Tests for the moisture content of plant organs: 9.3.15
Moisture enters the air, evaporation: 37.7.0, (Meteorology)
Moisture leaves the air, precipitation: 37.8.0, (Meteorology)
Molasses, treacle
Mole, molality, molar, molarity
Molisch's test (α-naphthol test), Tests for carbohydrates: 9.134
Molybdenum, Mo
Molybdite, MoO2 (Geology)
Monazite, mineral
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: 12.3.1
Monochloracetic acid, chloracetic acid
Monochlorobenzene. chlorobenzene
Monocrotaline, C16H23NO6
Monoethanolamine nitrate, 2-aminoethanol, 2-aminoethanol nitrate, MEA, C2H8N2O4, removes CO2 from gases
Monolayer, Size of carbon atom in stearic acid molecule:
Monomer, H2C=CHR, where R is an alkyl group, e.g. methyl, CH3-
Monosaccharides, D-sugars and L-sugars:
Monosodium glutamate, MSG
Montan acid esters, food additive E912, surface coating
Monoterpenes, C10H16 (two isoprene units):
Montmorillonite, smectite:, (Geology)
Moonstones, K[(Si, Al)4O8], (Feldspars)
Morphine, C17H19NO3
Morphine and derivatives: 11.14
Mortar and pestles, Porcelain laboratory items: 1.23
See: Mortar and Pestle (Commercial)
Mortar, Make mortar: 3.66.5
"Mothballs", Naphthalene, C10H8
Motor vehicle battery, lead-acid battery:
Movement of ions and particles in solution: 11.2.0
MS agar medium, Prepare: 9.2.23
mu, micro-, one millionth, 106 (micron, micrometer, m, 106 metres, microchip
Muddy fish smell, C12H22O: Geosmin
Mudstone: 35.22.8
Multiple reagent strip:
Murexide, C8H8N6O6, ammonium purpurate, purple powder
Muriate of potash, KCl:
Muriatic acid, hydrochloric acid
Muscarine, C9H20NO2
Muscarine derivatives, Protoalkaloids: 16.3.17
Musca-aurin-I C14H13N3O8
Muscimol, C4H6N2O2
Muscle, Anatomy and physiology of meat: 19.3.2
Muscovite mica, white mica
Mutagenic substances: 15.2.8
Myoglobin, Anatomy and physiology of meat: 19.3.2
Myrcene, C10H16
Myrcenol, C10H18O
Myricetin, C15H10O8, flavonol
Myrosinase, glucosinolase
Myrstic acid, CH3(CH3)12COOH
Myrtenal, C10H14O.

Magneson, C12H9N3O4
Magneson 1, 4-(4-nitrophenylazo)-resorcinol (precipitates Mg2+), Toxic (use solid ethanol solution), Highly flammable
Magneson, 4-(4-nitrophenylazo)-1-naphthol (precipitates Mg2+), Toxic (use solid ethanol solution), Highly flammable.

Make, fabricate, construct
4.59 Circuit board
4.210 Diving bell
31.66 Electric current detector
4.197 Hydraulic lift
4.198 Hydraulic ram, water ram
4.69 Magnetizing coil
4.240 Model lungs
4.110 Ray box for beams of light
4.86 Ripple tank construction
4.84 Simple electric motor 1
4.55 Simple switch
4.107 Smoke box to study light rays.

Malic acid, C4H60O5
Malic acid, HO2CCH2CHOHCO2H, DL-malic acid, L-hydroxybutanoic acid, green apple sour taste
E296 Malic acid (from fruit or synthetic) (restricted to not infant food), (acidity regulator, antioxidant)
in Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum), Myrtle (Myrtus communis).

Malonic acid, C3H4O4
Malonic acid, C3H4O4, HOOCCH2COOH, propanedioic acid
Malonic acid esters and salts are called malonates, e.g. malonic acid ethyl ester is called diethyl malonate, C7H12O4
Propanedioic acid is a strong organic acid and strong skin irritant that accumulates in some leaves, e.g. Beta vulgaris.
It is used to make barbiturates.
Malonic acid, oscillating reaction: 17.3.7.

Malt, steeped, germinated and dried grain prepared for brewing, distilling and making vinegar
Malt extract agar, to identify fungi:
Malt extract agar medium:
Maltodextrin, C6nH(10n+2)O(5n+1), D- glucose units, made from starch, food additive
Maltose, Oligosaccharides
Maltose, malt sugar, disaccharide, produced by hydrolysis / digestion of starch, 2 glucose residues
Food additive, E965 Maltitol and maltitol syrup (from maltose) (sweetener, humectant, stabilizer)
Breakdown starch during germination: 9.112
Breakdown starch to sugars (laundry starch): 3.95
Breakdown starch to sugars (saliva, potato): 16.10
Hydrolysis of starch by salivary amylase): 9.130
Non-enzymatic browning, caramelization:
Sense of taste, the gustatory system: 9.246
Tests for activity of diastase: 9.3.10
Tests for glucose, urine test:
Tests for reducing and nonreducing sugars:
Tests for starch with Fehling's solution: 9.142.3
Tests for hydrolysis of starch, iodine test, Fehling's solution: 16.10.1
Yeast, fermentation, brewing, beer: 16.7.11.

Mannitol, C6H8(OH)6
Chicory (Cichorium intybus), Asteraceae.
Available test reagents: 16.7.15
E421, Emulsifiers, food additives
Mannitol, C6H8(OH)6, Alditols, polyhydric alcohols:
Mannitol yeast extract agar (MYEA): 9.2.30
Polyhydric alcohols:
Root nodules, Isolate micro-organisms from root nodules: 4.3.13.

Mannitol, D-mannitol, osmitrol, manna sugar, naturally occurring alcohol, in fruits and vegetables, used as osmotic diuretic causing
increased diuresis, renal diagnostic, mostly eliminated from the body before any metabolism.
It is used to treat kidney failure and to measure glomerular filtration rate, used in research on osmolarity.
It is freely filtered by the glomerulus and poorly reabsorbed from the renal tubule, causing an increase in osmolarity of the
glomerular filtrate, limits tubular reabsorption of water and inhibits the renal tubular reabsorption of sodium, chloride,
and other solutes, so promoting diuresis.
It elevates blood plasma osmolarity, causing increased flow of water from tissues into interstitial fluid and plasma.

Marble chips, 4-6 mm, 9-12 mm
Calcium carbonate
Dilute hydrochloric acid with calcium carbonate, marble chips: 17.2.1
Dilute hydrochloric acid with marble chips (balloons to collect gases): 17.1.4
Gas burette, dilute hydrochloric acid with marble chips: 17.1.3
Marbelite: 18.7.48
Marble, CaCO3: 35.23.3
Part 9, Geology, Earth Science, See: "Marble Man"
Marbling ink
Weight of calcium in marble, calcium carbonate: 17.6.3
(The term "alabaster" may refer to gypsum, or calcite, called "onyx-marble".).

