School Science Lessons
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Chemistry Ad-Az
Table of Contents
Acetylene, C2H2, ethyne:
Adaptogen, anti-stress herb, e.g. ginseng, rhodiola, not a scientific term
Adding chemicals to containers: 3.4.10
Addition polymers: 3.4.2
Addition reactions: 16.1.01
Additives that may cause problems to children: 19.4.3
ADHD, Food colouring and ADHD: 19.9.1
Adiabatic change, isothermal change: 20.4.0
Adiabatic processes: 20.4.8
Adipic acid
Adipoyl chloride
Adrenaline, C9H13NO3: Epinephrine
Epinephrine, adrenaline, Amphetamines:
Aerated water, soda water: 3.34.3a
Aerobic: 7.9.2
Aesculetin, C9H6O4
Agate, Quartz, silica, SiO2, (See: 4. Geology)
Agent orange, C4H4O2: 16.14.0
Agnuside, C22H26O11
Agricultural chemicals: 16.0
See: Agriculture (Commercial)
Agrimophol, C26H34O8
Air, atmosphere
Agroclavine, alkaloid
Ajaconine, alkaloid
Ajmalicine, alkaloid
Ajugose, Oligosaccharides
Alabaster: (Geology)
Alanine, DNA codons
Alanine, C3H7NO2, (Table of amino acids)
Albendazole, C12H15N3O2S, worm medicine
Albite (See: 2. Sodium feldspar, albite, NaAlSi2O8)
Albumen, albumin
Alcian blue stain, Prepare alcian blue solution: 3.30
"Alcohol", Ethanol, ethyl alcohol
Alcohols, fatty alcohols, lauryl alcohol: 3.8.0
Alcohols, Tests for alcohols, potassium manganate (VII):
Aldaric acids
Alditols, polyhydric alcohols, mannitol:
Aldose sugars:
Aldoses and ketoses: Table
Aldosterone: 9.26.2
Aldrin, C12H8Cl6, Cyclodiene pesticides: 16.4.01 (Agriculture)
Ale, Yeast, fermentation, brewing, beer: 16.7.11
Alginate polymer: 3.4.12
Alginic acid, "Sphereification" 19.3.6
Aliphatic compounds: 16.2.0
Aliphatic, unsaturated carbon compounds:
Aliquot: 7.9.3
Alkali, alkaline, alkalinity
Alkanes (CnH2n+2), paraffins:
Alkannin, C16H16O5, napthoquinone derivative
Alkanoic acids:
Alkanones (ketones, RCOR')
Alkenes (CnH2n), olefins:
Alkyd resin: 16.9.1
Alkyl group: 16.9.01
Alkyl halides, RHa, Halogen compounds, haloalkanes, halocarbons: 16.2.2
Alkylation: 16.9.2
Alkyne group: 16.9.3
Alkynes (CnH2n-2), acetylenes:
Allamandrin, C15H16O7, in Allamanda cathartica
Allantoin, C4H6N4O3,
Allergies and intolerances, "hyperactive": 19.2.0
Allicin, C6H10OS2.:
Alliin, C6H11NO3S:
Allose, C6H12O6
Allyl, --CH2CH=CH2
Almond, Bitter almond:
Aloe-emodin, C15H10O5
Aloenin, C19H22O10
Aloin, C21H22O9, barbaloin
Alpha, α-naphthol tests for carbohydrates, Molisch's test: 9.134
Alpha, α-naphthol, Naphthol, C10H7OH:
Alpha, α-amino acids, Table of the 20 α-amino acids:
Alpha, α-linoleic acid, Fatty acids:
Alpha, α-carotene, C40H56, carotenoid pigment, vitamin A:
Alpha-hederin, C42H68O12, saponin
Alpha Radiation, Radiation, ionizing radiation, Geiger counter: 2.9.0 (See 1.)
Alpinine, alkaloid
Altrose, C6H12O6, sold as D-Altrose
Alumina, Al2O3, aluminium oxide, aluminium hydroxide
Aluminium, Al
See: Aluminium Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Alvonal, C30H44O9
Amalgams: 5.5.2
Amantadine, C10H17N, anti-viral & anti-Parkinsons medication, causes psychosis
Amaranthin, alkaloid
Amaranthus (Amaranthus species), Amaranthaceae.
Amaranthin C30H34N2O19
Amarogentin, C29H30O13
Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids: 16.3.17
Ambelline, alkaloid
Amber (substance, smell, colour)
Ambelline, C18H21NO5
Ambergris, Triterpenes C30: Ambrein
Ambrettolide, C16H28O2
Ambrettolic acid, C16H30O3
American liquid measures, US measures: 3.5.3
Americium, Am:
See: Americium Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Amethyst, SiO2, (Geology)
Amides, C=ONH2:
Amido phthalic acid, amido-tarephthalic acid:
Amidosulfamic acid, NH2.SO2OH
Amikan hydrate, C22H43N5O13.xH2O
Amines, C2H5NH2:
Amino-plastics, amino resins, urea-formaldehyde (UF), melamine-formaldehyde (MF): 3.8.5
Amino acids, RCH(NH2)COOH
Amino group, NH2-
Aminoacetic acid, aminoethanoic acid, glycine, NH2CH2COOH
Aminoethylethanolamine, AEEA, surfactant, fabric softener, fuel additive, chelate
Aminoglycosides, Glycosides:
2-aminopentanedioic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine
4-aminophenol, H2NC6H4OH, 4-hydroxyanaline
Amitripyline, popular tricyclic antidepressant, TCA, tryptanol, "Elavil", C20H22N: See diagram 14.05
Ammonia, NH3, Ammonium: 3.33
See: Ammmonia Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Amosite amphibole (Mg, Fe)7(OHSi4O11)2: 35.20.3 (See 2.0, Geology)
Amount of substance, the mole: 5.1.0
Amoxillin, "Amox", C16H19N3O5S, antibiotic for children
Ampère, electric current:
Ampere-hour (Ah), Battery capacity:
Amphetamine, C9H13N
Amphetamines, epinephrine:
Amphibole, common horneblende, NaCa2(Mg, Fe2+ Fe3+Al)5(Si, Al)8O22(OH, F)2 (Geology)
Amphiphile (loves water and fat):
Amurensine, alkaloid
Amurine, alkaloid
Amygdalin, C20H27NO11
Amygdalins, Glycosides:
Amyl acetate ester, CH3COO(CH2)4CH3, Prepare amyl acetate (pear oil): 16.5.6
Amyl alcohol, C5H12O, CH3(CH2)3CH2OH, pentan-1-ol, n-amyl alcohol, normal amyl alcohol, 1-pentanol
Amylum, starch
Amylase n-amylene, C5H10, amylene, n-pentene, 2-methyl-2-butene, 1-pentene, pent-1-ene, Highly flammable
Amylobarbital, pentobarbital, barbiturates, phenobarbital, amylobarbital, pentobarbital, thiopental: 11.11.7
Amylose (from potatoes), Tests for amylose and amylopectin: 9.132a
Amyl, C5H11-
Anabasine, C10H14N2
Anacardic acid, C22H36O3, in cashew nut, Ginkgo biloba seed, mixture of salicyclic acid substitutes with alkyl chains
Anaesthetic ether, diethyl ether, C2H5OC2H5, "ether", ethoxyethane, ethyl oxide, sulfuric ether, Toxic
Analar reagent, sold as chemical of high purity (+ known contaminants), use for chemical analysis
Analgesics, Aspirin and analgesics, paracetamol, acetaminophen, (Panadol, Tylenol): 11.6
