School Science Lessons
Topic 04

2018-10-28

Please send comments to: J.Elfick@uq.edu.au


Toxicity

Table of contents

GHS

Safety, (Commercial)

3.0.0 Health effects of chemicals

5.0.0 Health hazards

4.0.0 Physical hazards

3.10.0 Poisons, First Aid

5.4.1.0 Prepare solutions of known concentration (Table 5.4.1.0)

27.30 Radiation hazards

Toxicity
4.6.02 High toxicity chemicals

4.6.01 Toxicity

4.6.0 Toxicity of metals and metal compounds


3.0.0 Health effects of chemicals

15.2.1.0 Extremely toxic substances

15.2.1.1 Highly toxic substances

15.2.1.2 Very toxic substances

15.2.2 Toxic substances

15.2.3 Harmful substances

15.2.4 Corrosive substances

15.2.5 Irritant substances

15.2.6 Sensitizing substances, by inhalation, by skin contact

15.2.7 Carcinogenic substances

15.2.8 Mutagenic substances

15.2.9 Environment danger from substances
4.6.0 Toxicity of metals and metal compounds
4.6.1 Aluminium toxicity
4.6.2 Barium toxicity
4.6.3 Boron toxicity
4.6.4 Calcium toxicity
4.6.5 Chromium, chromic acid toxicity
4.6.6 Cobalt toxicity
4.6.7 Copper toxicity
4.6.8 Lead toxicity
4.6.9 Magnesium toxicity
4.6.10 Mercury toxicity
4.6.11 Nickel toxicity
4.6.12 Potassium toxicity
4.6.13 Silver toxicity
4.6.14 Sodium toxicity
4.6.15 Strontium toxicity
4.6.16 Zinc toxicity

4.0.0 Physical hazards
(Draft Australian criteria for the classification of hazardous chemicals)
4.1 Explosive
3.5.9 Flammable gases
4.3 Flammable aerosols
4.4 Oxidizing gases
4.5 Gases under pressure
3.5.8 Flammable liquids
4.7 Flammable solids
4.8 Self-reactive substances and mixtures
4.9 Pyrophoric liquids
4.10 Pyrophoric solids
4.11 Self-heating substances and mixtures
4.12 Substances and mixtures that, in contact with water, emit flammable gases
4.13 Oxidizing liquids
4.14 Oxidizing solids
4.15 Organic peroxides
4.16 Corrosive to metals

5.0.0 Health hazards
(Draft Australian criteria for the classification of hazardous chemicals)
5.1 Acute toxicity
5.2 Serious eye damage / eye irritation
5.3 Respiratory sensitization or skin sensitization
5.4 Germ cell mutagenicity
5.5 Carcinogen
5.6 Reproductive toxicity
5.7 Specific target organ toxicity
5.8 Aspiration hazard
4.6.01 Toxicity
Toxicity is the capacity of a substance to cause harm.
All chemicals should be considered as partially toxic.
The toxicity of a substance is determined by the quantity of that substance required to cause harm.
Risks of injury associated with any particular chemical relate directly to the route of entry, i.e. ingestion, inhalation or skin contact.
A substance that may be very toxic by ingestion may be quite safe to handle if it is not ingested.
Toxicity is usually reported as an LD50 oral rate, i.e. the lethal dose that will kill 50% of a sample rat population if administered orally.
The following values are approximate indicators for ingestion:
very toxic: LD50 < 25 mg / kg body weight,
toxic: LD50< 200 mg / kg body weight, harmful: LD50 < 2000 mg / kg body weight.
The following chemicals are poisons and should never be used in a school laboratory:
carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, tetrachloromethane), carbon disulfide (CS2), chloroform (CCl3), mercury (Hg, mercury metal),
mercury (II) oxide (HgO, red mercuric oxide) all mercury salts, phenol (C6H5OH, carbolic acid), phosphorus, P (white phosphorus,
yellow phosphorus).

4.6.1 Aluminium toxicity
The metal aluminium itself is not generally regarded as a poison.
The toxicity of any compound will be determined by the nature of the anion with which the metal is combined.
Alum, potassium alum, has the formula: Al2(SO4)3.K2(SO4).24H2O.