Matches, safety matches
See: Matches, lighters, (Commercial)
Matches safety matches
See diagram: Matchbox
Heat sources, match: 8.0.1
Match head: mainly potassium chlorate and glue.
Striking surface: mainly red phosphorus and powdered glass.
Safety match heads contain potassium chlorate, sulfur, fillers and glue.
The "strike-anywhere" match heads contain potassium chlorate as an outside layer on the phosphorus sesquioxide (P4O6) match head.
Explosions based on collections of match heads are not permitted in schools.

19.8.0 Measures, common measures
3.5.3 American liquid measures, US measures
3.5.2 British liquid measures, imperial measures (fl. oz. = imperial fluid ounce)
3.5.4 Common and miscellaneous measures, cup, spoon, matchbox
6.14.0 Oven temperatures
3.5.1 Spoon volume.

Meitnerium, Mt
, Mt, Table of the elements (Lise Meitner, 1878-1968, Germany, a discoverer of nuclear fission).

Mendelevium, Md
, Md (Dmitri Mendeleev, 1834-1907, Russia), radioactive actinide, produced in laboratory, only tiny amounts made,
few properties known.

Menthol, C10H20O
Menthol, hexahydrothymol, Monoterpenes, C10 (2 isoprene units), C10H16:
hexahydrothymol, peppermint camphor (a methyl cyclohexanol) (mint flavour, peppermint flavour), eight sterioisomers
Menthol, mint camphorrubifacient, white crystalline organic compound resembling camphor, extracted from oil of peppermint.
This compound is solid at room temperature and melts at about 37oC.
Natural menthol (-)-menthol, is an isomer with (1R, 2S, 5R) configuration, (1R, 2S, 5R)-2-Isopropyl-5-m ethylcyclohexane
Menthol is used in perfumes, menthol cigarettes, mild topical anaesthetic, and as a mint flavouring.
Menthol is antipruritic, reduces itching, so is used for relief of minor sore throat and mouth irritation.
The pure solution may damage eyes and sensitize skin, but < 10 mg in throat medicine lozenges is harmless.
Mentha species, Menthol occurs in the peppermint plant, a hybrid mint (Mentha X piperita) and in wild mint (Mentha arvensis).

Acids and metals or insoluble base, prepare salts: M2
Active metals: 1.17
Activity series of metals as reducing agents: 12.14.0
Alkali metals, Group 1: 1.1.0
Alkaline earth metals, Group 2: 1.2.0
Alkalis with metals, NaOH: 12.7.3
Alloys of noble metals and coinage metals: 5.5.11
Assay value of precious metals: 35.3.01
Base metals
Borax bead test, metals in metallic salts:
Coinage metals
Common or industrial classification of metals: 1.3.0
Decomposition of metals, metallic salts: 3.30.14
Different metals (Primary): 2.43
Dilute acids with carbonates:
Dilute acids with metals, hydrochloric acid: 12.3.2
Dilute acids with metals:
Dilute acids with metals, sulfuric acid and iron: 12.3.3
Electrode potential of metals: 3.86.1
Flame tests, metals and their compounds:
Free element metals: 2.6.0
Heat metals with oxides of another metal:
Heavy metals
Metal powders: 1.18
Metal oxides
Metallic bonds: 3.01.5
Metallic salts:
Metalloids: Table 2
Metals in the kitchen 19.6.3
Metals displace hydrogen from acids: 3.74
Metals, non-metals, transition metals: 7.3.0
Metals with copper (II) sulfate solution: 12.14.2
Nitric acid with metals:
Nitrogen reacts with metals: 13.9.1
Noble metals
Precious metals
Properties of metals: 7.3.1
Properties of non-metals: 7.3.2
Recycle heavy metals:
Reactions of metals with air or oxygen gas: 12.14.02
Reactions of metals with concentrated oxidizing acids: 12.14.04
Reactions of metals with dilute acids: 12.14.03
Reactions of metals with ligands: 12.15.6
Reactions of metals with steam: 12.15.3
Reactions of metals with water: 12.15.0
Reactions of sodium with water: 3.73
Reduce metal oxides to metals with hydrogen gas: 3.41.7
Reduce metal oxides to metals, red lead to lead and oxygen: 10.10.1
Separate to metals by reduction of metal oxides, charcoal blocks: 10.10.0
Table 1: Periodic Table
Table 2: Table of the elements
Tests for metal ions in water using EDTA, chelates: 12.13.11
Tests for metallic radicals:
Tests for metals with borax beads:
Tests for metals with flame tests:
Tests for metallic radicals:
Toxicity of metals and metal compounds: 3.6.0
Transition metals, transition elements: 1.12.0.

Metal oxides
Metal oxides (basic oxides, metallic oxides), copper (II) oxide (copper oxide)
Alkalis with basic oxides, copper oxide: 12.7.5
Copper (II) oxide (copper oxide): 12.17.2
Dilute acids with basic oxides: 12.3.5
Separate to metals by reduction of metal oxides, charcoal blocks: 10.10.0.

Metaldehyde, C8H16O4
Metaldehyde, ethanal tetramer from polymerization of ethanal (acetaldehyde), (CH3CHO)4 --> C4O4H4(CH3)4, "meta" fuel, fire lighter,
canned heat, snail bait, "Esbit", "Blitzem".

Metglas is a ribbon of an alloy, e.g. iron, boron silicon, phosphorus, formed by very rapid solidification.
It is used for joining metals by braising, transformer cores, and in pulse power switches.
Metglas can be rapidly magnetized and demagnetized.
For example, Powerlite C-Core, an iron-based Metglas, has low loss and high saturation flux density compared to other
ferromagnetic materials.

Methane, CH4, methyl CH3-, Stem name: meth-: Methane, CH4 Methane with chlorine (Dangerous experiment)
3.39.1 Reactions of methane with steam
Methane-producing bacteria, stain: 4.13
See diagram 16.0.1: methane molecule
Methane, Density (Table)
Biogas: 2.1.4
Bunsen burner gas: 22.6.3
Coal, coal dust explosions: 35.23.1
Coal seam gas, CSG, and coal to liquid, CTL, projects: 35.23.9
Composition of the atmosphere and greenhouse gases: 37.42.1
CFCs, chlorofluorocarbons, "Freons":
Dioxins, "Agent orange", PCBs: 16.14.0
Greenhouse effect in a model greenhouse, global warming: 37.43.0
Methanethiol from asparagus:
Methanides, carbides:
Methanotrophs, bacteria: 4.12.7
Natural gas, methane, safety
Natural gas, Density (Table)
Natural gas, Flammable: 7.9.22
Natural gas, hazards: 3.8.9
Reactions of methane with steam: 3.39.1
Renewable energy, landfill: 9.0.1.

