School Science Experiments
2019-02-21
Please send comments to: J.Elfick@uq.edu.au

Chemistry F
Table of Contents
FAA, Prepare formaldehyde-acetic acid alcohol:
4.3
Fabrics, Household fabric: 19.5.0
Face cream, Prepare face cream emulsion: 7.8.3.2
Face shields, Safety face shields
Fahrenheit scale: 6.3.1.5.01
Faraday's first law: 15.1.1
Faraday's first law, Tests for Faraday's first law: 15.1.1.1
Faraday's laws, Electrolysis of copper (II) sulfate solution: 15.5.15
Farnesene, C15H24
Farnesol, C15H25OH
Fast Green, FCF (CI: 42053)
Fast Red, TR (CI: 37085)
Fats
FCC (Food Chemical Codex)
Febrifugine, C16H19N3O3
Fehling's test: 9.142
Feldspars (Geology)
Fenchol, C10H18O
Fenchone, C10H16O
Fentanyl, C22H28N2O, narcotic analgesic, opioid agonist, addictive
Fermentation
Fermium, Fm
Ferrate compounds, iron compounds
Ferric, Ferro, Ferrous, compounds
Ferricyanide, Ferrocyanide
Fertilizers, Plant fertilizers: 6.17.0
Fertilizing soil, Soil fertility: 6.30
Ferulic acid, C10H10O4
Fexofenadine: Bergamottin
Fibre glass
Fibre Optics, (Commercial)
Fibrous proteins and globular proteins: 16.3.6.0.2
Ficin
Ficine, C20H19NO4
Filament lamp, Incandescence, electric light bulb: 33.4.0
"Fill water", Makeup water: 18.7.47, (Swimming pools)
Fillers in washing powders: 12.12.03.5
Filter funnels
Filters: 18.7.20 (Swimming pools)
See: Filter paper filter flask, (Commercial)
Filtration: 10.11.03
Fingerprints: 9.233 (Biology)
Fingerprints with iodine: 12.19.6.9
Fining (wine)
Fipronil, C12H4Cl2F6N4OS, (insecticide)
Fire Safety, fire safety, fireproof
See: Fire Safety (Commercial)
Firming agents, food additives: 19.4.15
FIRST AID, Pesticide safety: 16.18.10
FIRST AID, Poisons and First Aid (Table): 3.10.0
FIRST AID, poisons, Chemicals safety: 3.4.0
See: First Aid (Commercial)
First law of thermodynamics, enthalpy: 7.9.14.1
Fisetin, C15H10O6
Fish oils: 19.2.1.12
Fish smell, trimethylamine, N(CH3)3: 16.7.21.0
Fisher projection formula: See diagram: 16.3.1.3a
Fission, Uranium, U: 35.20.47
Fixatives, Prepare biology fixatives: 4.0
Fixed oils: 16.6.2
Fixing, Prepare insect-fixing solutions: 4.1
Fizzy drinks, Carbonic acid, soda water: 3.34.3a
Fizzy drinks, Soft drinks: 15.8.6
FLAM: can readily burn or catch fire
Flame retardants, Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs): 3.0.5
Flame tests, Tests for metals with flame tests: 12.11.3.2a
See: Flame spreader for Bunsen burner, (Commercial)
Flammable
See: Flasks Erlenmeyer, volumetric, boiling flasks, (Commercial)
16.3.4.2.0 Flavonoids (Bioflavonoids), Flavonols, Flavanols
Flavanones, dihydroflavones: 16.3.4.2.2
Flavanonols, Taxifolin, C15H12O7, dihydroflavonols: 16.3.4.2.3
Flavans, Flavanols: 16.3.4.2.4
Flavourings, flavour enhancing agents, food additives: 19.4.16
Flavoxanthin, C40H56O3, xanthophylls
Flaxseed oil, Composition of edible oils: 19.2.11 (Table)
Flocculate, Clarify muddy water by filtration and flocculation: 10.11.1
Flocculent (bacteriology) (mining)
Flotation, Separate by froth flotation of heavy minerals: 10.8.0
Flour
Flowers, Distil essences from leaves and flowers: 10.5.4
Flowers of sulfur, sulfur, S
Flubendazole, C16H12FN3O3, antihelmintic, human worm infection
Fluid pressure, liquid pressure, hydrostatics: 12.2.0 (Physics)
Fluorescence, fluorescein, fluorescence microscopy
Fluorine, F
Flux: 2.33
fmole, femtomole, 10-15 moles
Foam, Polymer foam: 3.5.1
Foaming agents in washing powders: 12.12.03.3b
Foams: 7.8.4.0
See: Foil, Ag, Al, Cu, Pb, Ni, (Commercial)
Folic acid derivative: tetrahydrofolate, tetrahydrofolic acid, C19H23N7O6
Folic acid, PteGlu, Pteroyl-L-glutamic acid, Vitamin M, C19H19N7O6
Food
Fool's gold, Pyrite, iron pyrite, iron sulfide, FeS2: 35.20.32 (Geology)
Forensic science topics: 9.240
See: Forensics (Commercial)
Forgery, Detect a forgery: 10.2.2.4
Formaldehyde
Formic acid, HCOOH
Formica, Phenolics: 3.8.10
Formula, Group formula: 7.9.30
Forskolin, C22H34O7
Fossil fuels, peak oil: 37.32.2
Fracking, Oil shale and fracking, hydraulic fracturing: 35.23.10 (Geology)
Fractions, Distil crude oil and collect the fractions: 10.6.3
Fractions (Mathematics)
Francium, Fr
Free element metals: 2.6.0
Free radicals, Antioxidants
Freezing, Melting point (m.p.), freezing point (f.p.): 24.5.0
Freons, CFCs, chlorofluorocarbons, "Freons": 12.19.5.0
Friedel-Crafts reaction: 16.4.1.5
Froth flotation: 35.3.04
Fructose
Fuchsine, fuchsin
Fuels, fuel cell
See: Funnels (Commercial)
Fuller's earth: 35.22.4.5
Fumaric acid, C4H4O4
Fume cupboards, fume hoods: 2.4
Fumigants: 16.18.9.2 (Agricultural chemicals)
Functional groups: 2.0
Fungi: 9.0.0
Fungicides: 16.8.12
Fungicides: 16.6.0 (List of fungicides)
See: Funnels Buchner, filter, separating, thistle funnels, (Commercial)
Furanocoumarins: 16.3.3.0
Furfural, C5H4O2
Fuses: 32.4.7.0 (electricity)
Fusion mixture, Heat substances with charcoal and fusion mixture: 12.11.3.8.