Anatase, TiO2, titanium dioxide, a mineral form of titanium (IV) oxide
Andesine, (Group 2. Plagioclase feldspars) (Geology)
Andrade's acid fuchsin, indicator: 1.0
Andrographolide, C20H30O5
Anethofuran, C10H16O, dill ether
Angelica lactone:
Angle, angular: 6.3.01
Angle tube syringe, Collect gas: See diagram 3.33
Anglesite, lead sulfate, lead vitriol, PbSO4: 35.20.1 (Geology)
Angstrom unit:
Anhydrite, CaSO4
Anhydrone, magnesium perchlorate, Mg(ClO4)2, oxidizing agent, exothermic with water, Toxic, Corrosive
Aniline, C6H5NH2, phenylamine, aminobenzene
Animal care and protection: 3.0.0
Anion compounds, Hazards: 3.7.0
Anionic detergents
Anions, Tests for anions:
Anode, Electrochemical cell, voltaic cell, galvanic cell: 15.6.0
Anion exchange resin
Anions, Tests for anions:
Anisodamine, C17H22NO4
Anisodine, C17H21NO5
Anisole, CH3OC6H5, methyoxybenzene
Annolobine, alkaloid
Annonaine, alkaloid
Anode and cathode
Anodize aluminium: 15.1.8
Anodize iron nails:
Anodyne, compound used to ease pain
Anolyte water, anolyte solution, hypochlorous acid, HOCl, destroys bacterial cell membranes, anthracnose
Anorthite, calcium feldspar, CaAl2Si2O8, (Geology)
Antheraxanthin, C40H56O3, xanthophylls
Anthocyanidins, Anthocyanins:
Anethofuran, C10H16O, monoterpene
Anethole, C10H12O, monoterpene
Anthracycline antibiotics, anti-cancer drugs from some Streptomyces species, but cardiotoxic
Anti-bumping granules, boiling stones, boiling chips: 7.9.12
Anti-caking agents, food additives: 19.4.9
Antihistamines: 11.11.5
Antibiotics: 9.2.0
Antifreeze, ethanediol, C2H6O2, ethylene glycol
Antimony, Sb
Antioxidants, free radicals
Antiseptics, Disinfectants, antibiotics: 9.215
Antispasmotic, Hiccups: 9.239.2
Apatite, Ca5[F(PO4)3]: (Geology)
Apigenin, C15H10O5, flavonoid
Apiin, C26H28O14
Apodine, alkaloid
Apothecaries' weights, English and United States weights and measures: 3.2.4
Apotosis inducer Solanine
Apparatus, Prepare stock materials and apparatus: 2.6
Apparicine, alkaloid
Aprons, Safety aprons
See: Aprons (Commercial)
Apterin, C20H24O10
Aqua, H2O: Water
Aqua fortis, Nitric acid: 12.5.0
Aqua regia
Aqua vitae, "water of life": Brandy
Aquadag (colloidal carbon): 35.41.5
Aquadag, aluminium foil covers pith balls and ping-pong balls: 31.2.6
Aquamarine, Be3Al2(SiO3)6, blue-green beryl
See: Aquarium, (Commercial)
Aquavit, "eau de vie", whisky, usquebaugh (Irish whisky)
Aqueous solutions, states of matter:
Aqueous solutions, Solubility in water of different salts: 3.9
AR (Analytical Reagent), chemicals standards
Arachidic acid, C19H39COOH
Arachidonic acid, CH3(CH2)3(CH2CH:CH)4-(CH2)3COOH, eicosatetraenoic acid, cell membranes, diet, essential fatty acid
Aragonite (CaCO3)n, dimorphism: 35.33.2 (Geology)
Araldite polymer, epoxy resin, C13H18O2: 3.8.7
Araloside, C47H74O18, saponin
Aramid synthetic fibre, Nomex, Kevlar, Twaron:
Aramide polymer, Generic name for fibres from aromatic polyamides: 3.7.6
Arbutin, C12H16O7
Area game (Primary): 1.44
Arecaidine alkaloid C7H11NO2, betel nut palm
Arecoline, C8H13NO2
Aristolochic acid B, C17H11NO7
Arenes, benzene, benzene compounds:
Arginine, C6H14N4O2, Table of the 20 α-amino acids:, (See 2.)
Arginine, DNA codons
Argentic, argentous: Silver compounds
Argentite, silver glance, Ag2S
Aristolochic acid B, C17H11NO7
Argol, beeswing, potassium hydrogen tartrate
Argon, Ar
Armenian clay: (Geology)
Aromatic compounds:
Aromatic hydrocarbons, Amides and alkaloids: 16.8.0
Arrhenius equation
Arsenic, As
Artemisinin, C15H22O5
Artemisinin, C15H22O5, sesquiterpenoid lactone
Artificial magnets, ferrite magnets: 29.4.72
Aryl groups:
Ash, Tests for ash content of plant dry matter: 9.3.16
Asbestos, hydrous magnesium silicate: 35.20.3, (Geology)
Asbestos, Crocodolite and blue asbestos are NOT permitted in schools
Ascaridole, C10H16O2, bicyclic monoterpene
Ascorbic acid, L-ascorbic acid, vitamin C, C6H8O6
See: Vitamin C ascorbic acid, (Commercial)
Ascorbyl palmitate, ester of ascorbic acid + palmitic acid, "fat-soluble vitamin C", "vitamin C ester"
Ash content, moisture content of plant organs and ash content of plant dry matter: 9.3.15
Asiaticoside, C48H78O19
Asparagine, C4H8N2O3, (Table of amino acids)
Asparagine, DNA codon
Asparagus, C6H10S2, diallyl disulfide smell, Sulfides:
Asparanin A, C39H64O13
Asparanin B, C45H74O17
Aspartame: E951
Aspartic acid, C4H7NO4,
Asphalt, bitumen
Aspiration, transfer of liquids by sucking, using aspirator instrument or apparatus
See: Aspirators, (Commercial)
Aspiration hazard: 5.8
Aspirin, C9H8O4, acetylsalicyclic acid
Assay value of precious metals: 35.3.01
Astatine, At2
Astaxanthin, C40H52O4
ASTM, Plastics recycling code: 3.5.3
Astragaloside A, C41H66O14, saponin
Atabrine, C23H30ClN3O, antimalarial
-ate suffix, 9.1
Atmosphere: 13.2.0
Atmospheric pressure, air pressure: 12.3.0, (Physics)
Atoms, atomic
ATP, adenosine triphosphate
Atractylenolide II lactone:
Atropine, C17H23NO3
Atropine, C17H23NO3, Hallucinogenic drugs: 11.11.9
Aucubin, C15H22O9
Augite (monoclinic, pyroxene, silicate), [(Ca, Mg, Fe2, Fe3, Ti, Al)2][(Si, Al)2O6]
Augite, Silicates group, polysilicates, polysilicon: (Geology)
Auriculoside, C22H26, CNS depressant, flavon glycoside, in Acacia auriculiformis
See: Autoclaves, sterilization of media and liquids, (Commercial)
Autoignition temperature: 3.5.13
Auxins: (experiment)
Avogadro's hypothesis:
Avoirdupois weight: 3.2.1
Azadirachtin, C34H44O16
Azafrin, C27H38O4, escobedin
Azeotrope: 7.9.7
Azo compounds: derivatives of diazene (diimide), HN=NH, Nitrogen compounds:
Azurite, basic copper carbonate, blue carbonate of copper, 2CuCO3.Cu(OH)2: 35.20.4 (Geology)