4.6.2 Barium toxicity
The soluble barium salts such as the chloride and sulfide are poisonous when taken by mouth.
The insoluble sulfate used in radiography is non-poisonous.
The usual result of exposure to the sulfide, oxide and carbonate is irritation of the eyes, nose and throat and of the skin.

4.6.3 Boron toxicity
Although boron itself is not highly toxic, instances of accidental poisoning have been reported, because of boric acid (boracic acid) oral
ingestion of borates and absorption of boric acid from wounds and burns.

4.6.4 Calcium toxicity
Compounds of calcium should be considered toxic only when they contain a toxic component.
Calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide have caustic reactions and are therefore irritating to the skin and respiratory system.

4.6.5 Chromium toxicity
Chromic acid and its salts have a highly corrosive action on the skin and mucous membrane.
Chromate salts are recognized carcinogens.
The red, orange and yellow pigments of chromium contain the highly toxic carcinogenic Cr (VI), and are not permitted in schools.
The green pigments of chromium contain the less toxic Cr (III), e.g. lead chromate (yellow 34), chromium (III) oxide (green 17).

4.6.6 Cobalt toxicity
The toxicity of cobalt itself and most cobalt salts is low.
The toxicity of the compound will depend upon the anion with which cobalt is combined.

4.6.7 Copper toxicity
The salts copper chloride and copper (II) sulfate have been reported as causing irritation of the skin and conjunctivas.
Copper oxide is irritating to the eyes and upper respiratory tract.
The ingestion of large amounts of copper (II) sulfate can have fatal effects.

4.6.8 Lead toxicity
Cases of lead poisoning may occur:
1. by inhalation of dusts, fumes, mists or vapours,
2. by ingestion of lead compounds introduced into the mouth on food, tobacco, fingers, and through the skin, particularly in the case of
organic lead compounds.
Lead is a cumulative poison.
Increasing amounts build up in the body and eventually a point is reached where symptoms and disability occur.
Of the various compounds, the carbonate, the monoxide and the sulfate are considered to be more toxic than metallic lead or other
lead compounds.

4.6.9 Magnesium toxicity
Poisoning can result from prolonged exposure to fumes or dusts.

4.6.10 Mercury toxicity
DO NOT USE MERCURY IN SCHOOL SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS
DO NOT STORE MERCURY IN THE SCHOOL LABORATORY
1. A number of mercury compounds can cause skin irritation and can be absorbed through the skin, leading to mercury poisoning.
Mercury compounds and the metal itself may enter the body as vapours of fumes or dusts.
Some can cause kidney damage while others can cause irreversible damage to the central nervous system.
Mercuric compounds are generally more toxic than mercurous compounds.
Give any mercury stored in the laboratory to a government laboratory.

2. Mercury vapour is toxic and may damage the nervous system.
Mercury enters the body by inhalation, ingestion or through the skin.
Mercury vaporizes at the temperature at which water freezes.
The vapour is odourless, tasteless, and colourless.
Chronic exposure may result in cumulative poisoning with nervous and psychic symptoms.

3. Students may observe mercury in a mercury glass thermometer, but the teacher must keep hold of the thermometer and not leave it
on the bench where it may roll off and break on the floor.
If mercury spills from a broken thermometer, immediately remove the students from the room and open the windows.
Close doors opening into corridors.
Pick up all the mercury with a damp cloth or a water suction pump.
Sprinkle zinc powder or sulfur powder or agricultural spray that contains sulfur over the area of the spillage.
These substances react with mercury to form an inert material that does not vaporize.
Collect the mercury and zinc or sulfur with a wet cloth or use a dustpan and broom to gather the mercury into one small mass.
Put the mercury in a plastic container that can be sealed tightly.
Give the mercury recovered to a government laboratory.
Contamination by many small globules left in cracks and crevices is possible after most mercury has been removed.
Keep zinc dust or powdered sulfur handy in the laboratory.
Report any mercury spillage to the principal who may ask health authorities for advice on any further safety action.