Fats
See: Fat (Commercial)
Fats and oils, animal fat (tallow, suet, dripping is fat from beef cattle), (lard is pig fat), soap is made from animal fat and hydroxide
Burn carbohydrates, fats and proteins: 16.9.1
Cooking fats: 19.1.17
Digestibility of fats: 9.225
Fat molecule, human, C55H104O6
Fats in animals and plants: 19.2.1.1
Fats in food: 3.90
Fatty acids
Hydrogenation
Lard is fat of a pig.
Prepare soap: 12.12.1
Steam distillation to measure water and fat content of food: 10.5.5
Suet
Tallow
Tests for fats and oils: 9.137
Tests for proportion of fats in foods: 16.4.5
Tests for unsaturated fats, acidified potassium manganate (VII) solution: 16.4.9.1
Tests for unsaturated fats, bromine water test: 16.4.7.1.

Fatty acids
Carboxylic acids and fatty acids: 16.3.8.0
Carboxylic acids, fatty acids and their salts: 16.4.1.1
Esters, derivatives of fatty acids: 16.5.0
Fats in food: 3.90
Fatty acids, ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids: 19.2.1.8
Fatty acids in coconut oil: 17.7, (List)
Fatty acids in oils of natural products: 17.6
Fatty alcohols, lauryl alcohol: 3.8.0
Lipids, fats and oils, fatty acids, glycerides: 16.3.3.0.