i.e. (id est) means "that is" or "in other words"
e.g. (exempli gratia) means "for example"
viz. (videlicet) means "namely" or "that is to say"
et al. (et alii) means "and others" or "and collaborators"
q.v. (quod vide) means "which to see", written after words to be looked up in the current document
ibid. (ibidem) means "in the same place", refers to a previously listed work
cf. (confer) means to see a given citation for comparision

Adenine, C5H5N5
Adenine, C5H5N5, DNA and RNA: 4.4.0
Nucleic acid nitrogenous bases: 3.0.0
Purine group of alkaloids: 16.3.22
Structure of DNA first suggested by J. D. Watson and F. H. C. Crick: 4.4.0A

Adenosine, C10H13N5O4
Adenosine, C10H13N5O4 (adenine + d-ribose), adenine riboside, adenine-9-β-D-ribofuranoside
Adenosine, ribonucleoside, neurotransmitter, adenosine and derivatives, many roles in metabolism, components of DNA and RNA
Adenosine, vasodilatory, antiarrhythmic, analgesic, adenosine receptor agonist
ADP, adenosine diphosphate, C10H15N5O10P2
ATP, adenosine triphosphate, C10H16N5O13P3:
Adenosine-5-diphosphate, ADP (sodium salt)
Adenosine-5-monophosphate, AMP (sodium salt)
Adenosine-5-triphosphoric acid, ATP (sodium salt)
Adenosine, D-ribose
Anatomy and physiology of meat (ATP): 19.3.2
Cordyceps militaris (Cordyceps sinensis), adenosine, alkaloids from plants (used in adenosine triphosphate, ATP, reactions).
Nucleosides, nucleic acids, DNA, RNA:

See: Glue (Commercial)
Alkyd resin: 16.9.1
Epoxy resin polymers, thermoset plastics:
Eucalyptus oil
Gelatin, gelatine
Prepare glues and pastes, adhesives, gums: 9.0.0
Hazard labels: 1.22
List of adhesives: 1.3
Prepare microscopy adhesives: 2.0
Prepare Bakelite plastic, phenol / methanal polymerization: 3.4.9
Prepare casein plastic from milk: 3.100
Prepare gelatine gel:
Prepare urea-formaldehyde resin: 3.101

Polyurethane adhesives or surface coatings, e.g. hexamethyl diisocyanate, HMDI, irritants
Toluene is a curing agent for epoxy resin adhesives, surface coating, irritant
Triethylenetetramine, TET, curing agent for epoxy resin adhesive, surface coating, irritant
Xylene, C8H10, C6H4C2H6, C6H4(CH3)2, curing agent for epoxy resin adhesives, surface coating, paint thinner, irritant

Adipic acid
Adipic acid (CH2)4(COOH)2, HOOC(CH2)4COOH, C6H10O4, butanedicarboxylic acid, hexanedioic acid, Harmful if ingested
In juice of beetroot Beta vulgaris and many plants, irritates eyes and throat, used as food acidulant
Adipic acid, colourless needles (used to make nylon 6, 6 (Bri nylon), polyester resin, urethane foam.)
Adipic acid, food acid: E355
Dicarboxylic acids:
Prepare nylon polymer: 3.4.7

Phenethylamine group of alkaloids: 16.3.18
Amine intolerance: 19.2.2 (for food)

7.9.2 Aerobic (Greek aēr air, bios live) A bacterial processes that occurs only in the presence of oxygen is an aerobic process,
the opposite is an anaerobic process.

Porous synthetic substance, "frozen smoke", aerosol (fogs), e.g. metal oxide aerogels.
Prepare sunbeam mists (ammonium chloride):

Prepare agar, media and nutrient solutions:
Gels in the home kitchen:
Movement of ions, sodium sulfate solution: 3.4.2
Prepare nutrient agar solution:
Polysaccharide gums, gums, phycocolloids:
Prepare sterile media or solutions: 9.2.11
Phylum Rhodophyta, red algae: 9.0.14
Rotting banana and rotting grass: 9.159.

Agar, agar agar, agar powder, nutrient agar (beef broth + agar), tablets, powder, jelly-like substance from red seaweed,
nutrient agar, agar isinglass, Macassar gum, gelatinous substance, E406, from red algae Phylum Rhodophyta, vegetable gum,
thickener, emulsifier.
Agar is sold as "Agar agar seaweed powder" for home cooking, and as "Agar, microbiology tested, plant culture tested, cell culture
tested, powder", for laboratory experiments.

Air, atmosphere: 13.2.0
Atmospheric pressure, air pressure: 12.3.0
Air streams, Bernoulli theorem: 4.242
Tests for air and dissolved oxygen in water: 18.3.0a
Tests for air pollution from burning refuse:

Albumen, albumin
Albumen (egg white) and egg yolk: 16.7.10
Alcohol test (Milk testing): 16.1.3
Colloidal nature of egg white: 9.172
Luminol tests for blood, Cu, Fe, Cn- (serum albumin): 14.3.1
Fibrous proteins and globular proteins:, (See 2.)
Pasteurization and UHT (Ultra High temperature) of milk: 19.3.12
Reproductive organs (chickens): 6.0
Tests for albumin and gelatine: 16.6.4
Tests for proteins, test strips: 16.6.8.

