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Chemistry Ci to Cy
Table of Contents
C.I. Pigment names, C.I. numbers: 8.0
Cichoric acid, C22H18O12
Cineole, C10H18O, eucalyptol
Cinnabar, HgS: (Geology)
Cinnamaldehyde, C9H8O
Cinnamic acid, C9H10O2
Cinnamon, cinnamic acid, C9H10O2
Cinnamyl acetate, C11H12O2
Circuit analysis, house circuits: 33.6.0
Circuit breaker, fuses:
Cis-trans fatty acids, Hydrogenation, :
Cis-trans isomers of alkenes: See diagram 16.1.1
Citral, C10H16O
Citric acid, C6H8O7
Citronella grass
Citronellal, C10H18O
Citronellol, C10H20O
Citrine, Quartzite, 32.23.5
CFCs, chlorofluorocarbons, "Freons":
See: Clamps, (Commercial)
Clayton yellow, C28H19N5O6S4Na2: 10 (indicator)
See: Cleaning (Commercial)
Crystal crystals
See: Crystals (Commercial)
Clenbuterol, C12H18Cl2N2O:
Climate change
Cling wrap, polyvinylidene chloride: 3.6.13
Clinistix, Tests for glucose: 2.0
Clinistix strip, Tests for glucose, urine test:
Clinitest, Tests for glucose: 1.0
Clock reactions, Rates of reaction: 17.1.1
Clot on boiling test, C.O.B, milk test: 16.1.2
Clothes on fire: 3.5.5
Clothianidin, C6H8ClN5O2S
Clothing, Protective clothing and equipment: 3.2.2, (Safety)
See: Clothing, (Commercial)
Cloudy ammonia
Clove oil, eugenol:
Club soda, Carbonic acid:
Coade stone: 3.66.7
Coal, coal gas, coal tar
Coal tar products, creosote: 16.2.10
Coamidopropyl betaine, C19H38N2O3, surface-active agent, hair washing, may cause dermatitis
Cobalt, Co
Cocaine, C17H21ON4
Cochineal, Prepare carmine stain: 3.6
Coconut oil, copra oil, edible oils: 17.0
Codeine, C18H21NO3
Cod liver oil (vitamins A and D food supplement)
Coefficient of restitution, bounce: 34.7.0
Coelestine, SrSO4
Coffee, coffee tins:
Cohesion, Hydrogen bonds: 3.01.3
Cola (kola)
Colchicine, C22H25NO6
Colchicine alkaloids, Protoalkaloids: 16.3.29
Collect and weigh the gaseous products of a burning candle: 3.29
Colligative properties, Vapour pressure of water and non-volatile solvent: 24.1.02
Collodion, cellulose nitrate: 3.5.10
Colloids, diffusion: 9.12.0
Colorimeter tests, test methods: 18.6.9
See: Colorimeters, (Commercial)
Colorimetric tests, Total dissolved solids and suspended solids, Beer's Law: 18.2.0
See: Colour (Commercial)
Coloured precipitates, double decomposition reactions: 12.2.1c
Colours, visible spectrum, rainbow: 27.193
Colours, food colours, food additives: 19.4.13
Combination reactions (direct union of elements, Synthesis reactions):
See: Commercial suppliers (by subject)
Common ion effect
Common measures: 3.5.4
Competition for oxygen, Heat metals with oxides of another metal:
Complex salt, Prepare cuprammonium sulfate: 12.7.5
Compressed gas, LPG gas, LP-gas, liquefied petroleum gas, bottled gas
Composition of
Composting, C/N ratio, humus, worm farms: 9.14.0
Compresses, herbal compresses, Poultices: 5.04.6
Compressibility, Bulk modulus, modulus of incompressibility, K: 34.5.03
Compressibility, Syringes for investigating air pressure: 13.3.4
Computers: 38.7.0
Concanavaline A
Concentration, Molarity: 5.7.0
Concentration, parts per million (PPM): 3.7.1
Condensation polymers:
Conditions for chemical reactions to occur, Sulfuric acid with sodium chloride:
Conductivity, Electrical conductivity of a substance: 15.59.0
See: Conductivity (Commercial)
Condy's crystals, KMnO4, Potassium permanganate
Confirmation tests: Tests for all substances: 2.0.0