4. Mercury is toxic when inhaled or taken internally or absorbed through the skin, free surface mercury not to be used in schools , but
can be examined in thermometers.
Most mercury compounds are highly toxic if ingested or absorbed through the skin.
Mercury vapour is highly toxic when inhaled and is a cumulative poison.
The nervous system is very sensitive to all forms of mercury.
Exposure to high levels of any types of mercury can permanently damage the brain, kidneys, and developing foetus.
Mercury also accumulates in the body.
Both mercury and its compounds have high acute (short-term) and have high chronic (long-term) toxicity on aquatic life.
Eating fish contaminated with mercury has caused poisoning in humans, birds and land animals exposed in the same manner could also
be subject to the same effects.
There is not sufficient data to determine the acute toxicity of mercury and its compounds on plants, birds or land animals.
Mercury and its compounds are highly persistent in water and the environment and will bioaccumulate or concentrate in the tissues
of fish.
These concentrations will be considerably higher than the water from which the fish is taken.
Mercury emitted to the environment will remain for years.
In areas of mercury contamination, larger and older fish tend to have higher levels of mercury.

4.6.11 Nickel toxicity
Although nickel and most salts of nickel are generally not considered toxic, nickel (II) compounds are carcinogenic.

4.6.12 Potassium toxicity
Toxicity of the compounds is variable.
The potassium ion is practically non-toxic, hence the toxicity of potassium compounds would depend upon the anion involved.

4.6.13 Silver toxicity
The silver ion is intensely corrosive to tissue.

4.6.14 Sodium toxicity
Toxicity of sodium varies with the compound.
The sodium ion is considered non-toxic.
The toxicity of sodium compounds is frequently, though not always, because of the anion involved.

4.6.15 Strontium toxicity
The strontium ion has a low order of toxicity.
It is chemically and biologically similar to calcium.
The toxicity of the compounds is considered to be dependent upon the anion involved.

4.6.16 Zinc toxicity
Although zinc is not inherently a toxic element, small doses of soluble zinc salts cause nausea and vomiting.
Larger doses cause violent vomiting and purging.
Zinc chloride, because of its caustic action, can produce skin ulcers.

4.6.02 High toxicity chemicals,
by Dr Hugh Cartwright, Chemistry Department, Oxford University
The following list contains some of the chemicals that present a particularly severe risk to health (high toxicity
chemicals):
acetic anhydride, acrolein, acrylamide, allyl alcohol, allyl chloride, aniline, antimony compounds, anisidines, arsenic compounds,
soluble barium salts, p-benzoquinone, benzoyl peroxide, benzoyl chloride, beryllium and its compounds, boron tribromide,
boron trifluoride, bromine, butylamines, chlorine, chloronitrobenzenes, chromium compounds, cresols, cyanides, diazomethane,
n, n-dimethylaniline, dimethyl sulfate, epichlorohydrin, ethanolamine, ethylene chlorohydrin, fluorine, formaldehyde, formic acid,
hydrazine, hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen peroxide, indium salts, iodine, iodomethane, isocyanates,
maleic anhydride, mercaptans, mercury and mercury compounds, nickel carbonyl, nitric acid, nitrobenzene, nitro compounds,
osmium salts, oxalic acid, ozone, phenol, phenylene diamines, phenyl hydrazine, phosgene, phosphorus pentachloride,
phosphorus pentasulfide, phosphorus trichloride, phthalic hydride, propylamines, pyridine, selenium compounds, soluble silver salts,
sodium-mercury amalgam, sulfur dioxide, tellurium compounds, thallium compounds, tetrachlorethane, organotin compounds,
toluidines, xylidines.

4.1 Explosives
An explosive substance or mixture is a solid or liquid substance that is in itself capable by chemical reaction of producing gas at such a
temperature and pressure and at such a speed as to cause damage to the surroundings.
Pyrotechnic substances are included even when they do not evolve gases.

4.3 Flammable aerosols
A non-refillable receptacle made of metal, glass or plastics and containing a gas compressed, liquefied or dissolved under pressure,
and fitted with a release device allowing the contents to be ejected
Category 1 Aerosol contains 85% of flammable components and the chemical heat of combustion is 30 kJ / g
Category 2 Aerosol contains 1% flammable components, or the heat of combustion is 20 kJ / g).

4.4 Oxidizing gases
Gas by providing oxygen, may cause or contribute to the combustion of other material more than air does.

4.5 Gases under pressure
Gases in a receptacle at a pressure not less than 200 kPa (gauge), or is liquefied, or is liquefied and refrigerated.