1. Albumen is egg white, white of an egg, albumen flakes, albumen egg powder.
2. Albumin is any protein soluble in water and can be coagulated by heat.
3. Albumin soluble protein in blood serum, serum albumin in blood serum
Alphlactalbumin in milk, a globular protein.
Albumin from bovine serum is sold as Bovine Serum Albumin, and Bovine Plasma Albumin (BSA).
Albumin from humans is sold as Albumin, Human, tested negative for HIV and HBSAG [surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBV)].

, absolute alcohol, 95% alcohol, hospital alcohol, denatured alcohol
Alcohols, List of alcohols: 1.4
Alcohol (ethanol) (Biology solution): 1.2
Alcohol is used for histology tissue preparation and cytology procedures.

Aldehydes, alkanals, -CHO, R-CH=O, Prefix: formyl-, Suffix: -al
Aldehydes, alkanals:
Aldehydes, List of aldehydes: 1.5
Amino-plastics: 3.8.5
Chloral, chloral hydrate:
Cinnamaldehyde (C9H8O): Cinnamaldehyde
Furfural, C5H4O2:
Glutaraldehyde, OHC(CH2)3CHO, microscopy fixative: 4.20
Metaldehyde, C8H16O4: Metaldehyde
Oxidation of glucose, blue bottle experiment:
Oxidation of methanol to methanal:
Prepare ethanal with potassium dichromate:
Prepare ethanal with potassium manganate (VII):
Prepare urea-formaldehyde resin: 3.101
Reducing sugars and nonreducing sugars:
Silver mirror tests for aldehydes, Tollens' test:
Tests for aldehydes with Fehling's solution: 9.142.2
Tests for aldehydes, Tollens' test: Alditols, polyhydric alcohols, mannitol
General formula: HOCH2[CH(OH)]nCH2OH,
Mannitol CH2OH(CHOH)4CH2OH, from mannose or fructose, sugar in fungi and brown algae, food sweetener.
Sold as D-Mannitol, Mannite, C6H14O6. Aliphatic, unsaturated carbon compounds
Unlike aromatic compounds, aliphatic compounds have an open-chain structure which may be:
1. Saturated (all single bonds, alkanes), CnH2n+2, e.g. methane (the simplest hydrocarbon), CH4.
2. Unsaturated (double bonds, alkenes), CnH2n, e.g. ethene, C2H4.
3. Unsaturated (triple bonds, alkynes), CnH2n-2, e.g. ethyne (acetylene), C2H2.

Alcohol alizarin test (Milk tests): 16.1.4
Alizarin, C14H8O4: 3.3.1
Alizarin red: 3.3.3
Alizarin yellow: 2.0 (indicator)
Anthraquinone, C14H8O2.

Acidity and alkalinity:, (Environmental chemistry)
Alkali metals: 1.1.0
Alkaline earth metals: 1.2.0
Alkaline feldspars (See: Group 1. (Geology)
Alkaline iodide, 500 g NaOH, 135 g NaI, 10 g NaN3 in 1 L of water, Toxic
Alkalis, Bases: 12.7.0
Alkalis, Safety instructions: 5.3.3
Alkalis with ammonium carbonate: 12.12.2
Alkalis with zinc: 12.5.3
Alkaline battery: 15.6.13
Reactions of chlorine with alkalis, bleaching powder: 13.4.15
Storing alkalis, ammonia solution:
Tests for concrete alkalinity: 3.66.3
Tests for pH of soil samples: 6.12.0
Tests for unsaturated hydrocarbons, alkaline potassium manganate (VII) solution test:

Alkali (Arabic: al-kalī, calcined ashes)
An alkali is water-soluble base yielding a caustic solution, pH > 7.
In the later eighteenth century, the word "alkali" referred to any potash needed for glass and soap manufacture.
The "alkali" needed for making soap was formerly produced by burning wood charcoal or dried seaweed.

Dilute acids with sodium hydrogen carbonate: 12.3.10
Effervescent tablets, health salts, sodium bicarbonate (baking soda): 12.1.1 (See 2.)
Sodium hydrogen carbonate, NaHCO3
Green hair and faded hair from swimming pools:
Seltzer water:

Alka-Seltzer (trade name), is mainly sodium hydrogen carbonate + citric acid + aspirin.
Use Alka-Seltzer to clean toilets, vases, jewellery, thermos pans with burned-on grease, and unclog a drain.
Alka-Seltzer + vinegar is used to soothe insect bites.

16.9.01 Alkyl group
(an alkane less 1 hydrogen), e.g. methyl CH3-, ethyl C2H5- Alkyls are saturated hydrocarbons, e.g. methyl, ethyl,
Alkyls, symbol R, name ends in -yl, named from alkanes by removing an H from the formula, e.g. methane CH4 becomes the alkyl
called methyl CH3-.
Alkyl groups are formed by removal of a hydrogen atom from an alkane.

16.9.1 Alkyd resin
An alkyd resin is any synthetic polyester resin prepared from a dicarboxylic acid, used in paints and adhesives.
Adhesive and coating resins are made from glycerol and unsaturated organic acids.
Rigid cross-linked polymers are formed when there are more than two functional groups on linear chain monomers.
They are used in paint enamels and making dentures.

Allotropes, sulfur, carbon:
Prepare forms of sulfur, allotropes of sulfur: 7.1.5
Reactions of phosphorus and phosphates, P, PO43-, 12.13.1.

Allotropes, sulfur, carbon
If the same element may have different bonding structure and crystal structure and so has different properties within, each variation of
structure and properties is called an allotrope.
Sulfur has 3 allotropes, rhombic or α sulfur, monoclinic or β sulfur, and plastic sulfur.
Carbon has different bonding and crystal structure in the allotropes graphite and diamond.
Graphite is slippery because weak van der Waals' forces between the flat layers allow them to slide over each other.
So graphite is used as a dry lubricant in machinery and in "lead" pencils.
Diamond has very high melting point and is extremely hard because of strong chemical bonds holding the carbon atoms into a rigid
three-dimensional structure, a network solid with a tetrahedral arrangement, making it chemically unreactive.
However, diamond is a poor conductor of electricity because the electrons are held in relatively fixed positions around the carbon atoms.

Alloys: 5.5.0
Amalgams: 5.5.2
Babbitt's metal
Brass, Bronze
Classify substances, pure substances, mixtures, solutions: 7.2.1
Properties of elements: 7.0
Eutectic mixture: 5.5.1
German silver
Gold alloys
Metallic bonds: 3.01.5
Misch metal
Nichrome alloy, nichrome wire
Nitinol memory wire: 5.5.15
Permalloy bar:
Shape memory alloy, Nitinol: 34.8.7
Speculum metal, alloy of brass or copper with tin, polished to make telescope reflective surfaces or mirrors
Tests for melting point of lead, tin, and lead-tin alloys: 3.63
Type metal, alloy, mainly Pb + Sn and Sb, used first by Johannes Gutenberg 1440, then until mid 20th century.