Methane, experiments
Prepare methane gas:
Reduce copper oxide with natural gas, methane:
Tests for methane gas, burn methane:
Tests gases, burning hydrocarbons:
Tests for unsaturated hydrocarbons:, (See: 1. Methane).

Methane, natural gas, safety
Methane gas, CH4, natural gas (55.6 MJ / kg), marsh gas, in oil wells, colourless, odourless gas, simplest alkane, Flammable
Methane is large proportion of coal gas (firedamp in coal mines, methane burns to form air depleted of oxygen, called blackdamp,
choke damp).
Natural gas is flammable gas, 99% methane, occurring naturally underground, usually associated with petroleum
CH4 (g) + 2O2 (g) --> CO2 (g) + 2H2O (g) + heat.
Natural gas occurs usually over petroleum products so its composition varies, CH4, C2H6, C3H8, .
So natural gas usually contains about 90% methane + various proportions of ethane, propane, butane, nitrogen and carbon dioxide.
It is odourless but during manufacture a rotten egg rank smelling compound, e.g. a mercaptan, captan (ethane thiol or ethyl mercaptan),
may is added for gas detection.
Incomplete combustion produces carbon monoxide.
It should burn with a 90% blue flame.
Natural gas is used in heating and cooking appliances, buses and other motor vehicles and is transported by large tankers or gas grids.
In many places it has replaced town gas.

Safety procedures
1. Check the colour of the flame in the pilot light is yellow.
If a yellow condensate forms on the nearby wall or the bottom of cooking pots have a black smudge, ask the gas distribution authority
for advice because the gas may be contaminated.
2. Gas leaks
Cover a suspected gas leak with a soap solution.
If any bubbles form in the solution, contact the gas distribution authority and report a gas leak.
Be careful! Do not search for a gas leak with a lighted match or lighted taper but use a soap solution.
3. Regularly check all equipment using natural gas.
Use sturdy undamaged tubing to connect Bunsen burners to gas taps.
Replace any perished tubing or tubing damaged at one end.
Check that tubing is connected securely to both the tap and the Bunsen burner before the gas is turned on.
5. Clean or replace any Bunsen burners that have damaged jets, or are known to burn back (strike back).
6. At the end of the school day, turn off the master gas switches in each laboratory.
7. Do not allow dangerous practices, e.g. turning on a gas tap and then lighting it.
8. If you smell an overpowering gas odour in a laboratory, evacuate the area rapidly, open all windows and seek assistance. Methane, CH4
See diagram 16.0.1: Tetrahedral geometry of carbon, methane molecule, isobutyl alcohol
Methane is the simplest alkane.
It is colourless and odourless and found in natural gas and bubbles of methane in swamp water.
Fire damp, which causes explosions in coal mines, is a mixture of methane and air.
Methane is found in large quantities usually associated with petroleum.
It has largely displaced town gas produced from coal.
Methanogenic bacteria live in swamps and in the human gastrointestinal tract where they liberate methane causing flatulence.
After carbon dioxide, methane produced by bacteria in rice paddies may be the second most important greenhouse gas made by man.
They produce methane gas anaerobically (without oxygen) by removing the electrons from hydrogen gas.
The electrons and H+ ions from hydrogen gas are used to reduce carbon dioxide to methane.
H+ ions combine with the oxygen from carbon dioxide to form water and electrons move through the steps of an anaerobic electron
transport system to the phosphorylate of ADP to form ATP.
Methane is a simple asphyxiant. Prepare methane gas
See diagram 3.32: Collect insoluble gases over water
1. Mix 1 part sodium acetate with 3 parts soda lime.
Heat in a dry pyrex test tube or flask.
Collect the gas over water.
2. Heat 20 g of sodium acetate-3-water in a Pyrex test-tube until the salt becomes anhydrous.
Grind the cooled salt with an equal amount of soda lime [NaOH + Ca(OH)2] granules in a mortar and pestle.
Mix thoroughly and place the mixture in a Pyrex test-tube.
Heat the test-tube and collect the gas over water.
Be careful! Pull out the delivery tube before heating the water stops so that water will not be "sucked back" into the
hot test-tube!
For safety, wrap the test-tube in wire gauze.
CH3COONa + NaOH --> CH4 + Na2CO3
sodium acetate + sodium hydroxide --> methane + sodium carbonate. Tests for methane gas, burn methane
Light the gas in the test-tube with a glowing splint.
The gas burns with a clear flame.
CH4 + 2O2 --> CO2 + 2H2O
Repeat the experiment using glacial acetic acid soaked in glass wool + soda lime. Methane with chlorine, (Dangerous experiment)
When a mixture of an alkane and chlorine gas are stored at low temperature in the dark no reaction occurs.
At high temperatures or in sunlight, a substitution exothermic reaction, "chlorination" produces chloromethane, and HCl.
CH4 + Cl2 --> CH3Cl + HCl
Excess chlorine can produce dichloromethane, trichloromethane, and tetrachloromethane.
A mixture of chlorine and methane explodes violently in direct sunlight forming hydrogen chloride and free carbon.
BE CAREFUL! Do not mix chlorine and methane!
CH4 (g) + 2Cl2 (g) --> C (s) + 4HCl (g) + energy
Chloromethane (methyl chloride)
Dichloromethane (methylene chloride)
Ttrichloromethane (chloroform)
Tetrachloromethane (carbon tetrachloride). Reduce copper oxide with natural gas, methane
1. Pass natural gas, about 95% methane, over heated copper (II) oxide powder.
The reduction reaction is slow and may need twenty minutes of strong heating.
The copper does not glow with heating so it is not clear when all the copper oxide has been reduced.
4CuO (s) + CH4 (g) --> 4Cu (s) + 2H2O (l) + CO2 (g)
2. Repeat the experiment with a 1 cm cubic piece of metaldehyde in the reduction tube.
The reduction is quicker.
3. Repeat the experiment with natural gas that has bubbled through ethanol.
The reduction is quicker and a slight glow is seen as the copper oxide is reduced.
6CuO (s) + C2H5OH (l) --> 6Cu (s) + 3H2O (l) + 2CO2 (g).

Methanol, CH3OH, methyl alcohol
Alcohols, phenols, thiols:
Methanol, Chromatography: 6.5.5
Methanol, with platinum wire, oxidation: 17.3.12
Oxidation of methanol to methanal: 16.1.03
Shrinking mixture of liquids, lost volume: 10.3.1.