4.6 Flammable liquids
Liquid having a flash point of not more than 60oC.

4.7 Flammable solids
Solids that are readily combustible, or may cause or contribute to fire through friction.

4.8 Self-reactive substances and mixtures
Are thermally unstable liquid or solid substances or mixtures liable to undergo a strongly exothermic decomposition even without
participation of oxygen or air.

4.9 Pyrophoric liquids
Liquid catches fire spontaneously if exposed to air.

4.10 Pyrophoric solids
Solid catches fire spontaneously if exposed to air.

4.11 Self-heating substances and mixtures
Substance react with air and without energy supply and is liable to self heat and ignite, but only when in large amounts (kilograms) and
after long periods of time (hours or days).

4.12 Substances and mixtures that, in contact with water, emit flammable gases.

4.13 Oxidizing liquids
Liquid not necessarily combustible that may contribute to the combustion of other material by yielding oxygen.

4.14 Oxidizing solids
Solid not necessarily combustible that may contribute to the combustion of other material by yielding oxygen.

4.15 Organic peroxides
Organic substance that contains the bivalent -O-O- structure, where one or both of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by
organic radicals.
They are thermally unstable substances that can undergo exothermic self-accelerating decomposition.

4.16 Corrosive to metals
A substance or a mixture that by chemical action will materially damage or destroy metals.

5.1 Acute toxicity
Acute toxicity, from "Health hazards" (Draft Australian criteria for the classification of hazardous chemicals)
Acute toxicity refers to those adverse effects occurring following oral or dermal administration of a single dose of a substance or a
mixture, or multiple doses given within 24 hours, or an inhalation exposure of 4 hours.

5.2 Serious eye damage / eye irritation
Serious eye damage / eye irritation, from "Health hazards" (Draft Australian criteria for the classification of hazardous chemicals)
Serious eye damage means the production of tissue damage in the eye, or serious physical decay of vision, following application of a
test substance to the anterior surface of the eye, that is not fully reversible within 21 days of application.

5.3 Respiratory sensitization or skin sensitization
Respiratory sensitization / skin sensitization, from "Health hazards" (Draft Australian criteria for the classification of hazardous chemicals)
Respiratory sensitizer means a substance that will lead to hypersensitivity of the airways, following inhalation of the substance.
Skin sensitizer means a substance that will lead to an allergic response following skin contact.

5.4 Germ cell mutagenicity
Germ cell mutagenicity, from "Health hazards" (Draft Australian criteria for the classification of hazardous chemicals)
A mutation means a permanent change in the amount or structure of the genetic material in a cell.
The term "mutation" applies both to heritable genetic changes that may be manifested at the phenotypic level and to the underlying
DNA modifications, when known (including specific base pair changes and chromosomal translocations).
The term "mutagenic" and "mutagen" will be used for agents giving rise to an increased occurrence of mutations in populations of cells
and / or organisms.

5.5 Carcinogen
Carcinogen, from "Health hazards" (Draft Australian criteria for the classification of hazardous chemicals)
Carcinogen means a substance or a mixture of substances that induce cancer or increase its incidence.
Substances and mixtures that have induced benign and malignant tumours in well done experimental studies on animals are considered
also to be presumed or suspected human carcinogens, unless there is strong evidence that the mechanism of tumour formation is not
relevant for humans.

5.6 Reproductive toxicity
Reproductive toxicity, from "Health hazards" (Draft Australian criteria for the classification of hazardous chemicals)
Reproductive toxicity includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females.

5.7 Specific target organ toxicity
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure, from "Health hazards" (Draft Australian criteria for classification of hazardous chemicals)
5.7a Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure from "Health hazards".

5.8 Aspiration hazard
See: Aspirators, (Commercial)
Aspiration hazard, from "Health hazards" (Draft Australian criteria for the classification of hazardous chemicals)
Aspiration is the entry of a liquid or solid substance or mixture directly through the oral or nasal cavity, or indirectly from vomiting, into
the trachea and lower respiratory system.
Aspiration toxicity includes severe acute effects such as chemical pneumonia, varying degrees of pulmonary injury or death following
aspiration.

15.2.1.0 Extremely toxic substances
Teacher only handles with great caution.

15.2.1.1 Highly toxic substances
Teacher must ensure effective controls are implemented.

15.2.1.2 Very toxic substances
Substances and preparations that in very low quantities cause death or acute or chronic damage to health when inhaled, swallowed or
absorbed via the skin.