Fermentation
Alcoholic fermentation, yeast: 6.6.18
Butyric acid fermentation (cut potato): 6.6.19
Carbon dioxide and fermentation for brewing: 3.38
Ferment sugar with yeast: 12.7.20
Fermentation, Food preparations: 4.2.0
Fermentation using yeast: 17.4.2
Glucose fermentation: 6.6.20
Fermentation: 2.1.1 (Safety)
Safety in the microbiology laboratory: 2.4.0
Triple scale wine hydrometer: 10.2.3.

Fermium
Fermium
, Fm (Enrico Fermi, 1901-1954, Italy), radioactive actinide element, produced by bombarding plutonium with neutrons,
called fermium in 1952.

Ferricyanide, Ferrocyanide
Ferricyanide ion: Fe(CN)63-, Ferrocyanide ion: Fe(CN)64-
Blueprints and diazo prints: 2.3 (See: 3.)
Blueprint paper sold as "Sun Blueprint Paper"
Decomposition ferricyanides: 3.30.12
Ferricyanides, hazards: 3.7.5
Ferrocyanides, hazards: 3.7.6
Potassium ferricyanide, K3Fe(CN)6
Prepare crystal blossoms: 3.54.9
Prussian blue, iron (III) ferrocyanide
Prussian blue as a semipermeable membrane: 9.168
Reactions of iron (II) salts and iron (III) salts, Prussian blue: 14.8.1 (See: 3.)
Tests for glucose concentration, ferricyanide test: 5.0.

Ficin
Ficus protease; Higueroxyl delabarre, CH2FI2N, sulfhydryl proteinase, from ficus latex,
used in alcoholic beverages, beer chillproofing agent, meat tenderiser, dough conditioner, rennet substitute, precooked cereals
Ficain (or ficin) is an enzyme which is derived from figs latex, an endopeptidase, used for differentiating many blood group antigens.

Fire Safety
See: Fire Safety, (Commercial)
Fire:
Action in case of fire - evacuation:3.5.1
Action in case of fire - equipment: 3.5.2
Fire extinguisher
Fire safety and fire equipment: 3.5.0
Fireproof, Asbestos: 35.20.3
Fireproof, cloth, paper, wood: 3.5.11
Fireproof, Talc: 35.23.7
Flammable.

Fire extinguisher
Fire extinguishers
Fire extinguisher, dry chemical powder, paper, wood, textile, oil, liquid and electrical fires, 2.5 kg, 4.5 kg
Fire extinguisher, soda acid fire extinguisher: 3.34.6
Fire extinguisher, water stream impulse: 17.6.1.1.

Flammable
See: Flame (Commercial)
FLAM: can readily burn or catch fire
Flammable, Hazard classifications: 15.1.0
Flammable aerosols: 4.3
Flammable gases: 3.5.9
Flammable liquids: 3.5.8
Flammable organic chemicals: 15.7.0
Flammable organic chemicals with low flashpoint below 32oC: 15.8.0
Flammable solids: 4.7
Flammable substances: 3.5.7
Store flammable liquids: 3.4.13.4
Substances emit flammable gases with water: 4.12.

1 The word "flammable" means "easily set on fire".
Also, you can use "non-flammable", but in chemistry do not use "inflammable".
Flammability, explosion, limits: outer limits for the ratio of fuel to air within which the mixture will burn.
The mishandling of flammable solvents has probably caused fires and personal injuries in chemical laboratories, especially the burning
of loose long hair.
Staff and students must have securely fixed and contained hair by tying back the hair or using caps or hair nets.
Flammable solvents become more difficult to ignite as their boiling points rise, so use the highest boiling point solvent possible.
Do not use water baths to heat volatile flammable solvents.
Solvents should only be used by staff with students after assessment of the risks, which include not only flammability but their toxicity,
including possible allergic reactions.
2 Carbon disulfide has a greater flammability than ether and forms more dense vapours, with a low ignition temperature < 100oC.
Carbon disulfide is not permitted in schools.
3 Diethyl ether evaporates readily to form a heavy vapour in air, which can travel along the bench or floor in an air current.
Diethyl ether is not permitted in schools.
4 Hydrogen forms violently explosive mixtures with air in almost any proportions and spontaneously combusts at concentrations
greater than 4% in air.
Use this gas for demonstration purposes only in extremely small quantities or use soap bubble techniques.
5 Natural gas forms explosive mixtures with air so turn off heaters, Bunsen burners, and other equipment using natural gas and other
flammable gases, e.g acetylene.
6 Methylated spirit, ethanol and hydrocarbon solvents, e.g petroleum spirit, hexane, pose the greatest risk in schools.
Mixtures of air with any of these materials are highly flammable, and ignition of vapour is usually followed by a fire in or around the
solvent container.

