School Science Lessons
Please send comments to:

Chemistry Copper
Table of Contents
Copper, Cu
Copper compounds

Copper, Cu
See: Copper Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Copper, Table of Elements
Copper, properties:
Copper compounds
Copper-aluminium alloys, bronze: 5.5.8
Copper-nickel alloys: 5.5.9
Copper-tin alloys, bronze: 5.5.7
Copper-zinc alloys, brass: 5.5.6
Copper deficiency in soil: 1.4.0
Copper and copper deficiency symptoms: 1.4.0, (Soil)
Copper experiments: 12.7.0
Copper, natural copper: 35.20.11 (Geology)
Copper toxicity: 3.6.7
Bornite, bournonite, Cu5FeS4: 35.20.6 (Geology)
Constantan wire:

Copper coil candle snuffer: 23.7.6 (Physics)
Prepare copper from brass: 12.7.10
Zinc with copper in sulfuric acid:
Bunsen burner flame can melt copper wire: 22.6.2
Burn copper in chlorine:
Concentrated acids with metals, sulfuric acid with copper: 12.3.13
Concentrated acids with metals, nitric acid with copper: 12.3.12
Effect of copper on the growth of algae:
Electrical energy from the displacement of copper by zinc: 3.84
Flame test of copper wire:
Heat copper foil to form copper (II) oxide: 8.2.12
Heat copper wire with iodine crystals (synthesis reaction):
Heat copper with sulfur:
Movement of copper ions and chromate ions: 33.89
Movement of copper ions in ammonium nitrate solution: 3.4.3
Movement of ions, between microscope slides: 33.90
Oxidation of acetone vapour, copper catalyst: 17.3.10
Oxidize copper coins:
Oxidize copper foil:
Prepare copper from copper oxide:
Recycle copper: 12.7.8
Tests for copper: (See: 5.)
Tests for copper:
Tests for copper (II) oxide formation: 8.2.12, (See: 2.)

Copper, Cu (Latin cuprum copper), copper (I) ion Cu+, copper (II) ion Cu2+, electrical and thermalconductor, corrosion resistant,
diamagnetic, abundant free element
Copper, element (cuprum), copper (I) Cu+, copper (II) Cu2+ red, lustrous, but brown-green if weathered
Copper, essential element for human body for red blood cells and bone growth, folk medicine (copper bracelet for arthritis?)
Copper, former English penny coin made of copper, discontinued in 1971
Copper sheeting, 900 mm width × 600 mm depth × 0.7 mm height, sheet
Copper, std (10.00 g Cu), ICP Solution, LR tablets, AAS Solution, precipitated
Copper, metal foil (0.13 mm), bronze powder (electrolytic), turnings, nails, filings, wire, sheet, malleable
Copper wire, 18 SWG, bare, 1.22 mm diameter, 0.0418 Ohm / m
Copper wire connecting, PVC covered
Copper is a metallic element used for coin alloys, electrical wiring, heating vessels, jewellery, roofing material for domes, conducting
electricity and lightning conductors.
It is the only red or red-brown metal.
Its alloys include brass (copper and zinc), bronze (copper and tin), and in copper coins.
Copper, Cu (cuprum) is a bright red-orange, ductile, malleable and ductile transition metal, with high electrical
and thermal conductivity.
It is obtained form cuprite, Cu2S.
It is available as ingots, filings, foil, powder, turnings, nails, wire, turnings.
It becomes dull when exposed to air, and in moist air becomes coated with verdis blue or green, basic copper carbonate.
It is an excellent conductor of heat.
It is extracted from cuprite (Cu2S) and malachite (basic copper (II) carbonate, CuCO3.Cu(OH)2.H2O).
Aqueous copper ion, Cu2+ is blue.
Most Cu+ compounds are white, but copper (I) oxide is brick red.
It reacts with concentrated oxidizing acids, HNO3 or H2SO4 to produce high oxidation number ions, and sulfur dioxide SO2 or
nitrogen dioxide, NO2.
No reaction with dilute HCl or H2SO4 or with water.
It can be attacked by mineral acids, e.g. hydrochloric and sulfuric acids and organic acids, e.g. acetic acid.
It is soluble in dilute ammonia.
It is incompatible with alkali solutions, sodium azide and acetylene.
It reacts with strong oxidants, e.g. chlorates, bromates and iodates, to cause an explosion hazard.
The heated powder forms an oxide.
Copper deficiency may occur in infants fed only on cow's milk.
Copper bracelets may alleviate, but not cure, arthritis.
A copper bowl may be preferable for beating cream.
Copper poisoning may occur from water standing for a long time in copper pipes or copper hot water service.
It is a cofactor for many enzymes and proteins, and is used in the development of nerve, bone, blood and connective tissue.
It competes with zinc for entry from the intestines, so an increase in dietary zinc may result in copper deficiency.
The recommended daily allowance, RDA, is 1.5 to 3.0 mg.
Atomic number: 29, Relative atomic mass: 63.546, r.d. 8.92, m.p. = 1083oC, b.p. = 2595oC.
Specific heat capacity: 385 J kg-1 K-1.