Methanol, Substitute ethanol or methylated spirits as alternative solvent!
Methanol, CH3OH, methyl alcohol, absolute, methanol pure, wood alcohol, meths, carbinol, colourless liquid, characteristic smell
Methanol, Toxic, poisonous if drunk, damages optic nerve to cause blindness, Highly flammable
Methanol, methyl alcohol, aromatic alcohols, phenyl methanol (benzyl alcohol), (C6H5CH2OH)
Low cost: from some hardware stores, auto parts stores for fuel additive, "HEET" (not ISO-HEET, isopropanol.), in rust inhibitor fuel

Methanol anhydrous, CH3OH, methyl alcohol, wood alcohol, clear liquid, distinct odour, volatile, flammable, poisonous, general
laboratory solvent, chromatography solvent, alcohol lamp fuel (but invisible flame!), in rust inhibitor fuel additives, methanol and illegal
home-made alcoholic beverages may cause blindness.
Use < 5 mL of 0.1 M per activity or use in a fume cupboard.
Substitute ethanol or methylated spirits as alternative solvent.

2-methoxyethanol, methyl cellosolve
2-methoxyethanol, Solution < 5%, Not hazardous, but should not be ingested
2-methoxyethanol, ethylene glycol monomethylene ether, methyl cellosolve, Toxic by all routes
2-methoxyethanol anhydrous, CH3OCH2CH2OH, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, methyl glycol, methyl cellosolve.
Use in a fume cupboard or use <50 mL in a well-ventilated area.
It may cause long-term nerve damage and be teratogenic (cause birth defects).

Methyl, CH3-
2-methylpropan-1-ol, isobutanol, isobutyl alcohol, isopropyl carbinol, (CH3)2CHCH2OH
Dimethylglyoxime. (CH3C(NOH)C(NOH)CH3)
MEKP, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide
MEHQ, C5H8O2, methyl methacrylate
Methyl-2-cyanoacrylate, Toxic by all route, irritating pungent odour burns skin and eyes
Methyl-2-hydroxybenzoate, methyl salicylate, oil of wintergreen
Methyl-2-methylpropanoate, methyl methacrylate
Methyl acetate, methyl ethanoate, Toxic by all routes, Highly flammable, skin irritant, use < 50 mL or g
Methyl alcohol, methanol
Methyl allyl sulfide, CH2=CHCH2SCH3, allyl methyl sulfide
Methyl benzene, C6H5CH3, toluene, toluol, colourless liquid: See diagram 16.8.1
Methyl benzene-4-sulfonamide, 4-methylbenzenesulfonamide, toluene-p-sulfonamide
Methyl benzoate, C6H5COOCH3, solution almost colourless, fragrant liquid, Toxic, use < 50 mL per activity
Methyl benzoate, Xylene and methyl benzoate, biology solution: 1.12
Methyl blue (cotton blue, aniline blue, Helvetia blue, acid blue 93), C.I. 42780, C37H27N3Na2O9S3, histology and fungus stain
Methyl blue, Lactophenol, microscopy stain, Cotton Blue (LPCB): 3.17
Methyl bromide, Bromomethane: 12.18.9
Methyl butanoate, methyl butyrate, Flammable
Methyl carbamide, methylurea
Methyl cellulose, methylcellulose, cellulose ethers, thickening and emulsifying agents, E461
Methyl cellulose, methocel (low substitution): 3.27
Methyl chavicol, C10H12O, estragole
Methyl chloride, CH3Cl, chloromethane, anaesthetic, refrigerant
Methyl chloroform, 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane
Methyl cinnamate, C10H10O
Methyl cyclohexanol (IV) (3 isomers), fat solvent, its soaps in detergents
Methyl dopa, C10H13NO4, white powder, used in pharmacy to treat hypertension
Methyl ethyl benzene, C9H12, 1-methylethylbenzene, cumene, colourless, gasoline odour, in high octane fuel
Methyl ethyl ketone, CH3COCH2CH3, MEK, butanone, colourless volatile liquid, organic solvent, epoxy resin adhesive curing agent,
paint thinner, sweet ethereal odour, irritant, Toxic by all routes
Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, MEKP
Methyl eugenol:
Methyl green, monobromomonochloro ZnCl2 salt, C27H35BrClN3.ZnCl2, chromatin stain, indicator: 21 (indicator)
Methyl imidazole, 4-methylimidazole, 4-MEI, caramel colouring in cola drinks said to cause cancer
Methyl iodide, CH3I, iodomethane, Highly toxic by all routes, use < 5 mL of 0.1 M per activity, Highly toxic
Methyl iodide, Solution < 2% Not hazardous
Methyl isobutyl ketone (CH3)2CHCH2COCH3, 4-methylpentan-2-one, hexone, solvent
Methyl isobutyl ketone, Toxic by all routes, highly flammable, b.p. 116oC
Methyl isobutyl ketone, Solution or mixture < 5%, Not hazardous
Methyl isocyanate, CH3NCO, Highly toxic by all routes (epoxy resin accelerator), Bhopal disaster in India
Methyl isocyanate, Solution < 5 mL or g, Not hazardous
Methyl isoeugenol:
Methyl isothiocyanate: Glucocapparin
Methyl mercaptan, methanethiol, CH3SH:
Methyl methacrylate
Methyl methanoate, methyl formate, Toxic by all routes, flammable
Methyl orange, C14H14N3NaO3S: 22 (indicator)
Methyl p-hydroxybenzoate, methyl paraben, Nipagin M, Toxic if ingested
Methyl paraben, methylparaben, CH3(C6H4(OH)COO
Nipigin, antifungal preservative, in Drosophila food
Methyl phenidate, medical drug used for nervous conditions
Methyl propional, isobutyraldehyde
Methyl red: 23 (indicator)
Methyl salicylate, C8H8O3
Methyl sulfate (CH3)SO4, colourless oil, used in chemistry to add methyl groups to molecules
Methyl sulfate, Very poisonous, Not permitted in schools
Methyl thionine chloride
Methyl urea, methylcarbamide, Toxic if ingested
Methyl violet, 2B, C24H28N3Cl, basic violet 1, gentian violet: 16 (indicator)
Methyl violet 10B, C25H30N3Cl, basic violet: 16.1 (indicator)
Methyl yellow, C14H15N3: 17 (indicator)
Methylamine, CH3NH2
Methylated spirits
Methylation, addition of methyl, -CH3
N-Methylcytisine, C12H16N2O
Methyldopa, C10H13NO4, white powder, hypertension medicine
N-Methylephedrine, C11H17NO
Methylene blue, microscopy stain: 3.19a
Methylene bromide, Dibromomethane: 12.18.17
Methylene chloride, CH2Cl2, dichloromethane,
Methylene chlorobromide, Bromochloromethane: 12.18.5
Methylene iodide, CH2I2, di-iodomethane, relative density 3.32, used in ore flotation.
4, 4 Methylenebis (2-chloroaniline) (MOCA), hazardous substance
p-methyl aminophenol sulfate, METOL
Plexiglas polymer, Thermoplastic, polymethyl methacrylate)
Polymethyl methacrylate, Lucite (C5O2H8)n, (Perspex): 3.7.24.