Flocculent
A flocculent is usually a precipitate in cloud-like tufts, flocs.
In bacteriology, flocculation refers to the formation of floccules (agglutinated bacteria) in a precipitin test, especially for antigens of
Salmonella.
In mining, flocculation refers to coagulation of ore particles to form flocs and remove excess water.

Flour
Flour treatment agents, food additives: 19.4.17
Experiments
Prepare flour glue: 9.1.1
Prepare self-leavened flour, "self-raising flour": 19.1.8.1
Prepare wallpaper paste: 9.1.3
Use flour to make play dough: 19.1.8.2
Use flour to make glue: 19.1.8.3
Use flour to make papier-mâché: 19.1.8.4
Use flour to clean brass and copper: 19.1.8.5.

Fluorescence, fluorescein, fluorescence microscopy
See: Fibre Optics (Commercial)
Fluorescence
6.5.9 Chlorophyll fluorescence
28.6.2 Critical angle in ripple tank, refraction tank, aquarium (fluorescein)
16.3.5.4 Fluorescein
3.34 Fluorescence staining of cells and tissues
38.8.3 Fluorescent lamp (Electronics)
16.3.5.0 Fluorescent liquids
12.12.03.3a Fluorescent whitening agents, synthetic detergents (syndets)
14.3.0a Fluorophores
Luminescence
Merbromin + dark red fluorescein
Phosphorescence
3.7.13 Polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs
3.4.9 Prepare Bakelite plastic, phenol / methanal polymerization (See 2 fluorescein )
12.19.9.1 Reactions of bromine, Br2 (See 3.)
12.19.9.4 Reactions of hydrogen bromide, HBr (See 7.)
28.5.2 Refraction tank, ripple tank, aquarium
16.1.3.2.4 Resorcinol
35.20.38 Scheelite, calcium tungstate, CaWO4
4.136 Ultraviolet light source
28.12.2 Water flask model of the eye
7.9.56.1 Xanthene dyes, Fluorescein.

Fluorescence
Fluorescent minerals absorb ultraviolet light and emit longer wavelength visible light, e.g scheelite.
Fluorescence is luminescence that does not persist when the exciting cause is removed, e.g a fluorescent light.
The rapid emission of light at longer wavelengths than that which is absorbed, e.g adsorption of ultraviolet light can yield blue
fluorescence.
Certain excited atoms emit a photon of lower energy than the incident photon that caused the transition.
If the process takes place rapidly, < 10-7 seconds, it is called fluorescence.
Use a 1:500 alcoholic solution of eosin to demonstrate fluorescence.

Fluorine, F
See: Fluorine Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Fluorine, Table of Elements
Fluorine compounds: 4.0
Fluorine experiments: 3.0
Fluorine, properties: 7.2.2.16
Fluoro, -F
Fluorides
Fluorspar, CaF2: 35.20.14, (Geology)
Calcium fluoride, calcium fluorite, fluospar, Harmful if ingested.

Boron trifluoride, Highly toxic
Emitters of fluoride are metal cleaning operations, glass and enamel manufacturing and glazing, toothpaste, and fluoride enhanced water.
These emissions may be to the soil, water, or air.
Fluorourcil, C4H3FN2O2, 5-fluorourcil, cancer drug, Toxic by all routes, Not permitted in schools
Fluoride compounds all contain fluorine.
Fluorine is found in nature as part of the mineral fluorspar.
Fluoride (fluorido), F-, monodentate ligand
SPADNS fluoride reagent solution, 500 mL (HO)2C10H3(SO3Na)2N=NC6H4SO3Na, indicator for zirconium, thorium.