Copper compounds
Azurite, 2CuCO3.Cu(OH)2, basic copper carbonate: 35.20.4
Chalcocite, Cu2S: 35.20.11a, (mineral)
Chalcopyrite, CuFeS2: 35.20.9, (mineral)
Copper (I) acetate, copper acetate, cupric acetate
Copper (I) bromide dimethyl sulfide complex, CuBr.CH3SCH3
Copper (I) chloride, CuCl, cuprous chloride, white solid, covalent, Harmful, Environment danger
Prepare copper (I) chloride: 12.7.7
Copper (I) cyanide
Copper (I) iodide, CuI, cuprous iodide, Harmful if ingested
Copper (I) oxide, Cu2O
Copper (I) sulfide, Cu2S, copper monosulfide, copper glance mineral, chalcocite (Geology)
Copper (I) sulfide, Cu2S, covelite, indigo copper (in luminous paints, catalyst), Harmful if ingested
Copper (I) sulfite, Cu2SO3, cuprous sulfite
Copper (I) thiocyanate, CuSCN
Copper (II) acetate, copper (II) ethanoate, copper acetate, cupric acetate, Harmful if ingested
Copper (II) acetate monohydrate, Cu(CO2CH3)2.H2O
Copper (II) acetate, prepare low cost: copper (II) carbonate with distilled white vinegar
Copper arsenite, copper acetoarsenite, CuAsHO3, Toxic
Copper (II) bromide, CuBr2
Copper (II) carbonate, CuCO3
Copper (II) chloride, CuCl2
Copper (II) chloride dihydrate, CuCl2.2H2O
Copper (II) chromate (VI)
Copper (II) cyclohexanebutyrate, [C6H11(CH2)3CO2]2Cu
Copper (II) D-gluconate, C12H22CuO14
Copper (II) ferrocyanide, Cu2Fe(CN)6
Copper (II) fluoride, CuF2
Copper (II) fluoride hydrate, CuF2.xH2O
Copper (II) hydroxide, Cu(OH)2, cupric hydroxide, blue pigment
Copper (II) hydroxide phosphate, Cu2(OH)PO4
Copper (II) molybdate, CuMoO4
Copper (II) nitrate, Cu(NO3)2
Copper (II) oxide, CuO
Copper (II) perchlorate decahydrate, Cu(ClO4)2.6H2O
Copper (II) pyrophosphate hydrate, Cu2P2O7.xH2O
Copper (II) selenite dihydrate CuSeO3.2H2O
Copper (II) sulfate, CuSO4.5H2O, bluestone
Copper (II) sulfide, CuS, coins, electrical wiring, copper (II) sulfide 6, chalcocite, copper glance, redruthite, Harmful if ingested
Copper (II) tartrate, [-CH(OH)CO2]2CuxH2O
Copper (II) tetrafluoroborate hydrate, Cu(BF4)2.xH2O
Copper-aluminium alloys, bronze: 5.5.8
Copper-chromium alloys: 5.5.14
Copper-nickel alloys: 5.5.9
Copper-tin alloys, bronze: 5.5.7
Copper-zinc alloys, brass: 5.5.6
Copper ammonium chloride solution, [Cu(NH3)3Cl2], Etchants: (See: 3.)
Copper alloys, CZ copper-zinc brass, PB phosphor bronze, LG leaded gunmetal, CT copper-tin bronze
Copper alloys, AB aluminium bronze, CN copper-nickel
Copper ammonium chloride, tetramminecopper (II) chloride
Copper ammonium hydroxide
Copper, brass and bronze alloys: 5.5.3
Copper cycle reactions: 12.1.3
Wood treated with copper chrome arsenate (CCA):
Copper coins, alloy of zinc and tin in copper
Copper experiments: 12.7.0
Copper ferrocyanide, Cu2Fe(CN)6