Allyl, CH2=CHCH2-, allyl resin, allyl bromide CH2=CHCH2Br
Allyl alcohol, CH2:CHCH2OH, prop-2-en-1-ol, 2-propen-1-ol, Highly toxic by all routes
Allyl alcohol, prop-2-en-1-ol, Solution < 3%, Not hazardous
Allyl alcohol, CH2:CHCH2OH, prop-2-en-1-ol, 2-propen-1-ol, Highly toxic by all routes
Allyl alcohol, Solution < 3%, Not hazardous
Allyl bromide, CH2:CHCH2Br, 1-bromoprop-2-ene, 3-bromopropene, acrid smell, Toxic by all routes
Allyl chloride, CH2:CHCH2Cl, 3-chloropropene, (plastics production), Toxic by all routes
Allyl chloride, Solution < 0.1%, Not hazardous
Allyl disulfide, diallyl disulfide, C6H10S2, in distilled oil of garlic
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), CH2CHCH2NCS, colourless oil, mustard, radish, horseradish, and wasabi lachtymatory pungent taste
slightly soluble in water
Allyl mercaptan:
Allyl methyl sulfide, CH2=CHCH2SCH3, methyl allyl sulfide, colourless liquid, strong odour, in garden onion, garlic
Dimethyl allyl, Isohumulone, C21H30O5:

Amber, C12H20O, succinite: (amber mineral, Geology)
Amber resin: 16.4.5
Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction, clock reaction: 17.1.8 (amber colour)
Butanedioic acid, spirit of amber:
Electrostatics, static electricity: 31.0.0
Perfumes and smells: 19.7.1 (amber smell)
Triboelectric series, electrostatic series, ranking of insulators: 31.1.02 (See 21. Amber rod)
Traffic lights: (amber colour)
Amber, C12H20O, is a substance, a colour and a smell (See Ezekiel 1:27 in Bible)
Amber is a pure chroma colour, midway between yellow and orange colour, or gold and orange
Copper feels colder than amber against the cheek, because copper is a better conductor of heat.
Droplet bottles, glass dropper with screw cap and plastic teat, 50 mL, amber, clear (amber colour)
Rosin is a solid amber residue made by the distillation of turpentine, using pine stumps.
Special fog lamps may have an amber coloured lens, but the coloured beam does not give more visibility or penetration than a white
beam (amber colour).
Urine has a yellow-amber colour.

Ambrettolic acid, C16H30O3
Ambrettolic acid, C16H30O3, HO(CH2)8-CH=CH-(CH2)5COOH, in musk seed oil, cis and trans forms used in perfume industry

Amino acids
See: Biochemistry (Commercial)
Amino acids:
Amino acid nomenclature:
Amino acids, Table of the 20 α-amino acids:
Amino acids and their 64 DNA codons: 1.0.0
Separate amino acids by paper chromatography:

1. 1-aminopropane, n-propyl amine, propylamine, C2H5CH2NH2, weak base, colourless volatile liquid
2. 2-aminopropane, isopropylamine, propan-2-amne (CH3)2CHNH2, hygroscopic colourless liquid, smell like ammonia,
used to prepare herbicides and pesticides.

Amphetamine, C6H5CH2CH(NH2)CH3
Amphetamine, 1-phenyl-2-aminopropane, C6H5CH2CH(NH2)CH3
Amphetamine See diagram 14.03: Amphetamine
Cocaine and amphetamines: 11.11.3a
Phenethylamine group of alkaloids: 16.3.18.

Alkalis with amphoteric oxides and hydroxides: 12.7.7
Aluminium with sodium hydroxide: 12.1.2
Amphoteric substances:
Dilute acids with amphoteric oxides:
Oxides, acidic, basic, amphoteric, neutral and mixed oxides: 12.17.0
Proteins are amphoteric: 16.6.12.

Amphoteric substances can act as an acid or a base, e.g. water, bicarbonate ion.
Amphoteric oxides react with both acids and bases, e.g. Al2O3, PbO, SnO ZnO.
Their hydroxides are also amphoteric.

Amylase: 7.1.2
Hydrolysis of starch by salivary amylase (ptyalin): 9.130
Enzyme technology, pectinase, amylase, lactase:
Tests for diastase activity: 9.3.10
Yeast, fermentation, brewing, beer: 16.7.11.

Aromatic amines:
Equidensity drops: (Physics)
Schiff bases, C6H5CH:NC6H5, benzylidine aniline and similar compounds.

Antacids increase pH in stomach contents as medicines for reflux, e.g. sodium hydrogen carbonate, magnesium oxide.
Aluminium hydroxide (1-water), bauxite (antacids) 500 g, E173 (food additive)
E552 Calcium silicate (anti-caking agent) (Antacid)
E341 Calcium phosphate (mineral salt) (Antacid, enamel polishing agent)
E504 Magnesium carbonate (mineral salt, anti-caking agent) (Antacid, laxative)
Reflux and heartburn: 9.222
Sodium hydrogen carbonate, baking soda, NaHCO3 (Geology).

Anthraquinone, C14H8O2, C6H4(CO2)C6H4, (9, 10-anthraquinone, anthracene-9, 10 dione), light grey crystal or powder, (in plant
pigments, cochineal, alizarin red) (laxative in senna pods, cascara, rhubarb), polycyclic aromatic organic compound derived from
anthracene, C14H10, light grey crystal or powder, in plant pigments, bird repellent, in Barbados aloe
Anthraquinones contain anthracene-9, 10-quinone, an anthracene derivative with two ketone groups attached to the central benzene ring.
Anthraquinone-2-sulfonate, sodium anthraquinone-2-sulfonate, harmful if ingested.
See diagram: Anthraquinone.

Anthraquinone derivatives, anthranoids
See diagram Chrysophanol: Aloe emodin, Emodin, Physcion, Rhein
Anthraquinone glycosides (aglycone from anthraquinone)
Alizarin, C14H8O4
Hypericin, C30H16O8
Physcion, C16H12O5

Anthraquinone derivatives
(1.) 1-nitroanthraquinone, C14H7NO4, 1-nitroanthracene-9, 10-dione
(2.) 2-anthraquinone sulfonic acid, C14H8O5S
(3.) 1-8-dinitroanthraquinone, C14H6N2O6, waxoline violet
(4.) natural pigment,
Acid Blue 43, C14H9N2NaO7S, Alizarine Light Blue (a sodium amino hydroxy anthracene sulfonate), wool dye
Vat Violet 1, C34H14Cl2O2, (many synonyms), gasoline blue colorant
Disperse Red 60, C20H13NO4, Samaron Pink, deep red powder with white specks, fabric dye
Anthraquinone laxatives
Alder buckthorn, frangula
Purging buckthorn

Anthraquinone glucosides
Carminic acid, C22H20O13, anthraquinone glucoside:
Prepare carmine: 3.6.