Methyl chavicol, C10H12O, estragole, phenolic, phenylpropene,
Estragole, 4-allylanisole, P-allylanisole, methyl chavicol, 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene
in allspice, constituent of many essential oils, in apple, bilberry and orange fruits and juices, flavouring agent,
colorless liquid, odour of anise, insoluble in water, in rind of Persea gratissima, from oil of estragon,
in oils of Russian anise, basil, fennel turpentine, tarragon oil, anise bark oil, smells like licorice, in basil (up to 70%), tarragon (up to 86%),
fennel (up to 65%), may cause adverse reactions in sensitive subjects, may even cause cancer in high doses.

Methyl cinnamate, C10H10O2, C6H5CH=CHCOOCH3,
ester, white to transparent solid, flavouring agent, sweet aromatic odour, balsamic strawberry fruity flavour.

Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, MEKP, C2H5C(OOH)(CH3)OOC(OOH)(CH3)C2H5, 2-butanone peroxide
MEKP, Toxic if ingested (accelerant for resins and fibreglass), short shelf life, reacts with dangerous chemicals.

Methyl methacrylate
Methyl methacrylate, C5H8O2, CH2=C(CH3)COOCH3, MEHQ, acrylic monomer, monomethyl ether of hydroquinone
Methyl methacrylate, 2-methyl-2-propenoic acid methyl ester, methyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate, Toxic
Methyl methacrylate, Solution < 1%, Not hazardous.
Methyl methacrylate is the methyl ester of methacrylic acid which polymerizes to form polymethyl methacrylate,
used as a bone cement in dentistry and orthapaedic surgery.

Methylated spirits
Methylated spirits, denatured alcohol: 16.5.1
Methylated spirits (in spirit burner), Toxic if ingested or inhaled, Highly flammable
Methylated spirits, risk, Flammable: 7.9.22
Use methylated spirits to clean household windows, spectacles, laminated surfaces, rubber door seal of a refrigerator, chrome and glass
bathroom fixtures, treat swimmer's ear and jellyfish stings.
Use methylated spirits + eucalyptus oil + soap flakes solution to shampoo blankets.
Use methylated spirits + lemon juice to remove ink stains, ballpoint ink stains, French polish.

Mica, powder, sheets
Birefringent mica: 27.188
Capacitor, condenser: 38.2.04
Mica group: 35.16.0
Prepare split crystals: 3.54.7.

Mineral deficiency, Knop's solution:
Mineral salts, food additives: 19.4.21
Properties of minerals: 35.2.0
Rocks and minerals, classification, origin: 35.4.0
Separate by froth flotation of heavy minerals: 10.8.0.

Miscible, immiscible
Miscible liquids: 3.16.0
Liquids float on liquids, miscible and immiscible liquids:
Separate two immiscible liquids of different density: 3.26
Shake different liquids in water: 10.4.1.

Mix, mixture
See: Mixers hotplate and stirrer, (Commercial)
Concentration, Molarity: 5.1.7
Mole, amount of substance: 5.1.0.
Mixing and dissolving (Primary): 4.28
Mixing liquids with water (Primary): 4.29
Mixed base, black iron oxide, Fe3O4: 12.8.10
Mixed oxides: 12.17.0
Mixtures, Solutions and mixtures: 5.0.0
Synthesis reactions (combination reactions, direct union of elements):

3.16.0 Miscible liquids
Put 10 mL of water in three test-tubes.
Add 1 mL of: 1. methylated spirits, 2. glycerine, and 3. kerosene.
Shake each test-tube.
Miscible liquids can mix in all proportions.
Alcohol and water are miscible.
Glycerine and water are miscible.
Kerosene and water are not miscible, immiscible.

Myristicin, C11H12O3, terpene, a phenylpropene, methylenedioxyphenol, whcih may defend plants against moulds.
Myristicin occurs in carrots, dill, fennel, nutmeg, parsely.
Myristicin produces a warm, woody aroma in food
Myristicin is psychoactive, anticholinergic, hallucinogenic, precursor to MMDA, 3-methoxy-MDA, C11H15NO3
Trimyristin, sedative, C45H86O6, saturated fat, 80% of nutmeg butter, easily separated by steam distillation, may enhance
detoxification of carcinogenic substances
Used in nutmeg in eggnog, pumpkin pie, bread and butter pudding, custard
Myrstic acid, tetradecanoic acid, CH3(CH3)12COOH, (in nutmeg)
Myristicin, C11H12O3, in nutmeg Amphetamines
Mace (Mystica fragrans), Lamiaceae.
Nutmeg (Mystica fragrans), Lamiaceae.

5.7.0 Concentration, molarity
Concentration, molarity: 5.1.7
Concentration and rate of reaction: 3.7.1
Concentrations and volumes: 5.1.5
Concentration calculation after dilution: 5.1.13
Concentration of a sulfuric acid solution: 5.1.2
Concentration of hydrogen peroxide: 3.49.2
Molality: 5.1.8
Molar heat capacity, Cm: 22.5.02
Molar mass: 5.1.03
Molar volume: 5.1.3
Molarity, concentration: 5.1.7
Mole, amount of substance: 5.1.0.

MDF, medium density fibre board, more dense than particle board, laminated tube,
(emits fine dust and formaldehyde when sanded).

5.1.0 Mole, amount of substance
5.1.0 Mole, amount of substance
5.1.1 Mole, Prepare molar solutions
5.1.01 Atomic mass, atomic weight Avogadro's hypothesis, Avogadro's number, box
5.1.13 Concentration calculation after dilution
5.1.5 Concentrations and volumes
5.1.4 Mass / volume relationships
5.1.8 Molarity
22.5.02 Molar heat capacity, Cm
5.1.03 Molar mass
37.42.1 Molar mass of air, Composition of the atmosphere and greenhouse gases
5.1.3 Molar volume
5.1.7 Molarity, concentration
5.1.02 Molecular mass, molecular weight
5.1.10 Normal saline, physiological saline
5.1.9 Normal solution, normality
5.1.11 Percentage solutions
5.1.6 Preparation instructions
5.1.1 Prepare molar solutions
5.1.12 Specific gravity (relative density) concentrations.

5.1.2 Concentration of a sulfuric acid solution
24.1.14 Molal freezing point constant of cyclohexane solvent
13.1.6 Molar volume of oxygen prepared with hydrogen peroxide
24.1.15 Molar mass of solute from depression of freezing point
5.1.1 Prepare molar solutions
5.1.14 Relative atomic mass of magnesium
3.3.3 Size of stearic acid molecule
10.8.0 Separate by froth flotation of heavy minerals.

Molality: 5.1.8
Molar mass, molal concentration: 5.6.0
Molar heat capacity, Cm: 22.5.02
Molar mass: 5.1.03
Molar volume: 5.1.3
Molarity, concentration: 5.1.7
Mole, amount of substance: 5.1.0.