Fluorides
See: Fluoride Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Cryolite, sodium aluminium fluoride: 35.20.13
Elements in the Earth's crust, abundance of elements: 36.3.01
Fluorspar, CaF2: 35.20.14
Hydrofluoric acid, HF, Not permitted in schools: 12.19.7.0
Potassium fluoride, KF, corrodes glass
Perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA: 16.3.8.5
Sodium fluoride.

3.0 Fluorine experiments
Prepare hydrogen fluoride, HF: 12.19.7.1
Prepare silicon tetrafluoride, SiF4: 12.19.7.2
Teeth and toothpaste, calcium hydroxyapatite: 9.226 (See 2.).

4.0 Fluorine compounds
12.19.5.0 Freons, CFCs, chlorofluorocarbons, "Freons":
16.14.2 PFOA, perfluorooctanoic acid, CF3(CF2)6COOH, TeflonTM
16.14.3 PFOS, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, C8HF17O3S
.

Food
See: Food (Commercial)
Code numbers of food additives most likely to cause adverse reactions: 19.4.2
Emulsifiers, food additives: 19.4.14
Firming agents, food additives: 19.4.15
Flavourings, flavour enhancing agents, food additives: 19.4.16
Flour treatment agents, food additives: 19.4.17
Food acids, food additives: 19.4.18
Food additives and EEC code numbers: 19.4.5
Food additives: 19.4.4
Food allergies and intolerances, "hyperactive": 19.2.0
Food molecules: 16.7.0
Food colouring and ADHD: 19.9.1
Food preservation: 19.3.6
Glazing agents, food additives: 19.4.19
Glycaemic index (GI): 4.2.11
Health risk = Food additives that may cause medical conditions
Household chemicals: 19.1.0
Household chemicals checklist: 19.4.1
Household, chemicals, products, substances, kitchen hints: 19.9.0
Humectants, bulking agents, food additives: 19.4.20
Humectants, food additives: 19.4.7
Mineral salts, food additives: 19.4.21
Nutrients in food: 19.3.13
Nutrients, Lost nutrients in food: 19.3.03
Packaging gases, propellants, food additives: 19.4.22
Preservatives, food additives: 19.4.23
Sequestrants, food additives: 19.4.6
Stabilizers, thickeners, food additives: 19.4.26
Synthetic food colours approved for use in Australia: 19.4.1
Sweeteners, food additives: 19.4.25
Vegetable gums, food additive: 19.4.27.

Experiments
Cooking: 19.3.0
Different kinds of food: 2.34 (Primary)
Digestion of food: 5.20 (Primary)
Elements in food: 3.98
Fermentation, food preparations: 4.2.0
Food acids, acids in foods: 19.1.6
Food colouring liquids and detergent: 16.7.14
Food Gardens 9.0, (Agriculture)
Food molecules: 16.7.0
Food preservation: 19.3.6
Food tests, tests for food: 9.3.11.0
Food used in plant respiration: 9.160
Forest food chains: 6.01 (Primary)
Heat different foods: 9.128
Heat of combustion, bomb calorimeter, energy values of food: 22.5.7
Micro-organisms and food spoilage: 4.3.18
Tests for food, Food tests: 9.3.11.0
Three kinds of food (Primary): 2.34
Sea food chains: 5.07 (Primary).

Formaldehyde
Formaldehyde solution, CH2O, methanal, formalin, Toxic by all routes, Corrosive (use < 2 mL only)
Formaldehyde, Solution < 1%, Not hazardous
Formalin, 40% solution of formaldehyde in water, forms toxic fumes.
Formalin, paraform, methylene glycol, methyl aldehyde
Formalin, 40% solution of formaldehyde in water
FAA (formalin, acetic acid, alcohol), biology fixative, for plant material: 4.3
Formal saline, para formaldehyde: 4.5
Formalin, biology fixative: 4.4
Formaldehyde, formalin, biology fixative, for animal material: 4.4
Formaldehyde, Indoor air pollution: 18.6.0.2
Formaldehyde may contain 10-15% ethanol to prevent polymerization
Formaldehyde with hydrochloric acid may form carcinogenic bis(chloromethyl) ether.
Prepare urea-formaldehyde resin: 3.101
Urea-formaldehyde (urea-methanal), resin, thermoset plastic: 3.8.11.