Confirmation tests: Tests for gases and vapours: 1.0.0
Conglomerate (puddingstone): 35.22.5 (Geology)
Congo red: 11 (indicator)
Coniceine, C8H15N
Coniine, C8H17N
Conjugated, Dienes, diolefins:, (See 3.)
Conjugated, Unsaturated fatty acids:
Conjugated proteins, Glycoproteins: 16.3.16
Conservation of energy, work, energy, kinetic energy and potential energy: 9.2.0
Conservation of mass: 12.1.0
Contact explosives
Containers, Sharps (Safety)
Constant boiling mixture, Azeotrope: 7.9.7
Constantan (constant resistance wire):
Containers, sharps, jerrycan plastic, specimen containers, (Commercial)
Contamination of groundwater from refuse deposits, Tests: 18.2.4
Continuous phase, Emulsions:
Convallatoxin, C24H42O10
Cooking: 19.3.0
"Copha" (hydrogenated coconut oil): 17.4
Copolymers, Heteropolymers
See: Copper (Commercial)
Coquelicot, red-orange poppy colour
COR, Hazard: can destroy living tissue on contact
Coral island soils: 16.3
Cordite, Nitroglycerine:
See: Cork (Commercial)
Corn, Maize (Zea mays, Indian corn): 5.0.0
Corn oil, Composition of edible oils: 19.2.11 (Table)
Cornelian (carnelian), SiO2, Chalcedony: 35.14.4
Cornflour, cornstarch
Cornin, C17H24O10, Verbenalin
Coptisine chloride, C19H14CLNO4
Coronadite, Pb2Mn8O16: 35.20.12
Correct names of chemicals: 3.4.1
Corrosion, corrosive
Corundum, Al2O3 +, (ruby, sapphire)
Corynoline, C21H21NO5
Coulometer, Electrolysis of water: 15.5.4
Coumaric acid, C9H8O3
Coumarin, C9H6O2
Coumarone, C8H6O:
Covalent bonds: 3.01.2
Covalent carbides
Covelite, CuS
CP (Chemically Pure), chemicals standard
CPY3A4 (cytochrome P450 3A4)
Cracking, catalytic cracking, thermal cracking
CRAF, Prepare CRAF biology fixative solution: 4.16
Cream, regular cream and sour cream: 16.2.9
Cream of tartar, Potassium hydrogen tartrate
Cream of tartar, Prepare fruit salts, health salts: 16.7.13
Creams and ointments: 5.04.8
Creolin, disinfectant
Cresol, O-cresol, C7H8O
m-cresol purple, metacresol purple, C21H18O5S
m-cresol purple sodium salt, C21H17NaO5S
Cresyl, CH3C6H4O-
Cresylic acid, cresols
Critical point / temperature: 24.1.07
Crocidolite, Asbestos (See: 1.1)
Crocetin, C20H24O4
Crocin, C44H64O24
Crocoite, red lead ore, PbCrO4
Crown ether, C12H24O6
Crucibles with lid: 1.23
See: Crucibles (Commercial)
Crude oil, Separate crude oil fractions by fractional distillation: 3.21
Cryogenic solids and liquids: 15.9.0
Cryolite, Na3AlF6
Cryptoxanthin, C40H56O
Crystal, crystals
CS gas, C6H4(Cl)CHC(CN)2
Cucumber aldehyde, C9H14O:
Culture media for identification of fungi, Prepare: 6.0
Cumene, C9H12, methyl ethyl benzene
Cuminaldehyde, C10H12O, cuminal, monoterpene
Cupaloy, Copper-chromium alloys: 5.5.14
Cupferron, Tests for iron:, (See: 2.)
Cuprammonium sulfate, Prepare cuprammonium sulfate: 12.7.5
Cuprite, red oxides of copper, Cu2O
Curcumin, C21H20O6
Curie point, Curie temperature:
Curium, Cm
Current electricity: 32.0
Curriculum, Queensland Studies Authority: 2.6
Custard: 16.7.26
Cut grass smells: Geosmin
See: Cutters (Commercial)
Cyanide, CN, compounds: Cyan-
Cyanin, C27H31O16, red plant pigment, in Sambucus
Cyclamates, cyclamic acid, E952
Cyclic imines:
Cyclitols, inositol:
Cymarine, C30H44O9
Cymene, C10H14
Cynarin, C25H24O12
Cysteine, C3H7NO2S
Cystine, L-cystine, Tests for sulfur in proteins: 16.6.11
Cytidine, Nucleosides:, (See: 5.)
Cytisine, C11H14N2O
Cytokinins: (Plant growth regulator)
Czapek Dox agar, Prepare (to identify fungi): 6.5