Aloe-emodin, anthraquinone
See diagram: Aloe-emodin, C15H10O5, [C6-C1-C6], aloe emodin anthrone, an anthrocene (Emodin, Frangula-emodin),
strong stimulant-laxative action caused by contraction of intestine smooth muscle when releasing aetylcholine from within body, antitumour,
genotoxic, mutagenic, in aloe latex resin exudate from the aloe plant Aloe vera, Frangula bark
in green vegetables, bark of Rhamnus species, buckthorns, Rhamnaceae and Rheum species, rhubarbs, Polygonaceae.

Aloin (barbaloin), C21H22O9, anthaquinone glucoside, anthraquinone glycosyl
anthracycline, C-glucoside, bitter, yellow-brown, protects from tumours, toxic anticancer drugs, blood vessel development in tumours,
and supports pigment formation, in Aloe barbadensis, leaves used for wound healing, inhibit blood vessel formation.
Aristolochic acid B, C17H11NO7
Aloenin, C19H22O10, Aloe arborescens, bitter glucoside.

Amylose, C14H26O11
polysaccharide consisting of alpha-D-glucose units, bonded together by glycosidic bonds, 20 to 30% of starch, more soluble than amylopectin
linear molecule of inked alpha-D-glucopyranosyl units, with some molecules are slightly branched, the linear macromolecules are converted into
maltose, branched chains are converted into dextrin.
Starches from different plants have different granular sizes and enzyme digestibility depending on the chemical structures of the amylopectin
and amylose and how they are arranged in the starch granule.
See diagram Amylose

Amylopectin, C30H52O26
highly branched polymer of glucose, starch is about 80% amylopectin, 20% amylose, insoluble in water,
formed of 2, 000 to 200, 000 glucose units.
See diagram Amylopectin

Dantron, C14H8O4, anthraquinone,
chrysazin, 1, 8- dihydroxyanthraquinone, former laxative, red-orange, crystalline powder, odourless, tasteless,
antioxidant, fungicide, possible carcinogen so withdrawn from US makets, causes red urine, in Cassiaspecies.

1. Aluminon, C22H23N3O9, triammomium aurine tricarboxylate, triammonium
salt of aurintricarboxylic acid (dye detects Al3+), Toxic if ingested
2. Organic reagent: "Aluminon", 0.1% aqueous solution.
To 5 mL of slightly acidic solution add ammonium acetate solution followed by
A red colour or precipitate indicates presence of aluminium.
Use Group III precipitate dissolved in dilute HCl Iron also gives positive test,
so aluminium cannot be shown in its presence.
Chromium gives positive test but may be removed by ammonia and ammonium.
3. Alizarin, 1, 2-dihydroxyanthroquinone, Toxic (aluminium ion indicator).

7.9.12 Anti-bumping granules, boiling chips
Anti-bumping granules, boiling chips (- ceramic, silicon carbide, fused alumina)
Boiling chips, usually fused alumina, also flower pot bits, prevents large bubbles of gas forming that could cause explosive emissions
from a beaker containing a heated solution.
Sudden formation of a large amount of vapour from the bottom of a heated vessel of liquid, rather than the usual controlled boiling.
So boiling chips (anti-bumping granules) are added to chemical reactions to keep the bubbles small and aid steady boiling.
Hydrocarbons with longer chains will have higher boiling points than similar hydrocarbons with branched chains because they have more
van der Waals intermolecular bonds between one molecule and another molecule.

Antimony, Sb
, Table of Elements
Antimony compounds
Antimony properties:
Antimony, Sb, natural antimony: 35.20.2 (Geology)
Chemical changes, heat metals in chlorine: 7.1.3 (See 2.)
Group Tests, Group IIb As2S3, Sb2S3, SnS, SnS2:
Lead-acid battery secondary cell:, (See 3. lead-antimony grid)
Peltier effect, supercooled water:, (antimony-bismuth junction)
Pewter, malleable alloy of mostly tin, + some copper, antimony, and bismuth
Reactions of antimony: 12.2.1
Tests for antimonates, borates, oxalates:
Tests for antimony:
Tests for metals with flame tests:, (See Antimony)
Tests for solubility, prepare a solution for group analysis: (See 3.)
Zinc powder with iodine solution:, (See 3. Antimony with iodine.)

Antimony compounds High toxicity chemicals
Antimonic compounds (+5 oxidation state), e.g. antimony (V) chloride, SbCl5
Antimonous compounds (+3 oxidation state) e.g. antimony (III) chloride, SbCl3
Antimony (III) chloride, SbCl3, antimonous chloride, antimony trichloride, butter of antimony, Harmful, Corrosive
NOT recommended for use in junior secondary science classes
Antimony (III) fluoride, SbF3
Antimony (III) sulfide, SbS3, is added to some match heads to increase the vigour of burning
Antimony (III) oxide, antimony trioxide, senarmonite, velentinite
Antimony (V) chloride, antimonic chloride, antimony pentachloride, SbCl5
Antimony (V) fluoride, SbF5
Antimonial lead, lead-antimony alloy, bouronite
Antimony bloom, Sb2O3, Valentinite, weathering product of antimony ores
Antimony chloride, antimony trichloride
Antimony oxide, antimony trioxide
Antimony oxysulfide, antimony red, vermilion
Antimony pentfluoride, SbF5 + hydrofluoric acid, HF --> super acid mixture, pH -31
Antimony pentoxide
Antimony potassium tartrate, AAS std
Antimony trioxide, antimony bloom
Antimony trisulfide, antimony black, white colour in fireworks
Hydrolysis of antimony chloride:
Potassium chlorate in pyrotechnic flash powders: (Antimony trisulfide and chlorate)
Prepare iron (III) chloride, FeCl3: (See 1. antimony chloride)
Separate to metals by reduction of metal oxides, charcoal blocks (ores): 10.10.0 (See 3. Warning!)
Stibnite, Sb2S3, antimonite, antimony glance, grey antimony:35.20.4 (Geology)
Tests for antimonates, borates, oxalates:
Valentinite, Sb2O3, antimony bloom: .