Formaldehyde solution, HCHO, CH2O (aq), gas readily soluble in water, methanal (+10% methanol), formalin: 40% methanal
solution (disinfectant, plastics).
Do NOT mix with HCl because carcinogenic bis(chloromethyl) ether may form, so do NOT dispose formaldehyde and HCl in the
same sink.
ACS reagent, 37 wt % in H2O, contains 10-15% methanol as stabilizer (to prevent polymerization)
Formaldehyde (methanal), is highly poisonous and probably carcinogenic and should be handled with extreme care.
Formaldehyde is transported and stored as a concentrated aqueous solution called formalin.
When a bottle of formaldehyde is opened, a large amount of gas may be released.
Do NOT inhale the formaldehyde gas.
Do experiments with concentrated formaldehyde solutions in a fume cupboard.
However, dilute formaldehyde solutions produce little formaldehyde and can be safely handled in the open laboratory.
Preserve biological specimens in a solution of 50% ethanol and 50% water, instead of formaldehyde solution.
Do not mix hydrochloric acid and formaldehyde solution because highly carcinogenic bis(chloromethyl) ether may form.
Do NOT store bottles of hydrochloric acid near formaldehyde because the reaction might occur in the air.
Do NOT dispose of formaldehyde solutions and hydrochloric acid in the same sink system.

Formic acid, HCOOH
Formic acid, CH2O2, HCOOH, methanoic acid, Toxic by all routes, Corrosive, lung irritant
Formic acid (in insect stings, ants)
Formic acid, Solution < 2%, Not hazardous
Formic acid, Ionization reaction: 16.3.6.1.3
Formic acid (sodium salt).

Formic acid, HCOOH, methanoic acid, conc 46 M, hydrogen carboxylic acid, in ants and stinging nettles, most simple carboxylic acid.
Formic acid is highly poisonous and should be treated with care.
It is highly volatile and the vapour should NOT be inhaled.
Formic acid is the only simple aliphatic carboxylic acid to possess reducing properties because of the presence of a (-CHO) component
in the molecular structure.
Formic acid is both an aldehyde and a carboxylic acid.
HCOOH + H2O <--> H3O+ + HCOO-, Ka = 1.8 × 10-4.

Francium
Francium
, Fr (France), radioactive, heaviest alkali metal element, from uranium ore decay, the last "natural" element and was
discovered by Marguerite Percy, France, in 1939 (Fm-223, 22 minutes),
Exists only as compounds, very rare, disintegration product of actinium, melting point 300.15 K.

Fuchsine, fuchsin
Fuchsin, rosaniline hydrochloride, magenta dye, C20H19N3.HCl, a brilliant red aniline dye derivedr from coal tar.
Fuchsine acid, Andrade's acid fuchsin indicator: 1.0
Fuchsine basic, basic fuchsine (CI: 42510), Toxic
Calberla's pollen stain: 3.5.4
Magenta: 27.196.

Fuchsine (fuchsin), C20H19N3.HCl, rosaniline hydrochloride, triphenylmethane dyestuff, magenta dye, dark green crystals in water form
purple red solution (the colour of flowers of Fuchsia, Onagraceae), disinfectant for skin infections, stain bacteria (not "fuchsin"), basic
fuchsine has variable contents including rosaniline and similar compounds, used in Schiff's reagent test for aldehydes, acid fuchsine is
mixture of basic fuchsine + sulfonic groups to decolorize it.
Fuchsine (fuchsin) is sold as:
1 Basic Fuchsin, C19H17N3.HCl, dye, Basic Parafuchsin, Basic Red 9, Magenta O, Parafuchsin hydrochloride, Paramagenta
hydrochloride, Pararosaniline chloride, Pararosaniline hydrochloride.
2 Basic Fuchsin, C20H20ClN3 for microscopy, indicator (pH 1.0-3.1), Basic Violet 14, Fuchsin basic, Magenta, Rosaniline.
2 Acid Fuchsin, C20H17N3Na2O9S3, for tissue staining, Acid Violet 19, Fuchsin S, Fuchsin acid, RubineS.