Cinnamic acid, C9H10O2
Cinnamic acid, C9H10O2, C6H5CH:CHCOOH
Phenyl group, C6H5: 3-phenyl propenoic acid, C9H10O2, C6H5CH:CHCOOH, cinnamic acid, Toxic if ingested
Cinnamic acid, 3-phenylpropenoic acid, an hydroxycinnamic acid, smells like honey, in essential oils, may cause contact dermatitis,
purgative, may relieve smooth muscle spasms
In Balsam of Tolu (Myroxylon balsamum), Fabaceae.
In Cinnamon, inner bark for cinnamon sticks
In Gum benjamin tree, (Styrax benzoin), Styracaceae.
Cinnamon bark oil (contains cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, benzyl benzaldehyde, pinene), in Coca Cola.
Cinnamon leaf oil (contains eugenol, cinnamaldehyde, benzyl benzoate)
In Styrax balsam (benzoic resin), Liquidambar
In Aloe, and Alpinia (Alpinia purpurata, Zingiberaceae)
Ethyl cinnamate, C11H12O2
Naphthalene black, 4-methyl cinnamic acid, Stain and dyestuff, Toxic if ingested
Phenolic compounds: 16.1.0.

Citric acid, C6H8O7
Citric acid, C6H8O7, CH2.COOH.HO.C.COOH.CH2COOH
"Bomb Bags", citric acid + sodium bicarbonate --> carbon dioxide, (toy product)
Acids with baking soda: 12.1.18
Browning reactions of fruits and vegetables:
Citric acid cycle, Krebs cycle: 16.9.5
Citric acid solubility and temperature: 12.6.5
Citric acid with sodium hydrogen carbonate solution: 12.6.6
Heat citric acid to form carbon: 12.6.2
Lemons, lemon juice 5-8% citric acid
Prepare citric acid crystals with lemon juice: 12.6.1
Prepare hydrogen gas with citric acid: 12.6.3
Prepare mayonnaise and salad dressing emulsions: 16.7.12
Prepare sodium citrate crystals: 12.6.4
Prepare standard buffer solutions: 39.0
Tricarboxylic acids:

Citric acid, Irritant, C6H8O7, CH2.COOH.HO.C.COOH.CH2COOH
Citric acid (diNH4 salt), citric acid (trisodium salt, dihydrate), citric acid monohydrate
Citric acid is a colourless to white crystalline powder readily soluble in water, odourless, translucent, orthorhombic crystals or granules,
"2-hydroxy propane-1, 2, 3-tricarboxylic acid", m.p. about 100oC, slightly deliquescent in moist air, loses water of crystallization in dry
air (lemon juice), store in tight containers, very weak acid, with little corrosive action, sour taste of lemons, grapefruit, and other citrus
fruits, also gooseberries and raspberries, caused by the citric acid in them, an ingredient in artificial lemonade powder.
In health salts, citric acid acts with sodium bicarbonate in the mixture to produce the fizz when the mixture is added to water.
Used for making up buffer solutions and forming citrate salts.
Also "2-hydroxy-1, 2, 3-propanetricarboxylic acid", is about 10% dry weight of lemons.
Low cost: in supermarkets a pure form sold as "sour salt".
Lemon juice is used as deodorizer, mild bleach, cleaner.

16.9.5 Citric acid cycle, Krebs cycle
A cycle of reactions in mitochondria as part of aerobic cell respiration in which oxaloacetic acid is regenerated by a series of reactions
in which ADP is converted to energy rich ATP, as part of the energy conversion processes in the body.
(Sir Hans Adolf Krebs, Germany / Great Britain, 1900-1981).

Butane gas, C4H10 (in cigarette lighters)
Cerium, Ce, in cigarette lighter ignition flints
Cellulose triacetate: 3.5.8 (in cigarette filters)
Tests for gases from burning hydrocarbons: (See Experiment)
Lanthanum with Cerium, Ce, cigarette lighter ignition element
Make fingerprints with iodine:
Fingerprints with iodine:
Microbial decomposition of thin paper, cigarette paper: 4.2.7 (See 2.)
Nicotine, C10H14N2
Nicotine spray: 3.0 (Agriculture)
Tests for harmful cigarette smoke: 16.7.28
Butane gas, C4H10.

Includes "guest molecule" in host molecule's lattice cage, e.g. Dianin's compound, 4-p-hydroxyphenyl-2, 2, 4-trimethylchroman.

Aniline blue stain, microscopy stain: 3.5.1
Anatomy and physiology of meat: 19.3.2 (See 2.)
Cooked collagen changes into gelatine: 3.0
Gels: (See 2.)
Prepare gelatine gel:
Tests for vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid): 9.143
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid):

Copernicium, Cn
Copernicium, Cn (Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 -1543), Prussia, now Poland, named by IUPAC in 2010.

Curium, Cm
Curium, Cm (Marie Curie, 1867-1934, Poland / France), radioactive metallic actinide.

Clove oil
Clove oil, eugenol:
Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), Myrtaceae.
Phenols, phenolics: 16.1.1
Eugenol [C6H3(OH)(OCH3)(CH2CH=CH2)], (in oil of cloves, cinnamon leaf oil, West Indian Bay oil)
Clove oil, oil of cloves, for microscopy
Use cloves in shelf corners to get rid of ants.
Use oil of cloves solutions for removing fungus infections from households.

Coal, coal tar, solid, lumps, peat, lignite (brown coal) bituminous coals, anthracite, coke
Coal, coal dust explosions: 35.23.1
Coal gas
Aromatic amines, anilides, e.g. phenylamine: (See: "Magenta")
Coal tar products, creosote: 16.2.10
Coal seam gas, CSG, and coal to liquid, CTL, projects: 35.23.9
Carbolic acid, phenol: 16.1.0
E102 Tartrazine (coal tar dye)
Fuchsine, fuchsin (magenta)
Jet black, jet, is a type of hard coal which can be polished to make "jet black" beads for mourning attire.
Prepare gases from coal: 10.6.5
Prepare ammonia, Haber process: 3.33.01, (See: "cloudy ammonia").

Coal gas
Coal gas (approximately 88 MJ / kg), is approximately 50% hydrogen gas, 35% methane, 8% carbon monoxide (poisonous gas),
hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen sulfide (for a "safety smell"),
Lately, "synthetic natural gas", SNG, is synthesized from coal or petroleum.

