School Science Lessons
Topic 03a
Safety
2018-10-28
Please send comments to: J.Elfick@uq.edu.au

3a Laboratory safety and hazardous chemicals
See: Safety, (Commercial)
Fire Safety Smoke alarms (Commercial)
Part 16.8.0. Safety, this website
Part 16.8.1. Safety, public service, household products database
Table of contents
3.5.13 Autoignition temperature
3.9.5 DEA, list of chemicals
3.9.7 DETE, Managing Risks
3.5.0 Fire safety and fire equipment
3.7.0 Hazards of anion compounds
3.8.0 Hazards of gases
3.9.6 Hazardous, toxic
3.9.4 Safety equipment list
3.9.8 Scheduling
3.9.2 Swimming pools, checklist

3.5.0 Fire safety and fire equipment
See: Fire safety, (Commercial)
3.5.0 Fire safety and fire equipment
3.5.1 Action in case of fire - evacuation
3.5.2 Action in case of fire - equipment
3.5.6 Burning fat in a frying pan
3.5.5 Clothes on fire
3.5.10 Combustible solids
3.5.3 Electrical fires
3.5.12 Fire / burn safety
3.5.4 Fire prevention
3.5.11 Fireproof cloth
3.5.9 Flammable gases
3.5.8 Flammable liquids
3.5.7 Flammable substances
3.5.14 Flash point

3.8.0 Hazards of gases
3.8.1 Ammonia, anhydrous, hazards
3.8.2 Carbon dioxide, hazards
3.39.0 Carbon monoxide, hazards
3.8.4 Chlorine, hazards
3.8.5 Hydrogen gas, hazards
3.8.6 Hydrogen chloride, anhydrous, hazards
3.8.7 Hydrogen sulfide, hazards
3.8.8 LPG, LP-gas, bottled gas, hazards
16.1.3.3.3 Ethyl mercaptan
16.1.3.3.4 Thiophene
3.8.9 Natural gas, hazards

3.7.0 Hazards of anion compounds
3.7.1 Bromides hazards
3.7.2 Chlorates hazards, potassium chlorate
3.7.3 Chlorides hazards
3.7.4 Chromates, dichromates, hazards
3.7.5 Ferricyanides hazards
3.7.6 Ferrocyanides hazards
3.7.7 Hypochlorites hazards
3.7.8 Iodates hazards
3.7.9 Iodides, hazards, iodine allergy
3.7.10 Nitrates hazards
3.7.11 Oxalates hazards
3.7.12 Permanganates hazards
3.7.13 Peroxides hazards
3.7.14 Phosphates hazards
3.7.15 Sulfates hazards
3.7.16 Sulfides, hazards
3.7.17 Sulfites hazards
3.7.18 Thiocyanates hazards
3.7.19 Thiosulfates hazards

3.5.0 Fire safety and fire equipment
All participants in any science activity must know the location and mode of operation of fire extinguishers, fire blankets and sand
buckets.
Check fire extinguishers regularly to make sure they are in working condition.
Check them for leakage, tampering and expiration of "use by" dates.
Store fire extinguishers on the floor near the front door of the laboratory.
Keep a fire blanket near the fire extinguishers.
During a science class, a school laboratory should have two unlocked doors.
Be alert to any possible sources of ignition.
Completely extinguish matches after use and put them in a non-flammable container, not a waste receptacle.
Use friction or piezoelectric lighters instead of matches.
Allow apparatus used during heating to cool before storage.
Do not place hot objects directly on bench tops, paper or other flammable substances, but use a cool gauze mat.
Do not leave hot plates, radiators and any sources of high heat unattended or left turned on overnight.
Do not leave sodium and phosphorus exposed to the air.
During experiments, keep away all paper, hair and flammable clothing.
All personnel involved in science activities must know the position of the gas isolating valve for the room and the isolating valve at the
bottled gas cylinders or gas meter.
Students must not tamper with any gas fittings.
Dry chemical fire extinguishers can be used on all types of fires but follow the manufacturer's instructions on the device.

3.5.1 Action in case of fire - evacuation
If a fire should break out in an area for the teaching of science, the students must be moved from the source of the fire and evacuated,
if necessary.
A whole school evacuation may be necessary.
Observe the school's evacuation procedures, including contact with the fire brigade.
The school's procedures must have additional instructions for everyone in workshop areas, including science areas.
Besides the school fire drill, science classes should practice a special fire drill for the laboratory.

3.5.2 Action in case of fire - equipment
1. All participants in any science activity must know the location and mode of operation of fire extinguishers, fire blankets and sand
buckets.
2. Check fire extinguishers regularly to make sure they are in working condition.
Check them for leakage, tampering and expiration of "use by" dates.
Check that students have not tampered with gas fittings.
3. Store fire extinguishers on the floor near the front door of the laboratory.
Keep a fire blanket near the fire extinguishers.
Dry chemical fire extinguishers can be used on all types of fires but follow the manufacturer's instructions on the device.
4. During a science class a school laboratory should have two unlocked doors, preferably at each end of the laboratory.
Fire Safety (Commercial)
Fire blanket, Chubb, fibreglass, 1800 mm × 1200 mm
Fire extinguisher, Chubb, dry chemical powder, A:B (E), suitable for fighting class A, B, C and E fires,
paper, wood, textile, oil, liquid, and electrical fires, 2.5 kg with wall bracket.