Antioxidants, free radicals
Antioxidants: See diagram
Antioxidants, vitamin E:
Antioxidants, food additives: 19.4.10
Clove oil, eugenol:
Free radicals and antioxidants:
Fumaria officinalis, common fumitory,
Gallic acid:
Garlic (Allium sativum var. sativum), Amaryllidaceae.
Ghee (Butter and butter oil)
Hippophae rhamnoides, sea buckthorn
Modified polyphenol technology in wines:
Larrea tridentata, creosote bush
Propyl gallate:
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid):
Vitamin E:

Aqua regia
Aqua regia, "royal water", [1 part concentrated HNO3 + 3 parts concentrated HCl], [3:1 (v/v) HCl/HNO3],
[Sold as: HNO3 70%, HCl >25%], dissolves gold so "king of metals" to form AuCl4, most other acids cannot attack gold so
aqua regia is called "the acid test" of gold.
Aqua regia dissolves platinum to form H2PtCl6. Aqueous solutions, states of matter
An aqueous solution is a solution in water.
In this document "solution" is always an aqueous solution unless otherwise specified.
So a sugar solution contains sugar dissolved in water but a solution of liquid sucrose contains no water.
The states of matter are solid (s), liquid (l), gas (g), aqueous solution (dissolved in water) (aq).

Arrhenius equation
Chemical form: k = Ae-Ea/(RT)
Where k = rate constant of chemical reaction, Ea = activation energy, energy per mole, T = absolute temperature, R = universal gas
constant, A is the prefactor.
k is the number of collisions that cause a reaction per second
The rate constant k of a given reaction is a function of temperature.
In general, starting from room temperature, reaction rate doubles for every 10oC rise in temperature.
Svante Arrhenius, Sweden, 1889, discovered that electrolytes conduct electricity because they contain ions.
He was interested in the kinetics of chemical reactions.

Arginine, DNA codons
Arginine, Arg, Table of the 20 α-amino acids: (See 2.)
Test reagents on sale: 16.7.15
Minimal agar medium: 9.2.18
Structure of DNA: 4.4.0A
Tests for proteins, Sakaguchi's arginine test: 16.6.10
D, L-arginine (SIGMA No. A 4881), microbiology chemical
Arginine is found in cassava and egg yolks.

Argon, Ar
See: Argon Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Argon, Table of elements: Argon
Argon (Properties):
Density of gases, Argon (Table)
E938 Argon (packaging gas)
It is hard to find a new chemistry joke because all the best jokes Argon!

Arsenic, As
Arsenic, Table of Elements
Arsenic, properties
Arsenic, properties:
Arsenic compounds
Arsine, arsenic hydride, formed by old green wallpaper
Heat substances with charcoal and fusion mixture: (See: 2. Tests for arsenic) Group II Sulfides insoluble in dilute hydrochloric acid
See Group IIb As2S3, Sb2S3, SnS, SnS2.
Arsenic: light blue (moistened with hydrochloric acid)
Minerals containing arsenic:, (Geology)
Nickeline, niccolite, arsenical nickel, NiAs: 35.20.30 (Geology)
Orpiment, As2S3, tinsel: (Geology)
Reactions of arsenic and arsenic compounds: 12.2.2
Tests for arsenates:
Tests for metals with flame tests:
Wood treated with copper chrome arsenate (CCA):

Arsenic, properties Arsenic, properties
Arsenic is widespread and abundant in the earth.
It is used in dyes, pigments, medicines, lead shot alloy, glass-making, fireworks.
Arsenic and arsenic compounds are not use in school science experiments because these substances are very poisonous.
The two forms are yellow arsenic, S.G. 1.97 and grey arsenic, metallic arsenic S.G. 5.73, respectively.
It has steel grey colour and is a very brittle, crystalline, semimetallic solid, a metalloid solid.
It tarnishes in air.
When heated it oxidizes to arsenous oxide, which has a garlic odour.
Heated arsenic (III) oxide gives off the garlic smell of arsenic and a black ring of arsenic in the test-tube.
Arsenic (III) oxide is amphoteric and is slightly soluble in water.
Occurs in realgar (As4S4), orpiment (As2S3), arsenolite (As2O3), and arsenopyrite (FeAsS).
Arsenic, As (Greek arsenikon yellow orpiment, arsenic trisulfide), As, metalloid, arsenic mineral, natural arsenic.
Arsenic and arsenic compounds are Not permitted in schools.
Arsenic is Toxic if ingested.
A 65 mg dose or repeated smaller doses may be poisonous.
Also, small quantities of arsenic may be carcinogenic.
High levels of arsenic have been reported in rice grains, particularly unpolished rice. Maximum intake of arsenic occurs when the cook only just covers uncooked rice in the pot with water,
to be absobed by rice during cooking.
So use 5 X the volume of uncooked rice for cooking water and discard the excess water when cooking is finished.
In timber treatments, wood preservatives, pesticides, found free and in combined many minerals, three allotropes are yellow, black and
main allotrope grey arsenic sublimes at 613oC, and n-type dopant of silicon semiconductors, hardens lead alloys.
White arsenic, arsenic (III) oxide, As4O6, common in sulfide ore deposits, very toxic, rodenticide.
Salvarsan, Erlich's "compound 606" (arsphenamine), was the first drug to treat syphilis.
The most toxic form of arsenic is As3+, which reacts with enzymes in the body.
Agricultural use of arsenic kills plants before concentration is toxic enough for humans.
The proliferation of shallow tube wells in Bangladesh has caused widespread arsenic poisoning.
Atomic number: 33, Relative atomic mass: 74.9216, r.d. 5.72, m.p. = 814oC, b.p. = 613oC (sublimes),
Specific heat capacity: 326 J kg-1 K-1
Arsenic, As (Greek arsenikon yellow orpiment, arsenic trisulfide), As, metalloid, arsenic mineral, natural arsenic.
Arsenic and arsenic compounds are Not permitted in schools.
Arsenic is Toxic if ingested.
A 65 mg dose or repeated smaller doses may be poisonous.
Also, small quantities of arsenic may be carcinogenic.
In timber treatments, wood preservatives, pesticides, found free and in combined many minerals, three allotropes are yellow, black
and main allotrope grey arsenic sublimes at 613oC, and n-type dopant of silicon semiconductors, hardens lead alloys.
White arsenic, arsenic (III) oxide, As4O6, common in sulfide ore deposits, very toxic, rodenticide.
Salvarsan, Erlich's "compound 606" (arsphenamine), was the first drug used to treat syphilis.
The most toxic form of arsenic is As3+, which reacts with enzymes in the body.
Agricultural use of arsenic kills plants before concentration is toxic enough for humans.
The proliferation of shallow tube wells in Bangladesh has caused widespread arsenic poisoning.
Atomic number: 33, Relative atomic mass: 74.9216, r.d. 5.72, m.p. = 814oC, b.p. = 613oC (sublimes),
Specific heat capacity: 326 J kg-1 K-1.