Cobalt, Co
See: Cobalt Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Cobalt, Table of Elements
Cobalt and cobalt deficiency symptoms: 1.15.0 (Soils)
Cobalt compounds
Cobalt, properties:
Cobalt toxicity: 3.6.6
Properties of cobalt salts: 12.6.1
Tests for cobalt:

Cobalt, Co (German Kobalt demon, which interferes with silver mining) cobalt ion Co2+, Cobalt (II) AAS Solution, pellets, powder.
Cobalt salts colour glass blue, plant and animal nutrition, trace element, transition hard, grey metal, forms complex ions,
e.g. [Co(H2O)6]2+,
magnetic below 1075oC, essential element but toxic in excess, used in alloys radiography, magnets, steel.
Cobalt (II) oxide used to colour glass blue.
Occurs in the body only as cyanocobalamin, vitamin B12.
Cobalt (German: kobold, goblin of the mines), was associated by miners with arsenic and sulfur health-damaging impurities.
Atomic number: 27, Relative atomic mass: 58.9332, r.d. 8.90, m.p. = 1 492oC, b.p. = 2 900oC.
Specific heat capacity: 435 J kg-1 K-1.

12.6.1 Properties of cobalt salts
[Co(H2O)6]2+ = pink hexa aqua cobalt (II) ion, hexaaquacobalt (II) ion
1. Heat cobalt carbonate in a small hard glass tube.
The brown residue is cobalt (II) oxide.
CoCO3 --> CoO + CO2
Transfer the oxide to a crucible and heat to redness.
The black residue is cobalt (II) cobalt (III) oxide, Co2O4.
2. Add excess of hot sodium hydroxide solution to 3 cm of a cobalt salt solution.
Note the pink precipitate of cobalt (II) hydroxide.
Note the change to brown cobalt (III) oxide, Co2O3 on exposure to air.
Cobalt (II) hydroxide is soluble in ammonia solution, NH3 (aq) ("ammonium hydroxide") because of theformation of the complex ion
Co2+ + 2OH- --> Co(OH)2 (s)
3. Add a suspension of bleaching powder to a test-tube containing a cobalt (II) salt solution.
Note the black precipitate of cobalt (II) hydroxide.
The bleaching powder acts as an alkaline hydroxide and an oxidizer.
Divide the precipitate into two parts.
Add excess hydrochloric acid to one part to obtain a brown solution of the unstable cobalt (II) chloride.
Heat the second part to obtain oxygen gas and a residue containing cobalt (II) oxide.
Cobalt (II) hydroxide behaves as a weak base.
4. Evaporate cobalt (II) chloride solution to dryness and note the blue colour of the anhydrous salt.
Cobalt chloride is stable compare to hydrated iron (II) chloride.
Write on a piece of paper with dilute cobalt chloride solution.
Leave to dry and the writing becomes invisible.
Heat the paper from below and writing appears bright blue because of dehydration of the salt.
So cobalt chlorine solution is a kind of "invisible ink".
5. Put drops of pink cobalt chloride solution on filter paper and hold it over a flame to see the brilliant blue colour of the anhydrous salt.
A weather indicator can be made by soaking white paper in a concentrated solution of cobalt chloride.
6. Cobalt ions with carbonate ions
Pink cobalt ions solution, [Co(H2O)6]2+, reacts with carbonate ions solution to form gelatinous calcium carbonate precipitate in a pink
Co2+ (aq) + CO32- (aq) --> CoCO3 (s)
7. Add a dilute solution of ammonia to a cobalt chloride solution to form a green-blue precipitate.
Add excess ammonia to dissolve the precipitate to leave a light brown solution.
Leave to stand to allow oxidation in the air to form a deep red-brown solution.
The same colour change occurs if hydrogen peroxide is used.
[Co(H2O)6]2+ + 2NH3 -- > [Co(H2O)4(OH)2] + 2NH4+
(hydrogen ions are detached from the complex ions to form a green-blue neutral complex precipitate)
[Co(H2O)6]2+ + 2NH3 -- > [Co(NH3)6]2+ + 6H2O
(with excess ammonia, the neutral complex dissolves to form a green solution containing hexa amine cobalt (II) ions,
hexaaminecobalt (II) ions)
[Co(NH3)6]2+ + O2 in the air --> [Co(NH3)6]3+
(leave to stand so that the hexaminecobalt (II) complex is oxidized to deep red-brown hexaminecobalt (III) complex)
2[Co(NH3)6]2+ + H2O2 --> 2[Co(NH3)6]3+ + 2OH-
(same colour change as above reaction only faster)
8. Add lime water (CaOH)2, or sodium hydroxide solution to cobalt chloride solution.
A light blue precipitate forms that on standing the solution turns pink.
Co(H2O)6]2+ + lime water --> [Co(H2O)4(OH)2] (neutral complex)
9. Test for aluminium compounds.
Put drops of red cobalt chloride solution on filter paper.
Add drops of aluminium sulfate solution.
Dry the filter paper over a flame then ignite it over a ceramic bowl.
The blue ash formed is a test for all aluminium compounds in solution.