15.2.2 Toxic substances
Substances and preparations that in low quantities cause death or acute or chronic damage to health when inhaled, swallowed or
absorbed via the skin.
Teachers must ensure effective controls are implemented.
Handle with great caution.

15.2.3 Harmful substances
Substances and preparations that may cause death or acute or chronic damage to health when inhaled, swallowed or absorbed via the
skin.
(Intake of a small amount would probably not cause sickness, e.g. magnesium sulfate.
Intake of large amounts may cause sickness, i.e. copper sulfate.
Intake of a small amount may cause sickness, i.e. sodium tetraborate.)

15.2.4 Corrosive substances
Substances and preparations that may, on contact with living tissues, destroy them.

15.2.5 Irritant substances
Non-corrosive substances and preparations that, through immediate, prolonged or repeated contact with the skin or mucous
membrane, may cause inflammation.

15.2.6 Sensitizing substances, by inhalation, by skin contact
Substances and preparations that, if they are inhaled or if they penetrate the skin, are capable of eliciting a reaction by
hypersensitization such that on further exposure to the substance or preparation, characteristic adverse effects are formed.

15.2.7 Carcinogenic substances
Substances and preparations that, if they are inhaled or ingested or if they penetrate the skin, may induce cancer or increase its incidence.

15.2.8 Mutagenic substances
Substances and preparations that, if they are inhaled or ingested or if they penetrate the skin, may induce heritable genetic defects or
increase their incidence.
Cannabis is known to be both mutagenic and carcinogenic, as well as destructive to lung tissue.

15.2.9 Environment danger from substances
Substances and preparations that, were they to enter into the environment, would present or might present an immediate or delayed
danger.

15.2.7 Carcinogenic substances
5.5 Carcinogen
1-naphthol, C10H7OH, α-naphthol, 1-hydroxynaphthalene, naphthalene-1-ol, Toxic if ingested, may form carcinogenic compounds
2-naphthol, C10H7OH, beta-naphthol, 2-hydroxynaphthalene, Toxic if ingested, reactions may form carcinogenic compounds
16.3.4.0.10 Aromatic aldehydes and ketones, e.g. benzaldehyde
15.10.0 Chemicals Not permitted in schools
Dichloromethane, CH2Cl2, methylene chloride, Freon 30, Toxic by all routes, possibly carcinogenic Indophenol
15.7.0 Flammable organic chemicals
Formaldehyde with hydrochloric acid may form carcinogenic bis(chloromethyl) ether.
Naphthylamine, 1-naphthylamine, C10H7NH2, α-naphthylamine, Extremely toxic, possible carcinogen, Not permitted in schools
Nickel (II) chloride, nickel chloride pigment, Toxic if ingested, carcinogenic, allergic reaction, use only < 2 mL of 0.1 M solution
Nickel (II) oxide, nickel oxide pigment, green glaze for craft, Highly toxic if ingested, carcinogenic to lungs
18.7.12 OTO, Chlorine levels in swimming pools
16.3.4.0.12 Parabens
16.3.8.5 Perfluorooctanoic acid
19.4.4.23 Preservatives, food additives (E231)
7.2.2.36 Radium
19.4.26 Stabilizers, thickeners, food additives
Trichlorethylene, trichlorethene (C2HCl3), Toxic if ingested or inhaled, carcinogenic, ozone-depleting chemical being phased out
19.4.27 Vegetable gums, food additives.