See: Models, Molecules, (Commercial)
Molecules: 4.0.0
Breakdown large molecules to small molecules: 3.95
Electrophiles and nucleophiles, hydrogen chloride: 14.0
Construct molecular models: 3.5.1
Molecular gastronomy, scientific study of food preparation
Molecular mass, molecular weight: 5.1.02
Molecular models: 3.5.1
Molecular spacing: 10.3.0
Properties of elements: 7.0
Relative molecular mass of gases, propane: 13.1.02
Size of an oil molecule: 3.3.2
Size of stearic acid molecule: 3.3.3.

Molybdenum, Mo
, Mo, Table of Elements
Molybdenite, MoS2: 35.20.28
Molybdenum (II) acetate dimer
Molybdenum: 1.8.0 (Soils)
Molybdenum (powder)
Molybdenum carbinol
Molybdenum hexacarbonyl
Molybdenum standard solution
Molybdenum trioxide, molybdenum oxide (VII), Toxic if ingested
Molybdic acid, Toxic if ingested
Molybdite, MoO2.

Monosodium glutamate, MSG, sodium hydrogen glutamate
E621 Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate intolerance: 19.2.3
L-Glutamic acid monosodium salt hydrate, powder, [C5H8NNaO4.xH2O], [HOOCCH(NH2), CH2CH2COONa],
[(S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid], Glu, MSG, monosodium glutamate, sodium hydrogen glutamate, white crystals, soluble in water,
flavour enhancer especially for Chinese food, but some people are allergic to it, formerly from seaweed, Laminaria japonica.

Alizarin red S indicator solution: 3.3.3
Alizarin yellow: 2.0
Aluminium sulfate
Chrome alum:
Dyes, pigments
Dyes with a mordant: 19.5.3
E263 Calcium acetate
Haematoxylin solution, Heidenhain iron haematoxylin: 3.13.5
Natural dyes: 19.5.4
Prepare plant dyes: 3.30
Sodium sulfate, Na2SO4
Tannic acid, tea
Tannins, plant polyphenols:

3.39.1 Methane with steam
At 700oC and nickel catalyst forms hydrogen and carbon monoxide.
CH4 (g) + H2O (g) --> 3H2 (g) + CO (g).

3.41.4 Reduce copper oxide with natural gas, methane
1. Pass natural gas, about 95% methane, over heated copper (II) oxide powder.
Reduction reaction is slow and may need twenty minutes of strong heating.
Copper does not glow with heating, so it is not clear when all the copper oxide has been reduced.
4CuO (s) + CH4 (g) --> 4Cu (s) + 2H2O (l) + CO2 (g)
2. See: Metaldehyde
Repeat the experiment with a 1 cm cubic piece of metaldehyde in the reduction tube.
The reduction is quicker.
3. Repeat the experiment with natural gas that has bubbled through ethanol.
The reduction is quicker and a slight glow is seen as the copper oxide is reduced.
6CuO (s) + C2H5OH (l) --> 6Cu (s) + 3H2O, (l) + 2CO2 (g).

Animals, Animal Care, 4Real Milk, Queensland
Milk agar medium:
Milk, cheese, dairy products: 16.0
Milk (emulsion) 16.0
Milk separator, centrifuge: 15.2.5
Milk testing and quality control: 16.0.0
A2 Milk ™: 16.3.1
Ice cream:
Prepare casein plastic from milk: 3.100
Prepare milk glue: 9.1.2
Puberty in girls, the breast: 10.3.3 (Human milk)
Tests for lipase activity, castor oil, milk: 9.3.14 (See: 2.)
Tests for milk fortification with calcium carbonate: 16.2.11
Yoghurts: 16.2.7.

Mustard oil (Brassica species), Brassicaceae. Glucosinolates Isothiocyanates, R-N=C=S, (old name: mustard oil) (RN=C=S), Mustards: [X(CH2.CH2)2S]
Mustard, brown Indian mustard, Brassica juncea
Mustard, black mustard, table mustard, Brassica nigra, in Bible, Matthew 13:31-32, "The kingdom of heaven is like a mustard seed, which a man took and sowed in his field"
Mustard, white mustard, yellow mustard (mustard and cress sandwich), Sinapsis alba (Brassica alba)
Mustards, [(XCH2CH2), 2S], two haloalkyl groups bound to a sulfur atom
Mustard (XCH2CH2), 2NR, nitrogen and phosphorus mustards
Use mustard powder to remove onion smells from the hands.

3.74 Metals displace hydrogen from acids
1. Pour 5 cm of the acids in the table below into test-tubes.
Place a piece of metal foil in each test-tube.
Note the formation of hydrogen and compare the different rates at which the bubbles are formed.
Rate of formation of hydrogen gas with 3M hydrochloric acid and 3M sulfuric acid
3 M HCl
3M H2SO4
Very rapid reaction
Rapid reaction
Slight reaction
No reaction
Moderate reaction
Slight reaction
Very slight reaction
Very slight reaction
No reaction
No reaction
No reaction
No reaction
No reaction
No reaction

2. Recover the zinc after the reaction has stopped.
Evaporate the solution to leave zinc sulfate crystals.
Dissolve the colourless zinc sulfate crystals in water and put two carbon electrodes (central poles of dry cell batteries) in the solution.
Connect the electrodes to a 6 V or 12 V DC supply.
Zinc forms rapidly on the cathode.

5.1.0 Mole, amount of substance
1. The mole concept and stoichiometry enable the determination of quantities in chemical processes.
The mole, defined arbitrarily using the isotope carbon-12, is the basic quantity in stoichiometric calculations.
Every chemical reaction can be represented by a balanced equation, whose coefficients indicate both the number of reacting particles
and the reacting quantities in moles
Balanced equations can be used when determining whether reagents are limiting or in excess.
The use of molarity for expressing concentration allows easy interconversions between volume of solution and moles of solute.
The ideal gas equation may be used to relate the volume of a gas at defined temperature and pressure to its quantity in moles.
One mole of any chemical compound has a mass equal to its relative molecular mass expressed in grams.
One mole of any substance contains the same number of atoms or molecules.
The number of particles in a mole is 6.02 × 1023 (Avogadro's constant, Avogadro's number).

2. The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit for amount of substance.
A mole represents how much substance that contains as many atoms or molecules (elementary units) as there are atoms in 0.012 kg
of the carbon isotope carbon-12.
A mole of a substance is the amount of that substance whose weight is equal to the molecular or formula weight.
The molecular weight of H2 = 2, so 1 mole of H2 weighs 2 g.
The molecular weight of CO2 = 44, so 1 mole of CO2 weighs 44 g.
A mole of any substance has the same number of molecules.
Avogadro's constant (formerly Avogadro's number), �is the number of atoms or molecules in one mole of a substance,
(Amedeo Avogadro 1776-1856), NA = 6.022 × 1023.
Strictly speaking, to get a mole of a substance, weigh out its relative atomic mass or relative molecular mass in grams.