3.5.3 Electrical fires
Do not connect appliances or equipment whose current rating is greater than that of the power outlet.
General purpose outlets (GPOs), were usually rated at 10 amps.
Some GPOs may be rated at 15 amps.
Do not use double adapters.
Instead use portable power boards (multiple point power boards), especially those with circuit breakers.
Make sure that all power leads are in good condition with no breaks or frays in the insulation, are of the appropriate current rating for
the appliance being used, and are of the minimum length necessary for use.

3.5.4 Fire prevention - possible sources of ignition
1. Fires in school areas for the teaching of science may arise from chemical reactions, electrical faults, gas leakage and poor laboratory
procedures.
The speed with which the fire can spread will depend on the nature of the burning substances and the materials close to the fire.
Fires of solids propagate slowly.
Fires of liquids spread less rapidly.
Gas, vapour or dust fires propagate so rapidly that they seem to explode.
Propellant gases in aerosol cans may be flammable, so avoid using aerosol cans near flames.
Fluorescent lights and electrical switches may emit sparks.
Use very small quantities of substances to be burnt in oxygen.
2. Extinguish matches completely after use and place them in a non-flammable container, not in a waste receptacle.
Use friction or piezoelectric lighters instead of matches.
3. Leave lighted Bunsen burners with the air hole closed to make the flame visible.
4. Place hot objects on a cool gauze mat or other heat proof mat, not on bench tops, paper or other flammable substances.
Allow apparatus used during heating to cool before storage.
Keep attending to hot plates, radiators and other sources of high heat.
Do not leave them switched on overnight.
5. Do not leave sodium and phosphorus exposed to the air.
6. Keep paper, hair and flammable clothing away from flames during experiments.
7. All personnel involved in science activities must know the position of the isolating valve for the room and the isolating valve at the
bottled gas cylinders or gas meter.

3.5.5 Clothes on fire
If a student's clothes have caught fire, lay the student down, roll them over and smother the flames with the fire blanket.
For any burns, dowse the burn area with clean cold water and seek urgent medical attention.

3.5.6 Burning fat in a frying pan
Immediately turn off the source of heat and cover the frying pan with a plate, flat object or fire blanket to smother the flames,
i.e. deprive the flames of oxygen gas.
Do not throw the fire blanket over a cooking fat fire, but place it over the frying pan carefully, while keeping the hands and face
protected behind it.
Turn off the heat sources and leave the fire blanket in place for fifteen minutes to allow the heat to dissipate.
Do not allow water to enter the burning fat in the frying pan, even from wet hands, because the water will vaporize immediately and
spread the hot burning fat.

3.5.7 Flammable substances
1. Flammability is the tendency of a material to ignite and continue to burn.
Most polymers are flammable because they contain carbon and hydrogen and have large heats of combustion.
In general speech, inflammable substances are likely to catch fire, they are readily ignited.
2. Degrees of flammability
2.1 Highly flammable substances have a very low boiling point, form vapours easily at room temperature and are easily ignited,
e.g. petrol.
2.2 Flammable substances have a higher boiling point, form vapours less easily and require a higher temperature for ignition,
e.g. diesel.
2.3 Combustible substances do not form vapours easily at room temperature and require a much higher temperature for ignition,
e.g. paper.

3.5.8 Flammable liquids
Flammable liquids are liquids having a flash point of not more than 60oC.
Do not use any sources of ignition near flammable liquids.
Low flash point substances ignite very easily and may form an explosive vapour air mixture.
The following flammable liquids are allowed, if the precautions in this document are followed: ethanol, ethyl acetate, n-hexane,
methylated spirit, formaldehyde solution.
The following common flammable liquids are sometimes found in a school chemistry laboratory but should not be used in school
experiments:
benzene (benzol is crude benzene motor spirit), butan-1-ol, butan-2-ol, carbon disulfide CS2, diethyl ether (C2H5)2O, cyclohexane,
iso-octane, n-octane, methanol, petroleum spirit, propanol, propan-2-ol, toluene.

3.5.9 Flammable gases
Flammable gases are gases having a flammable range with air at 20oC and a standard pressure of 101.3 kPa.
Extinguish all sources of ignition when handling flammable gases.
Turn off any Bunsen burners or, better still, use electrical hot plates.
For demonstrations of ignition tests of gases use only small quantities of gas.
The source of gas should be closed off or be far from the demonstration.
Similarly, for demonstrations of combustion of substances in an oxygen gas rich environment, use only small quantities of substance
because the substance may flare and burn rapidly.
Many propellant gases in pressure cans are flammable.
Do not use carbon dioxide cylinders as a source of propellant gases.
Some fluorescent lights, electrical switches and transmitting devices, (radios and mobile telephones), may be sources of ignition.