3.10.0 Poisons, First Aid
Poison First Aid if ingested
Acetic acid glacial Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Acetone Give water.
Induce vomiting, if large quantity > 20 mL.
Aceto-orcein stain Do not induce vomiting.
Give water or milk.
Acridine Give water.
Induce vomiting.
Adrenaline Give water.
Aluminium chloride Give milk or water.
Aluminium nitrate Give water.
Induce vomiting.
Aluminium oxide Give 120-240 mL milk or water.
Ammonia concentrated Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL milk or water.
Ammonium dichromate Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL milk or water.
Ammonium metavanadate Give 120-240 mL milk or water
Ammonium molybdate Give 120-240 mL milk or water.
Ammonium oxalate Give milk or water.
Give calcium as milk, weak lime water, chalk solution
Ammonium persulfate Give 120-240 mL milk or water.
Do not induce vomiting
Ammonium thiocyanate Give water.
Induce vomiting.
Iso-amyl alcohol Give water.
Induce vomiting if patient not drowsy.
Aniline sulfate Give water.
Induce vomiting.
Barium compounds Give water, give magnesium sulfate,
(child: 50 mg / kg, adult: maximum dose 30 g).
Benedict's solution
Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL milk or water.
Bial's reagent (orcinol in concentrated HCl) Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL milk or water.
Boric acid Give water.
Induce vomiting.
Bromine liquid Give milk or water.
Do not induce vomiting.
Buffer solution tablets pH 2 Give milk or water.
Give calcium as milk, weak lime water or chalk.
pH 4-10.
Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL milk or water.
Butanol, primary, secondary and tertiary Give water.
Induce vomiting if patient not drowsy.
Calcium acetate monohydrate Give milk or water.
Do not induce vomiting.
Calcium hydroxide Give milk or water.
Do not induce vomiting.
Calcium metal Remove any adhering metal and penetrating particles.
Drench skin with water except when contact has been slight.
Rinse mouth thoroughly with plenty of water.
Calcium oxide Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL milk or water.
Camphor Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL milk or water.
Carbon disulfide
Give water.
Do not induce vomiting, may cause seizures.
Carbon tetrachloride Give water.
Do not induce vomiting, may cause seizures.
Chloroform Give water.
Do not induce vomiting.
Chrome alum Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL milk or water.
Chromic acetate Give 1 g vitamin C,
then 120-240 mL water or milk.
Chromic sulfate Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Chromic trioxide Do not induce vomiting.
Give 1 g Vitamin C, then 120-240 mL
water or milk.
Copper chloride Give water.
Induce vomiting.
Chromic nitrate Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120, 240 mL milk or water.
copper (II) sulfate Give water.
Do not induce vomiting.
Cyclohexane Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120, 240 mL water or milk.
Delafield's haematoxylin
solution
Give water.
Induce vomiting.
Di-n-butyl phthalate Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Para dichlorobenzene (1-4-dichlorobenzene)
Give water.
Induce vomiting.
Dichloromethane Induce vomiting.
Dichlorophenolindophenol sodium Give water.
Induce vomiting.
DCPIP tablets Give water.
Induce vomiting.
Diethyl ether Give water.
Induce vomiting.
DPX mounting medium Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Ethanol absolute Give water.
Induce vomiting if patient not drowsy.
Ethyl acetate Give water.
Induce vomiting.
Ethylene glycol Induce vomiting.
Euparal Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Formalin 40% Immediately administer milk or water, bread.
Induce vomiting.
Formic acid Give 120-240 mL milk or water.
Do not induce vomiting.
n-hexane Give 120-240 mL milk or water.
Do not induce vomiting.
Hydrochloric acid Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Hydrogen peroxide Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Iodine Give milk or water.
Then give milk, starch, or bread to oxidize
iodine to iodide.
Induce vomiting.
Kerosene Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Lead and lead compounds Give water.
Induce vomiting.
Leishman's stain Give water.
Induce vomiting if patient not drowsy.
Lithium chloride Induce vomiting.
Lithium hydroxide Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Lithium nitrate Give water.
Induce vomiting.
Maleic acid Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Manganese compounds Give water.
Do not induce vomiting.
Mercuric chloride Give water.
Induce vomiting.
Mercury and mercury compounds Give water.
Induce vomiting if patient not drowsy.
Methanol Give water.
Induce vomiting if patient not drowsy.
Methylated spirits Give water.
Induce vomiting.
Methyl ethyl kettle Give water.
Do not induce vomiting.
Millon's reagent Give water.
Induce vomiting.
I-naphthol ( α-naphthol)
Nickel sulfate
Nitric acid Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Octanol Give water.
Induce vomiting if patient not drowsy.
Oxalic acid Give milk or water.
Give calcium as milk, weak lime water, chalk.
Pentanol Give water.
Induce vomiting if patient not drowsy.
Perchloric acid Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Pentan-1-ol Give water.
Induce vomiting if patient not drowsy.
Petroleum ether Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Phenyl thiourea Give water.
Induce vomiting.
Phloroglucin Give milk or water.
Give 30-60 mL of castor oil.
Phosphorus pentoxide Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Phosphorus white Give water.
Do not induce vomiting.
Potassium carbonate anhydrous Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Potassium chromate Give milk or water.
Give 1 g Vitamin C.
Potassium dichromate Give milk or water.
Give 1 g vitamin C.
Potassium hydrogen oxalate Give water.
Give calcium as milk, weak lime water, chalk.
Potassium hydroxide Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Potassium iodide Give water.
Induce vomiting.
Potassium nitrate Give water.
Induce vomiting.
Potassium permanganate Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Potassium thiocyanate Give water.
Induce vomiting.
Propanol Give water.
Induce vomiting if patient not drowsy.
Isopropyl alcohol Give water.
Induce vomiting if patient not drowsy.
Pyrogallol Give milk or water.
(Give 30-60 mL castor oil.)
Quinine sulfate Give water.
Induce vomiting.
Resorcinol Give milk or water.
(Give 30-60 mL castor oil.)
Sebacoyl chloride Give water.
Induce vomiting.
Silver salts Give milk or water.
Do not induce vomiting.
Soda lime
Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Sodium carbonate Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Sodium chromate Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Sodium dichromate Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Sodium dihydrogen orthophosphate Induce vomiting.
Give water.
Sodium hydroxide Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Sodium hypochlorite Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Sodium iodide Give water.
Induce vomiting.
Sodium metabisulfite Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL milk or water.
Sodium metal Remove adhering metal and penetrating particles.
Drench skin with water except where contact slight.
Rinse mouth thoroughly with water.
Give water.
Sodium oxalate Give milk or water.
Give calcium as milk, weak lime water, chalk.
Sodium peroxide Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Sodium phosphate Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Sodium sulfide Give water.
Induce vomiting.
Sulfuric acid Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Sodium persulfate Give 120-240 mL milk or water.
Do not induce vomiting.
Sodium tartrate Give 120-240 mL milk or water.
Toluene Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Trace element mixture Give water.
Induce vomiting.
Turpentine (mineral) Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Turpentine (vegetable) Do not induce vomiting.
Give 120-240 mL water or milk.
Xanthydrol Give water.
Induce vomiting if patient not drowsy.