Arsenic compounds
Arsenic (III) acid, HAsO3 (formerly arsenious acid)
Arsenic (III) iodide, arsenic triiodide, Not permitted in schools
Arsenic (III) oxide, As4O6, As2O3, arsenolite (white arsenic), claudetite mineral, Not permitted in schools
Arsenic (V) acid, H3AsO4 (formerly arsenic acid), Not permitted in schools
Arsenic (V) oxide, As2O5, arsenic oxide
Arsenic sulfide, AsS, red arsenic, realgar
Arsenic trioxide, As2O3, arsenic (III) oxide, arsenic (III) trioxide, arsenious oxide, arsenious acid, white arsenic, Extremely toxic
Arsenic trisulfide, As2S3, yellow arsenic, arsenic sulfide, orpiment mineral, yellow orpiment pigment and dye, Toxic
(Arabic: az zarnik gold)
Arsenious acid, H3AsO3, weak acid (Arsenic (III) oxide dissolved in water)
Arsenolite, As2O3, mineral, colourless cubic Arsenopyrite, mispickel, arsenical pyrites, FeAsS, Erinite,
Cacodyl, tetramethyldiarsane (CH3)2As-As(CH3)2, poisonous liquid, garlic smell
Copper (II) arsenite, AsCuHO3, cupric arsenite, Scheele's green, very toxic
Copper (II) arsenate, Cu3(AsO4)2.4H2O, Cu5H2(AsO4)4.2H2O
Hardite, case-hardening material containing arsenic
Pigments: copper acetoarsenite (green 21, emerald green, Paris green), copper arsenite (Scheele's green),
Pigments cobalt arsenite and arsenic trisulfide (yellow 39), Toxic, Carcinogenic, Not permitted in schools.
White arsenic, arsenic oxide, colourless, hygroscopic, soluble in water, crystalline oxides As2O3 and As2O5,
Toxic, used for family murder "inheritance powder", leukaemia medicine.

Ascorbic acid, C6H8O6
See: Ascorbic acid Vitamin C, (Commercial)
Ascorbic acid, powder pillows, L-ascorbic acid tablets, vitamin C
Dipsticks to test the vitamin C, ascorbic acid, content of food: 19.1.20
Tests for phosphate ions in water: 18.4.1
Tests for carbohydrates, Molisch's test: 9.134, (See: 3., 4.)
Tests for vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid): 9.143.

Asbestos, hydrous magnesium silicate, asbestos fibre, mineral wool: 35.20.3 (Geology)
Asbestos, Crocodolite asbestos and blue asbestos, Not permitted in schools,
Asbestos, store demonstration asbestos specimens in sealed containers, or embedded in plastic
Asbestos, 5% platinized, platinized asbestos
Asbestos (Greek unqsodom material).

Aspartic acid, HO2CCH2CH(NH2)CO2H
L-Aspartic acid (S)-(+)-aminosuccinic acid (S)-aminobutanedioic acid
Aspartic acid L-, HOOC-CH2-CH(NH2)-COOH, 2-aminopentanedioic acid, glutamic acid, L-aspartic acid
Aspartic acid (Table of amino acids)
Aspartic acid, DNA codons
Amino acids:
Separate amino acids with paper chromatography:

Asphalt, bitumen
Asphalt, bitumen, "tar", coal tar
In the days of sail, British sailors were called "tars" or "jack tars" becuse they used tar to caulk the seams of ships or because they wore
clothes made of tarpaulin, canvas combined with tar.
Bitumen foaming and bitumen decay: 24.1.6
Coal tar products, creosote: 16.2.10
Ethylbenzene, C8H10
Fractional distillation of crude oil: 16.1.12
Polypropylene, burning test for synthetic fibres: 4.3.16
Shear-thickening, stir-thickening, dilatant fluids, rheopectic fluids: (See 2. Rheopectic fluids)
Solar ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer: 37.34 (See: Experiment)
Sulfonated asphalt, Oil drilling additives.

Asphalt (bitumen tar pitch), is black plastic solid from the final residues left after volatile substances are removed by fractional
distillation of the petroleum of natural occurrence.
It is used for road construction and sealing roofs.
Asphalt is a natural organic material, often occurring in tar pits, with a hydrocarbon base that softens with heat and has been used for
thousands of years for basins, impermeable water ways, sealing roof shingles, and caulking wooden ships.
English sailors on naval sailing ships were called "tars", from their use of tar for waterproofing.
Bitumen is any naturally occurring asphalt or any black, viscous hydrocarbon mixture.
Bituminous coal burns with a bright smoky flame.

Aspirin, C9H8O4, acetylsalicyclic acid
Aspirin, C9H8O4, acetylsalicyclic acid, (ASA), acetyl-2-hydroxybenzoic acid, Harmful if ingested long-term
Do not give to children < 12 years old
Aspirin, acetophen, ASA, entrophen, from willow Salix alba
Aspirin antithrombic, anti-platelet aggregation anticoagulant, and analgesic pain relieving medicine, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, inhibits
biosynthesis of prostaglandins.

Aspirin and analgesics, Paracetamol: 11.11.6
Prepare aspirin crystals: 3.1.4
Aromatic acids:
Filipendula ulmaria, Rosaceae.
Rates of reactions of aspirin: 17.2.4
Salicylate intolerance: 19.2.1
Salicyclic acid in Anacardium occidentale, cashew nut tree, Anacardiaceae.
Separate aspirin, caffeine and paracetamol, with thin layer plate chromatography:
Toxic effect of drugs on water fleas: 16.7.29
Test for aspirin: 12.1.9.

Atoms, atomic
See: Atoms and Molecules (Commercial)
Atoms: 3.0.0
Molecular models: 3.5.1
Atomic absorption spectroscopy, AAA: 27.195
Atomic mass, atomic weight: 5.1.01
Atomic number and mass number: 2.2.0
Atomic weight: 2.3.0
Atomic mass unit, amu: 2.4.0
Bohr model
Deuterium isotope: 3.6.1
Images of atoms: 4.0H.

Autocatalysis, Ethanedioic acid-2-water (oxalic acid), with potassium manganate (VII): 17.3.3
Ethyl acetate with sodium hydroxide, autocatalytic hydrolysis: 17.3.15
Potassium bromate with malonic acid, double autocatalytic reaction, oscillating reaction: 17.3.7.

7.9.7 Azeotrope
An azeotrope is a mixture of liquids that has a constant boiling point because the vapour has the same composition as the liquid
mixture, so the components of the solution cannot be separated by distillation.
The boiling point of an azeotrope mixture may be higher or lower than any component.
An example of a constant boiling mixture is 4.37% water and 95.63% ethanol.
The mixture boils at 78.2oC, but pure ethanol boils at 78.4oC and water boils at 100oC.

Azide compounds
Azide compounds: (N3-), or (-N3), (-N=N+N-)
Azide compounds:
Azide, organic azide, R-N=N+N-, hydrazoic acid HN3
Azide (azido), N-N2-, monodentate ligand.