Cobalt compounds
Ammonium cobalt (II) sulfate decahydrate (NH4)2Co(SO4)2.6H2O
Cobalt (III) acetylacetonate
Cobalt (II) benzoylacetonate, [C6H5COCH=C(O-)CH3]2Co
Cobalt (II) bromide, CoBr2
Cobalt (II) carbonate, CoCO3.xH2O
Cobalt (II) chloride
Cobalt (II) cyanide dihydrate, Co(CN)2.2H2O
Cobalt (III) fluoride CoF3
Cobalt (II) fluoride tetrahydrate, CoF2.4H2O
Cobalt (II) hydroxide, Co(OH)2
Cobalt (II) iodide, Col2
Cobalt (II) nitrate
Cobaltous nitrate AAS std
Cobalt (II) oxalate dihydrate CoC2O4.2H2O
Cobalt (II) oxide, CoO
Cobalt (III) oxide, CO2O3, cobalt sesquioxide, black-grey, catalyst, when heated forms CO3O4
Cobalt (II, III) oxide, CO3O4, artificial photosynthesis
Cobalt (II) perchlorate decahydrate Co(ClO4)2.6H2O
Cobalt (II) phosphate hydrate, Co3(PO4)2
Cobalt steel, alloy
Cobalt sulfate heptahydrate, cobalt (II) sulfate 7H2O, Harmful, Environment danger
Cobalt (II) sulfate heptahydrate, CoSO4.7H2O
Cobalt (II) sulfate hydrate, CoSO4.xH2O
Cobalt (II) tetrafluoroborate decahydrate, Co(BF4)2.6H2O
Cobalt (II) thiocyanate, Co(SCN)2, cobalt (II) thiocyanate, Harmful, Environment danger, in Scott's reagent test for cocaine
Tests for heat, heat-sensitive paper: 5.3.10
Hexaamminecobalt (III) chloride, [Co(NH3)6]Cl3
Hydrogen peroxide with potassium sodium tartrate, cobalt (II) chloride catalyst:
Movement of ions between microscope slides, Cu2+ ions, CO2+ ions: 33.90
Pentaamminechlorocobalt (III) chloride, [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2
Properties of cobalt salts:
Sodium hypochlorite decomposition, cobalt sulfate catalyst: 17.3.14
Tests for cobalt (nitroso-beta-naphthol test):
Toxic salts: Cobaltous aluminate (cobalt blue), Cobalt magnesium borate (cobalt violet, violet 48), Cobaltous oxide (cobalt green).

Cobalt (II) carbonate hydrate, CoCO3.xH2O
Cobalt (II) carbonate (basic) (blue glaze for craft, for spectral analysis with flame test for cobalt), Harmful
Cobalt (II) carbonate, Low cost: from pottery supplies stores
Cobalt (II) carbonate with hydrochloric acid forms cobalt (II) chloride
Cobalt (II) carbonate with with nitric acid forms cobalt (II) nitrate.

Cobalt (II) chloride, CoCl2
See: Test Strips Cobalt chloride, (Commercial)
Cobalt chloride, Cobalt (II) chloride, CoCl2.6H2O, cobalt (II) chloride hydrated, cobalt (II) chloride-6-water, cobalt chloride
decahydrate, Harmful if ingested, Environment danger
Cobalt (II) chloride, CoCl2
Cobalt (II) chloride hydrate, CoCl2.xH2O
Cobalt (II) chloride decahydrate, cobalt (II) chloride-6-water: 17.5.1
Cobalt (II) chloride-6-water, For 0.1 M solution, 23.8 g in 1 L water
Cobalt (II) chloride solution, crystals CoCl2.6H2O, invisible writing ink:
Tests for heat, heat-sensitive paper: 5.3.10
Cobaltous chloride AAS Solution
Glycerine with cobalt chloride solution: 12.7.8
Tests for water with cobalt (II) chloride: 8.2.2
Weather pictures: 37.31.1.

Cobalt (II) nitrate
Cobalt (II) nitrate hexahydrate, Co(NO3)2.6H2O, cobalt (II) nitrate hydrated, cobaltous nitrate, cobalt nitrate (OXD 1477),
Harmful if ingested, red-brown, deliquescent, monoclinic crystals, m.p. 50o to 60oC, in dyes and inks,
soluble in water and other solvents
Cobalt nitrate, For 0.1 M solution, 29 g in 1 L water.

Cobalt (II) oxide
Cobalt (II) oxide, CoO, cobalt oxide, cobaltous oxide, green orange to pink solid, craft blue glaze, do NOT inhale.

Cocaine, C17H21ON4, Tropane Alkaloid
Cocaine, Kokain, Benzoylmethylecgonine, alkaloid ester, benzoid acid ester, local anesthetic, vasoconstrictor, powerful CNS
effects similar to amphetamines, drug of abuse, causes inhibition of dopamine uptake, high doses mood elevating effects and
toxic reactions, in Erythroxylum coca (coca plant)
See diagram: Cocaine.
See diagram 16.20.0: Caffeine, cocaine, coniine, heroin, LSD
Cobalt (II) thiocyanate, Co(SCN)2, Harmful, Environment danger, in Scott's reagent test for cocaine
See diagram 16.21.7: Mescaline, dopamine, psilocybin, serotonin, ergine, LSD, tropane
Cocaine and amphetamines: 11.11.3a
Cocaine and crack cocaine, Abuse: 11.11.11
Coca, Erythroxylon coca, Erythroxylaceae
Copolymer, Polymer from linking different monomer types, e.g. cocaine, curare, caffeine, piperine
Hallucinogenic drugs, hallucinogens: 11.11.9
Tropane derivatives, True alkaloids: 16.3.27 (atropine, cocaine).