27.30 Radiation hazards
1. Radioactive substances usually emit α particles or rays or combinations of these.
X-ray units generate electromagnetic waves similar to γ-rays, but usually of lower frequency and longer wavelength.
The amount and type of shielding needed depend on the penetrating power of the particular form of radiation.
Sources of radiation are limited to sealed sources, radioactive chemical and mineral samples and high voltage electrical equipment.
The α- particles are charged and relatively heavy atomic particles, so are easily stopped by a sheet of paper or the surface of the skin.
β-particles are stopped by a few millimetres thickness of aluminium or 2 cm of plastic material.
γ-rays have very short wavelength and are more penetrating and harder to stop.
They are almost completely stopped by about 1 metre of concrete or about 5 cm of lead.
Most will pass through the human body.
Medical X-rays are almost completely stopped by 3 millimetres of lead or 15 centimetres of concrete.
X-rays pass through the body with some absorption depending on the density of organs, e.g. skin, bones.

2. Only teachers or laboratory staff are allowed to handle radioactive sources.
Ionizing radiation in schools must only be used in simple experiments to demonstrate fundamental principles.
The sources used and the methods of using them must be chosen to ensure that the degree of hazard is negligible.
In school experiments involving X-rays or radioactive substances the radiation levels should be so low that no special shielding is
required.
However, it is important when using sources of radiation in schools to demonstrate the role of shielding as part of safe working practices.
All radiation sources must be stored in separate lockable metal containers, e.g. a metal cash box, which are permanently labelled and
kept in the school safe with access to authorized members of the school staff.
Geological sample containing radioactive materials must be securely stored.
Only minute amounts of radioactive materials are allowed to be kept in schools for demonstration purposes.
The quantity of radiation absorbed by people during the short time they handle the equipment is negligible compared to the natural
radiation.
Never open a radioactive source or try to dissolve it in acid or other solvent.
Radioactive sources at the end of their useful life must be disposed of according to government regulations.