Prepare copper from brass: 12.7.10
Magnesium displaces copper from solution of copper ions: 3.72
Copper ions, movement of copper and chromate ions: 33.89
Copper ions, movement of copper ions in ammonium nitrate solution: 3.4.3
Copper ions, Movement of ions, between microscope slides: 33.90
Copper oxychloride, ClCu2H3O3: 16.6.4(fungicide)
Copper phosphide, copper (I) phosphide, insoluble in water, in phosphor bronze, fluorescent in UV light, Harmful if ingested
Copper plating (electroplating): 15.1.2
Copper pyrite, chalcopyrite: 35.20.9
Copper residues: (Disposal)
"Copper sulfides", bornite, bournonite, chalcopyrite, Cu5FeS4: 35.20.6 (Geology)
Copperas, FeSO4.7H2O, iron (II) sulfate
Prepare cuprammonium sulfate, Cu(NH3)4SO4.H2O: 12.7.5
Cuprite, red oxides of copper, Cu2O
Cupronickel alloys of Cu and Ni, "silver" coins, Local Purchase
Electrical energy from the displacement of copper by zinc: 3.84
Coin cells, Electricity from coins: 33.3.3
Electroforming using copper: 15.1.7
Electroplating copper, copper flashing of iron: 15.1.10
Electroplating, Zinc plating of copper: 15.1.6
Faraday's first law: 15.1.1
Gold coins, e.g. Australian $1 coin, alloy of aluminium and nickel in copper
Gold properties
Group 2 tests for Bi3+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Sn2+: 4.2
Heat copper foil to form copper (II) oxide: 8.2.12
Heat copper with iodine crystals (synthesis reaction):
Malachite, copper (II) carbonate: 35.20.24
Oxidation of acetone vapour, copper catalyst: 17.3.10
Oxidize copper foil:
Oxidize copper coins:
Prepare copper (I) chloride, CuCl: 12.7.7
Prepare copper (I) oxide, CuO: 12.7.6
Prepare copper (II) ammonium sulfate crystals: 12.7.4
Prepare copper (II) carbonate and copper (II) oxide: 12.15.4
Prepare copper from copper oxide:
Prepare sulfates, iron with copper (II) sulfate solution: 12.15.3
Prepare copper (I) oxide with golden syrup:
Prepare copper (II) sulfate crystals with copper oxide:
Prepare cuprammonium sulfate, Cu(NH3)4SO4.H2O: 12.7.5
Prepare nitrogen dioxide, [nitrogen (IV) oxide, NO2]: 3.47
Prepare verdigris with copper and vinegar: 12.11.1
Reactions of chlorine with copper: 13.4.14
Reactions of copper (I) compounds, Cu+: 12.7.3
Reactions of copper (II) ions, Cu2+: 12.7.2
Reactions of copper (II) oxide, CuO: 12.7.1
Recycle copper: 12.7.8
Corrosion of alloys, restore bronze coins, : 15.3.14
Strong electrolytes: 15.8.2
Sulfides, List of sulfides (See copper (I) sulfide, copper (II) sulfide): 1.24
Tests for copper:
Tetraamminecopper (II) sulfate monohydrate, Cu(NH3)4SO4.H2O
Wood treated with copper chrome arsenate (CCA):
Verdigris (green colour of old coins from copper exposed to moist air), Harmful if ingested.