Fuels, fuel cell
See: Fuel Cell (Commercial)
Fuel cell: 7.9.28
Recommended maximum quantity of fuel to be stored in a school
1 Oil and grease 40 L, clean oil contains irritants, used oil contains contaminants, use gloves and eye protection
with grease
2 Petroleum, Petrol (gasoline) highly flammable
3 Diesel 20 L, toxic fumes, irritates skin and eyes
4 Two stroke petrol mix, toxic fumes, irritates
5 Kerosene, 5 L, toxic fumes, irritates skin and eyes.

Calorific value of fuel, heat transfer
See: Fuel Cell (Commercial)
4.38 Fuel
Motor vehicle ignition system, primary circuit: 32.5.5.1
Petroleum.

A fuel cell is a device with a cathode and anode, which converts a fuel directly into electricity without burning.
The simplest case is hydrogen gas bubbled over a porous sintered nickel anode in alkali solution, while oxygen is bubbled over a
similar cathode separated by a porous membrane.
An electric current is produced in an external circuit.
Like a battery, except that fuels, e.g methanol, rather than metals are consumed, and the reaction is not reversible.

2.0 Functional groups
Functional group: See diagram 16.0.0
1 Alcohols, 2 Aldehydes, 3 Amines and Amides, 4 Carboxylic acids, 5 Cyclic compounds, 6 Esters, 7 Ethers, 8 Halogens (Alkyl
Halides), 9 Ketones R = alkyl group
1 Alcohols, R-OH, -OH hydroxyl, Prefix: hydroxy-, Suffix: -ol (-OH: alcohol) (alkanol, alkyl alcohol).
Multiple -OH groups suffixes: -diol, -triol, -tetraol, e.g ethylene glycol = ethane-1, 2-diol, CH2OHCH2OH
2 Aldehyde, R-CH=O, Prefix: formyl-, Suffix: -al
Cyclic aldehydes, Prefix: formyl-, Suffix: -carbaldehyde, attached to benzene: benzaldehyde
3 Amines and Amides
Amines: R-NH2, Prefix: amino-, Suffix: -amine
Primary amine R1NH2, Secondary amine R1NHR2, Tertiary amine R1NR2R3, e.g trimethylamine
Amide RCONH2 (amine + acid), No prefix, Suffix: -oic, amide, e.g acetamide = ethanamide, CH3CONH2
R-C(=O)NR'R', Prefix: carbamoyl, NH2CO, Suffix: -carboxamide, RCONH2
4 Carboxylic acids, RCOOH Prefix: carboxy-, Suffix: -oic acid, Multiple: dicarboxylic acid, tricarboxylic acid
6 Esters RCOOR', Prefix: R-oxycarbonyl-, Suffix: -alkyl, -oate, e.g. methyl formate = methyl ethanoate, HCOOCH3, but "ethyl
acetate" (keeping old name)
7 Ethers ROR' (Alcohol names), -ether, Prefix: -oxy-, e.g dimethyl ether = methoxymethane, CH3OCH3
8 Halogens (Alkyl halides), R-X, Prefixes: fluoro-, bromo-, chloro-, dichloro-, trichloro-, iodo-, e.g chloroform, trichloromethane,
CHCl3
Haloalkanes, halogenalkanes, alkyl halides, e.g Acyl chloride, acid chloride, RCOCl, functional group -CO-Cl,
Prefix: halo-, formyl-, Suffix: -oyl halide, e.g chlorofluorocarbons, CFCs
9 Ketones, RCOR', keto-, -one, e.g acetone = propan-2-one, C=OH2, Prefix: oxo-, Suffix: -one.

Suet, solid fat around kidneys of cattle and sheep, to be melted to form tallow.
Suet pudding is made of suet + flour, wrapped in a cloth, then boiled.

Tallow
Tallow, hard fat formed from rendering suet, contains stearin, palmitin, olein, used for candles, soap.

Furfural, C5H4O2
Furfural, C5H4O2, 2-furaldehyde, heterocyclic aldehyde, in wheat bran, maize bran, vanilla, cinnamon, colourless, oily liquid, almond
smell, thermosets easily, resists corrosion.