Coins - Biology
Coins - Chemistry
Coins - Physics.

Coins - Biology
Platelets are irregular in shape and are usually seen in small groups like piles of coins.
Presence of bactericidal substances using a coin and Bacillus mycoides: 4.1.9.

Coins - Chemistry
Alloys of noble metals and coinage metals: 5.5.11
Brass, Bronze
Bronze, alloys, Cu Sn bronzes for coins, bells, gears Low Cost
Coin cells, electricity from coins: 33.3.3
Coinage metals
Conduction of heat by a coin on paper: 4.21.

Cola, kola
Cola: 19.6.0
Cola label:
"Cola-Mentos Fountain Kit" (toy product)
Soft drinks, carbonated beverages, fizzy drinks, sports drinks: 15.8.6
Carbon dioxide: 3.34.0 (See: Experiments)
Carbon dioxide has mass:
Carbonic acid: 3.34.3a
Density of cola and diet cola: 11.2.5
Beverage can
Extraction of caffeine and benzoic acid from soft drinks, e.g. cola and lemonade: 16.8.3
Freezing point depression of carbonated water, cola: 24.1.05
Pencil sharpener galvanic cell: 33.84.7
Prepare carbon dioxide with a spearmint candy: 13.7.8
Pressure in beverage cans: 12.2.12.

Cola acuminata, cola tree, Goora nut, Abata cola, Sterculiaceae
Cola gigantea, giant cola, Sterculiaceae
Cola nitida (C. acuminata), Kola nut, Cola nut, [theobromine, caffeine alkaloid], Sterculiaceae
Cola vera, kola nuts, herbal medicine, Sterculiaceae
Caramel is used as a flavouring and food colouring E150 in candy and Coca Cola
Cinnamon bark oil (contains cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, benzyl benzaldehyde, pinene), in Coca Cola.
Contraception, Cola put into the vagina after having sex does not work as a contraceptive.
Methyl imidazole, 4-methylimidazole, 4-MEI, caramel colouring in cola drinks.

Collagen is an insoluble fibrous protein in connective tissue, e.g. tendons, skin, bone.
Vitamin, C is a water-soluble vitamin essential for the formation of collagen in connective tissue.
Anatomy and physiology of meat:19.3.2 (See: 2.)
Aniline blue stain (for collagen): 3.5.1
Cooked collagen turns into gelatine: 3.0
Fibrous proteins and globular proteins:
Observe roasting meat: 1.0.

See: Combustion, (Commercial)
Combustion, Heat sources, combustion, heat substances, thermal decomposition: 8.0
Combustible solids: 3.5.10
Combustion of butane:
Combustion of gasoline, Distil crude oil and collect the fractions: 10.6.3
Fire safety: 3.5.0
Oxygen gas is necessary for combustion: 8.6.2
Respiration is a form of combustion: 8.6.5
Sugar with potassium chlorate, spontaneous combustion: 17.3.4.

Common ion effect
Common ion effect in ammonium chloride solution:
Common ion effect, sodium ethanoate and ethanoic acid: 17.5.2
Common ion effect to precipitate sodium chloride from solution:
Common ion effect to precipitate barium chloride from solution:

Composition of
Composition of edible oils: 19.2.11
Composition of the atmosphere and greenhouse gases: 37.42.1
Elements in the Earth's crustt, abundance of elements: 36.3.01
Elements in the Sunt, abundance of elements: 36.3.02
Food composition: 19.4.0
Prepare sea water crystals, composition of sea water: 3.54.1
Properties of elements: 7.0.

Compounds, chemical compounds: 7.0
Direct union of elements to form compounds: 8.0.0
Synthesis reactions (combination reactions, direct union of elements):
Pure substances and impure substances, elements and compounds: 7.2.0.

Contact explosives
Acetone peroxide, TATP (triacetone triperoxide), C9H18O6, high explosive, white powder, bleach smell
Lead azide, Pb(N3)2, contact explosive, in detonators
Mercury (II) fulminate, mercury fulminate, Hg(CNO)2.H2O, Hg(ONC)2, initiator in detonator and percussion
Nitrogen triiodide, NI3:
Picric acid
Potassium chlorate in pyrotechnic flash powders:
Silver fulminate, AgCNO, contact explosion, extremely sensitive, tiny amounts in children's noise-making toys
Silver nitride, Ag3N, contact explosive unstable, occasionally unwelcome occurrence in silver experiments
Tetrasulfur tetanitride, S4N4
TNT, trinitrotoluene, CH3C6H2(NO2)3.