Copper (I) oxide, Cu2O
Alkalis with basic oxides, copper oxide: 12.7.5
Copper (I) oxide with hot dilute sulfuric acid (redox reaction):
Prepare copper (I) oxide, Cu2O: 12.7.6
Reduce copper (I) oxide to copper: 10.10.2.

Copper (I) oxide, Cu2O, copper oxide, cuprous oxide, brown copper oxide, red copper oxide, ruby copper, cuprite, for craft, red
solid, insoluble, deliquescent (used to make red glass).
Copper (I) oxide, cuprite, copper ore, "copper oxide", Harmful if ingested
Copper (I) oxide, Solution < 25%, Not hazardous.

Copper (II) carbonate, CuCO3
Azurite, 2CuCO3.Cu(OH)2, basic copper carbonate: 35.20.4 (Mineral)
Prepare rayon, basic copper carbonate with ammonia solution:

Copper (II) carbonate, CuCO3, cupric carbonate, blue-green powder, Harmful if ingested
Low cost Copper (II) carbonate basic, CuCO3.Cu(OH)2, cupric carbonate basic, basic copper carbonate (azurite, malachite), cupric carbonate,
green precipitate, Bremen blue, green verditer, craft green glaze, verdigris on copper exposed to atmosphere.

Copper (II) chloride, CuCl2
Alkalis with salts, hydroxide ions: 12.7.4.

Copper (II) chloride, CuCl2, cupric chloride, brown powder, Harmful, Environment danger
Copper (II) chloride, anhydrous copper chloride, cupric chloride, brown-yellow powder, Harmful if ingested
Copper (II) chloride, Solution < 25%, Not hazardous
Copper (II) chloride dihydrate, copper (II) chloride 2H2O, copper chloride, cupric chloride, Harmful
Copper (II) chloride, CuCl2, cupric chloride, brown-yellow powder, covalent, green fireworks, copper (II) chloride dihydrate,
Prepare CuCl2: copper (II) carbonate with muriatic acid.

Copper (II) ferrocyanide
Copper ferrocyanide as a semipermeable membrane: 9.167

Copper (II) ferrocyanide, CU2Fe(CN)6, Hatchett's Brown dye, Traube's colloidal solution (used to remove caesium and strontium
from radioactive waste), red-brown copper (II) ferrocyanide.
Potassium ferrocyanide precipitates red-brown copper (II) ferrocyanide from Cu2+ solutions:.
2Cu2+ (aq) + [Fe(CN)6]4- (aq) <==> CU2Fe(CN)6 (s).

Copper (II) nitrate, Cu(NO3)2
Copper (II) nitrate, Cu(NO3)2.3H2O, copper (II) nitrate 3H2O, cupric nitrate, Harmful
Copper (II) nitrate, copper nitrate crystals, blue solid, deliquescent, anhydrous form probably covalent.
Copper (II) nitrate hydrate, copper nitrate hydrated, cupric nitrate Std, blue crystal, deliquescent, Harmful
Copper (II) nitrate, For 0.1 M solution, 29.6 g in 1 L water
Copper (II) nitrate pentahydrate, Cu(NO3)2.5H2O
Prepare Cu(NO3)2: copper (II) carbonate with nitric acid.

Copper (II) oxide, CuO
Copper (II) oxide, black copper oxide, cupric oxide, melconite, tenorite, black solid, soluble in dilute acids
Copper (II) oxide, used in craft, deep blue colour in glass
Copper (II) oxide (copper oxide), basic oxide (metal oxide): 12.17.2
Copper (II) oxide, "copper oxide", cupric oxide, Harmful if ingested
Dilute acids with basic oxides: 12.3.5
Heat food with copper (II) oxide: 16.9.2
Heat zinc with copper (II) oxide:
Reduce copper (II) oxide to copper with ammonia: 13.6.7
Reduce copper oxide with natural gas, methane:

Copper (II) sulfate, CuSO4.5H2O, bluestone, [Chalcanthite, mineral copper (II) sulfate]
Copper (II) sulfate, CuSO4.5H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 25 g in 1 L water + 5 mL conc. H2SO4
Ammonia with copper sulfate: 13.6.8
Copper (II) sulfate is insoluble in alcohol: 12.15.2
Copper (II) sulfate reduction to copper sulfide, yellow snowstorm reaction: 12.1.41
Copper (II) sulfate solution with ammonia solution, ligand substitution: 2.0
Copper (II) sulfate solution with concentrated hydrochloric acid, ligand substitution: 3.0
Copper (II) sulfate solution with magnesium: 14.1.2
Coloured precipitates, double decomposition reactions: 12.2.1c (See 4. copper sulfate)
Decomposition of sulfates: 3.30.6
Distil copper (II) sulfate solution: 10.5.2
Electrolysis of copper (II) sulfate solution: 15.5.14
Electrolysis of copper (II) sulfate solution, electrochemical equivalent of copper: 15.5.19
Electrolysis of copper (II) sulfate solution, Faraday's laws: 15.5.15
Electrolysis of copper (II) sulfate solution, microscale electrolysis: 15.5.16
Electrolysis of copper (II) sulfate solution with copper and platinum electrodes: 3.69.3
Electrolysis of copper (II) sulfate solution with copper electrodes: 3.69.4
Exothermic reactions, the reactants form products with rise in temperature: 3.80 (See 1, 2.)
Green hair and faded hair from swimming pools:
Heat copper (II) sulfate-5-water crystals, Tests for water: 8.2.1
Heat copper sulfate crystals:
Heat of displacement reaction, zinc with copper (II) sulfate solution: 14.1.6
Heat of solution of anhydrous copper (II) sulfate: 14.1.1
Iron and zinc with copper (II) sulfate solution:
Magnesium, or zinc, with copper (II) sulfate solution:
Metals with copper (II) sulfate solution: 12.14.2
Prepare copper (I) oxide with golden syrup:
Prepare copper (II) carbonate and copper (II) oxide: 12.15.4
Prepare copper (II) sulfate algicide:
Prepare copper (II) sulfate crystals with copper oxide:
Prepare hydrogen gas: (Copper (II) sulfate catalyst) (See: Experiments 1.)
Prepare preserving agents for cut flowers: 19.6.5
Prepare rayon, copper (II) sulfate with ammonia solution:
Prepare sulfates, iron with copper (II) sulfate solution: 12.15.3
Prepare yellow invisible ink: 12.15.1
Sodium chloride solution with copper (II) sulfate solution: 3.71.2
Sodium hydroxide with copper sulfate:
Tests for oxidizing agents by change of colour of iron with copper (II) sulfate: 15.2.9
Tests for oxidizing agents by change of colour of zinc with copper (II) sulfate: 15.2.10
Zinc with lead nitrate solution and iron with copper (II) sulfate solution:

Copper (II) sulfate, CuSO4.5H2O, hydrated copper (II) sulfate 5H2O, copper (II) .pentahydrate,
cupric sulfate, blue vitriol
Copper (II) sulfate solution, 0.5 M, Harmful / Slightly toxic / Poisonous if swallowed, skin contact, contact with
wounded skin.
Copper (II) sulfate anhydrous, powder, CuSO4
Copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate, CuSO4.5H2O
Copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate, cupric sulfate pentahydrate, bluestone, copper (II) sulfate
Copper (II) sulfate anhydrous, copper (II) sulfate, cupric sulfate anhydrous, Harmful if ingested
Copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate, CuSO4.5H2O, blue vitriol, cupric sulfate pentahydrate, copper (II) sulfate hydrated,
copper (II) sulfate(VI)-5-water, blue, triclinic crystals, efflorescent in dry air, hold on to water of crystallization in hot dry air but
anhydrous at 250oC, bluestone, blue vitriol, blue vitriol, bluestone, blue copperas (chalcanthite mineral, CuSO4.5H2O has sweet
metallic taste and is slightly poisonous),
Bordeaux mixture is copper (II) sulfate and lime used as a fungicide, wood preservative, "Root Eater", "Bluestone" algicide, Harmful
and slightly toxic.
Copper (II) sulfate dissolves easily in water to form an acid solution.
The crystals contain water of crystallization, which forms as steam when the crystals are heated.
It is poisonous if ingested (swallowed), by skin contact, in contact with wounded skin.
Use eye and skin protection (safety glasses and gloves), where splashes may occur.
Do NOT breathe in copper (II) sulfate powder.
If swallowed or skin contact occurs immediately flush the eye or skin or wash out the mouth with plenty of water.
Some school systems do NOT allow primary children access to copper (II) sulfate solution.
However, show children the beautiful blue crystals.
Harmful to organisms in the environment but dispose small amounts down the sink with plenty of water.
The white anhydrous copper (II) sulfate is used to test chemically for water.
Copper (II) sulfate is poisonous and should not be put into vessels used in the household.
Use copper (II) sulfate, bluestone, to kill algae (< 30g in 35, 000 L potable water).
Common names: Blue vitriol, cupric sulfate, "Rooto Root Kill".
Low cost: from hardware stores for drain care, root killer, also from pottery supply stores. Constantan wire
Constantan, constant resistance wire, Eureka wire, CrAl (Kranthal) and NiCrm (Nichrome Nichrome wire
Constantan wire 15.6 ohm / m, 6.9 ohm / m, 0.98 ohm / m.
Constantan is an alloy, about 40% nickel and 60% copper, having high volume resistivity and negligible temperature coefficient.
So resistance hardly changes with change in temperature.
It is used for resistance wire.
Also Eureka wire, CrAl (Kranthal) and NiCrm (Nichrome wire) have very high resistivity.
An optical pyrometer is used to measure very high temperatures from the colour of the radiant heat source.

1. Attach a piece of copper and a piece of constantan to two wires.
Heat lead to above its boiling point of 327oC.
Attach the wires to a galvanometer and insert the copper and constantan into the boiling lead.
The galvanometer can be calibrated to read temperature and act as a thermocouple to read the temperature of the molten lead.