3. Cold cathode discharge tubes may include a discharge tube with side tube for connection to a vacuum pump, Maltese cross
discharge tube, discharge tube to illustrate the deflection of cathode rays by magnetic fields, windmill tube.
These tubes are operated by high voltages produced by induction coils and may produce unwanted X-rays if operated at too high a
voltage.
Use the lowest possible voltage from the induction coil changing the distance of the make-and-break hammer from the iron core of the
induction coil windings.
Commence with the hammer well away from the core and use the adjusting screw to slowly decrease the distance between them until
the discharge tube operates.
Only teachers should operate a discharge tube, for a short a time as possible and with both teacher and student at a minimum distance
of one metre from it.

GHS, Globally Harmonized System
A new system for naming and labelling chemicals with their hazards is being introduced globally.
This new system is known as the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS), and has been
developed by the United Nations.
The GHS will be integrated into chemical manufacturing and trade processes by Australia over the period January 2012 to December 2016.

5.4.1.0 Prepare solutions of known concentration
Table 5.4.1.0
5.4.1 Ammonium molybdate (NH4)6Mo7O24.4H2O Add 45 g to water containing 120 mL 10% ammonia.
Add 120 g NH4NO3 then dilute.
5.4.2 Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2
Saturated (lime water) Ca(OH)2
Add 10 g to water, shake, let settle,
then decant clear liquid.
Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)20.02 M Add 1.48 g to water, add excess, filter off precipitate.
5.4.3 Dipotassium hydrogen orthophosphate K2HPO4 0.1 M Add 17.4 g to water.
.
5.4.4 di-Sodium hydrogen phosphate
Na2HPO4.l2H2O 0.1 M
Add 35.8 g of Na2HPO4.l2H2O to water.
.
Na2HPO4.2H2O 0.1M Add 17.8 g Na2HPO4.2H2O to water.
5.4.5 Ethanoic Acid (Acetic Acid) CH3COOH 17M Use as supplied.
.
Ethanoic Acid (Acetic Acid)
CH3COOH 2 M (approx.)
Dilute 120 mL concentrated (glacial)
or use 360 mL 33% acid.
Ethanoic Acid (Acetic acid)
CH3COOH 2 M
Dissolve 117 mL of 17.15 M acid
(99% w / w 1.048 g / mL).
5.4.6 Hydrochloric Acid HCl concentrated 10 M Use as supplied.
.
Hydrochloric acid HC
2 M
Dissolve 173 mL of 11.55 M acid
(36% w / w 1.17 g / mL).
5.4.7 Hydrogen peroxide H2O2
For laboratory use only.
To 20 volume solutions (6%)
add twice the volume of water.
5.4.9 Sodium hydrosulfite
Na2S2O4.2H2O
.
100 mL solution for use as oxygen gas absorber,
16 g Na2S2O4.2H2O + 13 g NaOH to 100 mL water,
+ 4 g B-anthraquinone sulfonate to improve reagent.
5.4.10 Sodium hydroxide NaOH
Approximately 2M
.
Add 80 g to water and leave to cool.
Store in a bottle with a rubber stopper.
Use safety glasses and nitrile chemical-resistant gloves.
Sodium hydroxide NaOH
2 M
.
Add 81.6 g (98% NaOH) to water and leave to cool.
Store in a bottle with rubber stopper.
Use safety glasses and nitrile chemical-resistant gloves.
Sodium hydroxide (for CO2 absorption) Add 330 g to water.
5.4.11 Starch solution,
1%
.
Add 10 g starch to cold water to make a paste.
Then dilute to 100 mL with boiling water.
Let it boil, stir then leave to stand.
5.4.12 Sulfuric acid concentrated H2SO4 18 M Use as supplied.
.
Sulfuric acid
2 M
.
Add 113 mL of 17.75 M acid (97% w/w 1.83 g / mL) slowly to water with stirring.
Use safety glasses and nitrile chemical-resistant gloves.
5.4.14 Ethanedioic (Oxalic) acid (COOH)2.2H2O 0.1 M Add 12.6 g of crystals to water.
.
5.4.15 Phenolphthalein indicator Add 5 g to 500 mL of ethanol, add 500 mL water, then stir.
5.4.16 Sodium chlorate (V) NaClO3
0.1 M
Dilute 10% solution with equal volume water.
.
5.4.17 Sodium dihydrogen phosphate NaH2PO4.2H2O 0.1 M Add 15.6 g to water
.
5.4.18 Tin (II) chloride SnCl2.2H2O
0.1 M
Add 22.6 g to 100 mL conc. HCl, dilute with water.
Add pieces of tin.