Cornflour, cornstarch
Cornflour, cornstarch
Cornflour, cornstarch, corn oil, corn syrup, popcorn: 5.1.0
Cornflour, Wheaten cornflour (gluten powder, wheat starch) (wheat gluten is gliadin + glutenin)
Food allergies and intolerances, "hyperactive": 19.2.0
Stir-thickening cornflour mixture, cornstarch: 17.4.6
Cornstarch, cornflour slime, isotropy and thixotropy: 13.6.1
Electrorheological fluid (ER fluid), cornflour and vegetable oil:

Cornflour is powdery starch synthesized from maize and used as a cooking thickener, to make puddings, corn syrup and adhesives
(in USA "cornstarch") (in Australia "wheaten starch").
Powdery starch, synthesized from maize, and used as a cooking thickener.
Use cornstarch powder for baby powder vacuum cleaning inside rubber gloves and shoes dry dog shampoo toy stuffed animals, remove
excess furniture polish grease and oil stains cutting boards rolling pins.
Use cornstarch to thicken gravy.
Use cornstarch paste for skin irritations, sunburn pain, blood stains, car shining, knot untangling, finger paints (+ colouring), and to clean
Use cornstarch + plaster of Paris to kill cockroaches, when they eat the mixture.
"Johnson's baby powder" (Australia) contains "pure cornstarch", so it does not contain talc, hydrated magnesium silicate.

Corrosion, corrosive
Corrosive substances: 3.4.4 (Chemical safety)
Corrosive sublimate, Mercury (II) chloride
Corrosive to metals: 4.16.

Card and cotton reel spool, lifting plate: 13.2.4 (Physics)
Cotton, burning test for natural fabrics: 4.2.4
Glass transition temperature (Tg), chewing gum, cotton: 3.4.03
Flaming and cotton wool plugs: 3.1.3 (Microbiology)
Fluorescent whitening agents in washing powders:
Tests for cellulose, iodine tests for cellulose: 9.135.

Cotton buds, double -ended, pack / 100
Cotton cord, 2.5 mm
Cotton Blue (aniline blue, methyl blue, Helvetia blue, acid blue 93), C.I. 42780, C37H27N3Na2O9S3, histology and fungus stain
Cotton Red (Gossipmine, CI 50240) (CI 22120), CI Direct Red 28, Congo Red
Cotton reels, pack 144
Cotton seed oil, cottonseed oil (Gossypium), meal for chickens
Cotton wool, pack 450 g, Cotton wool is almost pure cellulose.
Cotton wool balls, Dove Swisspers, 25 g, pack / 60
Cotton wool squares, Dove Swisspers, box / 80.

Calico: originally "calico cloth" as imported from Calcutta, now plain white unbleached unprinted cloth, also unbleached
semi-processed cotton, in bags, used in buffing wheels, but in North America printed cotton cloth.

Thermal cracking is the use of heat and pressure for controlled breakdown of naphtha, C10, to form smaller hydrocarbon molecules
and light olefins (alkenes), e.g. ethylene, propylene butylene, which can later be polymerized.
The process increases the yield of petrol (gasoline), C6-10, from crude oil and increases the octane rating.

Catalytic cracking is the use of silica or aluminium as a catalyst to lower the temperature needed to break down heavy hydrocarbons
in crude petroleum, or liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas to form monomers, e.g. ethane, propane.
The smaller molecules formed by cracking often have branch chains.

Crystal, crystals
See: Crystals (Commercial)
"Crystal" may refer to soda-lime glass containing lead monoxide, often called "lead crystal" and use in wine glasses and ornaments.
Breaking strains, brittleness:
Cleavage, fracture, twin crystals, crystal faces: 35.9
Colloid and crystalloid: 7.8.0
Crystal faults, crushing salt: 34.8.6
Crystal growth in a film: 34.8.5
Crystal systems, crystal habit, crystal form: 35.8
Crystals of different salts, storm glass:
Elasticity (Tension, Compression, Shear): 34.5.01
Fractional crystallization of sea water: 7.7.14
Ice model: 34.8.2
Ice nuclei: 34.8.4
Materials from the Earth: 34.3.0
Mechanical properties of materials, elastic, ductile, malleable: 34.5.0
Phenyl salicylate, C13H10O3
Poisson's ratio, v: 34.5.06
Prepare crystal violet, microscopy stain: 3.11.1
Prepare crystals: 3.1.0 (List)
Rocks and minerals, definitions, mineral classification and origin: 35.4
Separate by recrystallization: 10.9.0
Shape memory alloy, Nitinol: 34.8.7
Shape or form (crystals): 35.19
Solid models, sphere packing: 34.8.8
Transparency (transparent, translucent, opaque, refraction): 35.7
Water of crystallization: 3.2.0.

Cyanide, CN
See diagram: Cyanide
Cyanide, CN, cyanides CN-, nitriles, cyanide reagent test kit
Cyanide (cyano), CN-, monodentate ligand
Cyano -CN
Hydrocyanic acid, hydrogen cyanide, Extremely Toxic16.2.4.2
Amygdalin, C20H27NO11, cyanogenic glucoside.

Cyanide compounds, Cyan-
Cyanic acid, HOCN, HCNO, fulminic acid (salts: fulminates)
Cyanidin, C15H11O6
Cyanine dyes
Cyanoacetic acid, C3H3NO2
Cyanocrylates, [(CH2)C(CN)COOR], "Superglue":
Cyanogen (CN)2
Cyanuric acid
Cyanuric chloride.