3. A mole is the number of carbon-12 atoms whose mass equals 12 grams.
A proposed new definition of amount of substance, mole:
A mole is such that the Avogadro constant is exactly 6.0 221 415 × 1023 per mole.
A mole contains 6.023 × 1023 single units, e.g. atoms, molecules, electrons.

5.1.01 Atomic mass, atomic weight
The atomic mass of an atom is arbitrarily defined relative to the mass of the isotope carbon-12.
The relative atomic mass of an element is the ratio of the average mass of the element to 1/2 of the mass of one atom of the isotope,
However, the "atomic mass unit", abbreviated "amu", is an archaic unit.
Atomic mass is also called atomic weight.
Tables of standard atomic weights published by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) apply to materials
used in the laboratory.

5.1.02 Molecular mass, molecular weight
Molecular mass, formerly molecular weight, is the mass of one mole of that material.
The molecular mass (m) is the mass of a molecule, kg.
Molecular mass (molecular weight) is the mass of one molecule of a substance and is expressed in the unified atomic mass units (u).
(1 u is equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12)
The relative molecular mass for an element or compound is the ratio of the average mass of molecules of the substance to 1/12 the
mass of one atom of C-12.
Molecular mass is also called molecular weight.

5.1.03 Molar mass
Molar mass (molar weight) is the mass of one mole of a substance and is expressed in g/ mol.
The molar mass of a substance will contain 6.02 x 1023 molecules, Avogadro's number.
Molar mass was formerly called gram molecular weight. Avogadro's hypothesis, (Avogadro's law, Avogadro's principle), Avogadro's number box
Equal volumes of all gases contain the same numbers of molecules, under identical conditions of temperature and pressure.
So one mole of any substance contains the same number of particles.
One mole of any gas, under identical conditions of temperature and pressure, has the same fixed volume, the molar volume
(molecular volume) of a gas, 22.414 litres at STP (standard temperature and pressure),
T = 273.15 K,
P = 1 atmosphere (atm).
Avogadro's number box
A cube with sides of 28.2 cm has a volume of 22.4 litres at STP.
A 22.4 litre box represents the volume of one mole at STP.
Observe mole samples of carbon, iron, copper, zinc.

5.1.1 Prepare molar solutions
1. State volumes in millilitres (mL) and litres (L).
One millilitre (mL), the basic unit of capacity, is equivalent to one cubic centimetre (cc or cm3).
State mass in grams (g).
State molar solution in moles (M).
A molar solution, 1 M, contains one mole of the substance per litre of the solution.
The energy change when 1 mole of solute dissolves in the solvent is called the heat of solution.
Exothermic dissolving processes of a solid in a solvent are associated with high solubility.
The dissolving process of a gas in a liquid is exothermic
Endothermic dissolving processes of a solid in a solvent are associated with low solubility.
A substance is "soluble" in a solvent if it dissolves to give a concentration > 0.1 M.
Solubility of gases in liquids decreases with temperature.
When an ionic solid dissolves in water the cations and anions separate.
Usually, ionic solids, e.g. sodium chloride NaCl, are soluble in water and non-ionic substances are insoluble.
However, some ionic solids, e.g. silver iodide, AgI, are insoluble in water.
A precipitate is a solid produced in solution.
Differences in solubility can be used to separate mixtures of ions.
A molar solution (1 M solution) contains one mole of the solute dissolved in 1 litre of water.

2. Make a molar solution of MgSO4.
Calculate the total of the relative atomic masses of all atoms and express the total in grams:
Relative atomic mass Mg = 24.3
Relative atomic mass S = 32.1
Relative atomic mass O = 16.0 × 4 = 64.0
Total = 120.4 Relative molecular mass
Weigh 120.4 g of MgSO4 and dissolve it in 1 litre of water.
When making a molar solution, dissolve all the substance in less than one litre of deionized water,
then add more deionized water
until the volume is exactly 1 litre (making up to 1 litre).

3. Pepper a molar solution of magnesium chloride crystals
If a substance contains water of hydration water of crystallization, e.g. magnesium chloride crystals (MgCl2.6H2O) the weight of the
water is included in the weight of one mole:
Mole of atoms of Mg = 1 × 24.3 = 24.3 g
Moles of atoms of Cl = 2 × 35.4 = 70.8 g
Moles of atoms of H = 12 × 1.0 = 12.0 g
Moles of atoms of O = 6 × 16.0 = 96.0 g
Total = 203.1 Relative molecular mass
One mole of MgCl2.6H2O weighs 203.1 g.
Weigh the solute to the nearest gram.

5.1.2 Concentration of a sulfuric acid solution
Measure a fixed volume, 25.0 mL of sodium hydroxide solution of known concentration, 0.10 M.
Measure the volume of added sulfuric acid solution until the reaction is just complete, e.g. 27.5 mL.
H2SO4 + 2NaOH --> Na2SO4 + 2H2O
1 mole + 2 moles
Calculate the concentration of sulfuric acid:
1000 mL of 0.10 M NaOH contains 0.10 moles
25.0 mL of 0.01 M NaOH contains 0.10 × 25 / 1000 moles
So number of moles NaOH = 0.0025
From the equation, 2 moles NaOH react with 1 mole H2SO4
0.0025 moles NaOH react with 0.0025 / 2 mole H2SO4
So number of moles H2SO4 = 0.00125
27.5 mL H2SO4 contains 0.00125 × moles
1000 mL H2SO4 contains 0.00125 × 1000 / 27.5 moles = 0.045
No. of moles per litre = 0.045
Concentration of H2SO4 solution = 0.045 M.

5.1.3 Molar volume.
1. The molar volume of a substance is the volume occupied by 1 mole of it.
One mole of any substance contains Avogadro's number of particles.
Equal numbers of gas molecules occupy equal volumes.
So the molar volumes of all gases are the same at the same temperature and pressure.
One mole of any gas at STP occupies
22.4 litres (22, 400 mL) (molar volume of gas at STP, or gram molecular volume, G.M.V., at STP)
STP = 0oC (273.15 K) and 760 mm Hg (101325 pascals, Pa).
The molar volume varies with temperature and pressure in accordance with the combined gas equation,
P1 × V1 / T1 = P2 × V2 / T2.
Find the number of moles of gas present by converting the volume measured under experimental conditions to the volume at STP,
then compare with the molar volume.

2. How many moles of gas are present in 320 mL methane at 27oC and 600 mm pressure?
P1 × V1 / T1 = P2 × V2 / T2
600 × 320 / 300 = 760 × V2 / 273
Volume at STP, V2 = 273 × 600 × 320 / 760 × 300 = 229.89 = approx. 230 mL
230 mL of the gas contains 230 / 22400 moles at STP = 0.01027 moles.