Cyanamide, CH2N2, NH2CN, carbimide, cyamamide, colourless, deliquescent crystal,
soluble in wateralcohol and organic solvents, fertilizer, defoliant.
Cyanamides, inorganic salts, CN22-:
Calcium cyanamide, CaCN2, often called "cyamamide" or "nitrolime", fertilizer.

Cyanine dyes
Cyanine dyes, R2N-(CH=CH)n-CH=N+R2, fluorophore labels for proteins and nucleic acids
Cyanine acid blue R.

Cyanoacetic acid
Cyanoacetic acid, C3H3NO2, yellow-brown liquid, unpleasant odour, mixes with water.

Cyanogen (CN)2 (i.e. two joined "CN"s), NC≡CN (note triple bond), colourless, nasty smell, Toxic.

Cyanuric acid
Cyanuric acid (CNOH)3, conditioner, stabilizer: 18.7.14
Cyanuric acid (CNOH)3, H3C3N3O3), is used in for swimming pools, purifying tablets, white soluble crystals, solution converts to urea.
Cyanuric acid, conditioner, stabilizer: 18.7.14 (Swimming pools).

Cyanuric chloride
Cyanuric chloride, C3Cl3N3, colourless crysalline, strong pungent odour, slightly solubel, Toxiic by ingestion and inhalation.

Cycloalkanes, CnH2n:
Examples of cycloalkanes
Cyclopropane, C3H6
Cyclobutane, C4H8
Cyclopentane, C5H10
Cyclohexane, C6H12
Cycloheptane C7H14
Cyclooctane C8H16.

Cyclodiene (CnH2n)
Alkenes, olefins:
Cyclodiene pesticides, aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor: 16.4.01
Cyclohexene, 3, 4, 5, 6-tetra hydrobenzene (old stock may form unstable peroxides), Toxic, Flammable
Cyclohexyl alcohol, cyclohexanol
Cyclohexyls, C6H11-
Cyclonite (CH2N.NO2)3, Hexogen, cyclothrimethylene trinitramine, explosive, used with TNT
Cyclopentadienyl groups (Cp), [C5H5]-, ligands
Cyclopentanol, C5H9OH
Cyclopropene, CH.CH.CH2
Cyclosilicates, Be3Al2(SiO3)6: Beryl.

Cyclohexane, C6H12, flammable organic chemical: Cyclohexane
Cyclohexane, C6H12, hexamethylene, hexahydrobenzene, colourless liquid, ethereal petroleum-like odour,
Highly flammable, Toxic, in kohlrabi, used as a solvent, oil extractant, paint and varnish remover, and in solid fuels.
Cyclohexane, aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g. Benzene (C6H6)
Cyclohexane, octane number: See diagram 16.1.1h
Flammable liquids, cyclohexane: 3.5.8
Molal freezing point constant of cyclohexane solvent: 24.1.14
Prepare nylon polymer: 3.4.7
Steam distillation to measure water and fat content of food: 10.5.5.

Cyclohexanol, C6H11OH, hexahydrophenol, cyclohexyl alcohol, hexahydrobenzene, hexalin, Toxic
Cyclohexanol, Solution < 20%, Not hazardous
Cyclohexanol, oily colourless liquid, Molal freezing point constant of cyclohexane solvent: 24.1.14.

Cyclohexanone, C6H10O, 2, 4-DNP Hydrazone, Toxic by all routes, flammable, Use skin and eye protection
Cyclohexanone, Solution < 1%, Not hazardous
Cyclohexanone, colourless liquid, odour like propane, cellulose lacquers, solvent.

Cytochrome C, CYP, myohematin, hematin-protein, C42H52FeN8O6S2
CYP refers to enzymes in the liver and small intestines that use iron to oxidize harmful substances and drugs by making them more
water-soluble, the process called "Phase I metabolisnm".
They may add a hydroxyl group then conjugugation to groups such as glucuronide to increase the solubility even further, the process
called "Phase 2 metabolism".
Cytochrome P450 catalysed reaction: NADPH + H+ + O2 + RH --> NADP+ + H2O + R-OH
Where NADPH is a protein in the endoplasmic reticulum.
Also, CYP affects vascular autoregulation, in the brain and the formation of cholesterol, steroids and arachidonic acid metabolites.
About 50 CYPs occur in humans.
Just as plants develop new alkaloids to limit their consumption by animals, animals develop new enzymes to metabolise the plant toxins.
Most CYP is anchored to membranes of the microsomal portion of the cell.
After adding an agent to reduce haem, part is exposed to carbon monoxide and if it stongly absorbs light at 450nm wavelength
compared with the original solution, it must contain CYP, a process called "difference spectroscopy".

Cytosine, C4H5N3O
Cytosine, [4-Amino-2-hydroxypyrimidine], Cytosinimine, pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids, found in DNA and
RNA that pairs with guanine, pyrimidine nucleobase, pyrimidone, aminopyrimidine, human metabolite
Cytosine, C4H5N3O, DNA and RNA: 4.4.0
Cytosine, Nucleic acid nitrogenous bases: 3.0.0
See diagram: Heterocyclic compounds: pyrimidines, cytosine

Cysteine, C3H7NO2S
See diagram Cysteine
E920 L-cysteine monohydrochloride
Cysteine DNA codons
Cysteine (Table of amino acids).