5.1.4 Mass / volume relationships
Find the volume occupied by 1.60g of oxygen gas at STP.
1 mole of oxygen gas occupies 22.4 litres at STP.
32g of oxygen gas occupies 22.4 litres at STP.
1.60 g of oxygen gas occupies 1.60 × 22.4 / 32 = 1.12 litres at STP.

5.1.5 Concentrations and volumes
Concentration is the quantity of dissolved substance, solute, per unit quantity of solvent in a solution, or concentration is the number of
ions or molecules of a substance, in a given volume of solvent.
Concentration, c (formerly molarity) is expressed as moles per litre, mol l-1, mol dm-3
Concentration can also be expressed as moles per cubic metre or moles per cubic decimetre
Mass concentration, ρρ = g cm-3, kg l-1, kg dm-3
Molal concentration, molality, is expressed as mol kg-1
1 litre = 1 cubic decimetre (1 dm3) = 1000 cubic centimetres (1000 cm3).

5.1.6 Preparation instructions
1. If a solution more concentrated than in preparation instructions is needed, dissolve more solute in one litre of water.
For a 4 M sodium hydroxide solution, the table 6.1 shows that 80 g sodium hydroxide is needed to make 1 litre of 2 M solution.
So dissolve (4 / 2)M × 80 g = 160 g sodium hydroxide in 1 litre of water to make a 4 M solution.

2. If a solution less concentrated than in preparation instructions is needed, dissolve less solute in one litre of water.
For a 0.01 M sodium iodide solution, the table shows that 15 g of sodium iodide is needed to make 1 litre of 0.1 M solution.
So dissolve (0.01 / 0.1) M × 15 g = 1.5 g sodium iodide in 1 litre of water to make a 0.1 M solution.

3. A stock bottle or "Winchester" bottle may have a volume of 2.4 litres.
See: Winchester, (Commercial)
To make 2.4 litres of 2 M Sulfuric, 55 mL of conc. acid is needed to make 1 litre of 1 M solution.
So use (2.4 / 1) mL × (2 / 1) M × 55 mL = 264 mL conc. acid to make 2.4 litres of 2 M solution.

5.1.7 Molarity, concentration
1. The molarity of a solution is the number of moles of solute per litre of the solution.
A molar solution, 1 M, contains 1 mole of solute per litre of solution.
1 M = 1 gram molecular weight of solute / litre of solution, so 1 M NaCl solution contains (23 + 35.5) 58.5 g of NaCl in 1 litre of
1 M HCl = (1 + 35.5) 36.5 g / L.
2. Molarity is the concentration of the solution expressed as the number of moles of the dissolved substance per dm3 (litre) of solution.
A molar solution has a concentration of one mole per dm3 (litre).
3. 1 M (1 molar solution) = 1 mol / L = 1 mol / dm3 = 1 mol dm-3 = 1000 mol / m3
4. Molar concentration, ci = amount of constituent, ni / volume of the solution, V.

5.1.8 Molality
The molality of a solution is the number of moles of solute per kg of solvent.
1 molal = moles per Kg water.
Molality is the concentration of a solution expressed as number of moles of the dissolved substance per kilogram of solvent.
SI unit for molality = mol / kg.

5.1.9 Normal solution, normality
1. A normal solution contains 1 gram equivalent weight of solute per litre of solution.
An equivalent weight = molecular weight / valence,
so 1N NaCl contains 58.5 g NaCl / litre, 1N HCl contains 36.5 g HCl / litre, 1N H2SO4 contains 98 / 2 = 49 g H2SO4 / litre.
So molarity × valence = normality.
A 2 mol per litre solution of sulfuric acid, 2M, is a 4 N solution.
The term "normal solution" is obsolescent and is no longer used or taught in chemistry teaching, but it is still being used in the chemical

2. Normality was a concentration unit formerly used for acid, bases, oxidizing agents and reducing agents, based on the concentration
of H+ and OH- in a solution.
A normal solution has a concentration of one gram equivalent per dm3 (litre).
One litre of a normal solution contains the weight in grams of the solute that is equivalent to 1 g of replaceable hydrogen gas.
So 25 mL of N HCl would react exactly with 25 mL of N NaOH or 250 mL of N / 10 NaOH.
For monobasic acids, the equivalent is numerically the same as the molecular weight.
For dibasic acids, the equivalent is numerically equal to half the molecular weight.
So a 2M (2 moles per litre) solution of H2SO4 = 4N solution of H2SO4.

5.1.10 Normal saline, physiological saline
This solution is used in medicine as a plasma substitute in intravenous drips because it is isotonic with human blood plasma, although it
may have a slightly higher osmality.
It contains 0.9% NaCl + 5% D-glucose, dextrose, which is isotonic with 0.9% NaCl and is used to decrease the concentration of

5.1.11 Percentage solutions
1. Percentage W / W solution, percentage of weight of solute in the total weight of solution, number of grams of solute in 100 grams of
To make a 10% (W / W) NaCl solution, dissolve 10 g NaCl in 100 g of solution.

2. Percentage W / V solution, percentage of weight of solute in the total volume of solution, number of grams of solute in 100 mL of
To make a 10% (W / V) NaCl solution, dissolve 10 g of NaCl in 100 mL of solution.
(This is the most common percentage solution.)

3. Percentage V / V solution, percentage of volume of solute in the total volume of solution, number of millilitres of solute in 100 mL of
To make a 10% (V / V) methanol solution add 10 mL of methanol to 100 mL of solution, assume water unless otherwise stated.

5.1.12 Specific gravity (relative density) concentrations
See: Specific gravity, Multiple reagent strips
Concentrated acids and other liquid reagents may have concentration expressed as the specific gravity of the solution as the number of
grams per millilitre.
If specific gravity of HCl = 1.1885, then each mL of solution contains
1.1885 g of HCl, i.e. 1188.5 g / L = 1188.5 / 36.5 = 32.56 M.
If other substances are present in the solution the percentage assay may be stated,
For example:.
38% HCl means that 38% of 1188.5 is HCl
1188.5 × 0.38 = 451.63 g / L = 45.163 g / 100 mL
A 38% solution of HCl at 20oC has specific gravity 1.1885 and contains 451.63 g HCl per litre.

5.1.13 Concentration calculation after dilution
V1C1 = V2C2, where V = volume, C = concentration as percentage or M or N
1 = the more concentrated solution, 2 = the less concentrated, new dilute, solution.

5.2.0 Prepare serial dilution, different percentage concentrations
100% solution: Prepare 100 mL of saturated solution, then filter.
0.5% solution: 0.5 mL of saturated solution, add water to 100 mL.
0.1% solution: 20 mL of 0.5% solution, add water to 100 mL.
0.05% solution: 50 mL of 0.1% solution, add water to 100 mL.
0.01% solution: 20 mL of 0.05% solution, add water to 100 mL.
0.005% solution: 50 mL of 0.01% solution, add water to 100 mL.
0.001% solution: 20 mL of 0.005% solution, add water to 100mL.