3.5.10 Combustible solids
Most combustible solids are not a fire hazard unless ground into a powder.
Powders of combustible solids can be explosive when dispersed in the air.
Metals in a finely divided form may ignite easily, e.g. zinc dust.
Unstable solids may decompose explosively if heated or subjected to friction, e.g. potassium chlorate, sodium nitrate,
potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, powdered metals and powdered sulfur.
Strong oxidizing agents in contact with organic substances may lead to spontaneous ignition.
Solids that can react spontaneously and exothermally with water or air include lithium, sodium, potassium,
calcium, hydrides, nitrides, sulfides, acid anhydrides and concentrated acids and alkalis.
Use only small quantities of these chemicals.
Never keep them in small narrow-necked containers.
Some solids may react with water or air giving off great heat, e.g. lithium, sodium, potassium, calcium, hydrides, nitrides, sulfides,
acid anhydrides, concentrated acids and concentrated alkalis, so use only very small quantities and do not keep them in small narrow
neck containers.
Spontaneous ignition may occur between strong oxidizing agents and organic chemicals so do not store them together.

3.5.11 Fireproof cloth
1. Fireproof cloth with ammonium chloride solution.
Soak cloth in the solution and let it dry.
Hold the cloth over a flame.
The cloth will only smoulder.
When the flame is removed, the burning stops.
Fabrics are often treated this way to make them fireproof.

2. Fireproof paper with alum.
Soak half a piece of paper or cloth in an alum solution, potash alum Al2(SO4)3.K2(SO4).24H2O, (KAl(SO4)2.12H2O).
Set fire to the untreated half and observe the flames when they reach the treated half.
Alum acts as a flame retardant.
It forms a buffer between a flammable substance and a source of ignition, being incombustible with its many molecules of water that
it can lose at 200oC.

3. Fireproof wood with sodium silicate solution.
Hold a match by the head and dip it into a mixture of one part of sodium silicate solution and three parts of water.
Let the match dry completely.
Light the match.
The wood burns, but when the flame reaches the coating of sodium silicate, it is extinguished.

4. Fireproof with sodium thiosulfate (hypo).
Soak two wooden matches in a concentrated solution of sodium thiosulfate for two hours.
Strike the matches to test whether the wood will burn.

3.5.12 Fire / burn safety
If a demonstration require the use of a Bunsen burner or boiled water, there is the risk of burns and/or fire.
1. Always use safety goggles and appropriate gloves if handling hot items or hot water.
2. If a burn occurs, treat the effected area immediately by placing burn area under cold running water for at least 15 minutes.
Seek medical help.
3. Ensure an appropriate fire extinguisher is available.
4. Use heat proof mats.
5. Handle liquid nitrogen with extreme care because of the possibility of cryogenic burns.
Personal protection, gloves and goggles, must be used.

3.5.13 Autoignition temperature
Autoignition temperature is the temperature above which enough energy is available to provide an ignition source.
A hydrocarbon vapour released to the earth's atmosphere at autoignition temperature will spontaneously combust without need of a
flame as an ignition source.
Magnesium metal has a relatively low autoignition temperature of 473oC, so only small amount in ribbon form may be heated.
It should not be heated in powder form.

3.5.14 Flash point
Flash point is the lowest temperature at which a vapour ignites in air.
So it is the lowest temperature of a liquid, which still emits enough vapour to form an ignitable mixture with air.
It is the temperature at which the first ignition occurs when the temperature of a liquid exposed to the atmosphere is slowly increased
with a flame exposed to the resulting vapours.

3.7.1 Bromides, hazards
Bromide ion: Br-
1. The inorganic bromides produce depression, emaciation and in severe cases psychoses and mental deterioration.
Bromides were formerly used as sedatives, to control unruly children and, it is still commonly alleged that potassium bromide was
added to tea to control the sexual feelings of soldiers in barracks.
2. Organic bromides are volatile liquids of relatively high toxicity.
When strongly heated, alone or with concentrated sulfuric acid, they emit highly toxic fumes.

3.7.2 Chlorates, hazards, potassium chlorate
Chlorate ion: ClO3-
1. The principal toxic effect of chlorates is the destruction of the red blood cells, leading to kidney irritation.
2. Chlorates constitute a dangerous fire hazard in contact with flammable materials.
So solid chlorates should never be placed in rubbish bins.
Chlorates are powerful oxidizing agents and when contaminated with material that can be oxidized they are particularly sensitive to
friction, heat and shock.
1. When mixed with combustible material chlorates can form explosive mixtures.
The reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid can be violent.
4. Do not prepare oxygen gas with potassium chlorate and manganese dioxide as a catalyst because this mixture may explode!
The recommended method for preparing oxygen gas is to heat 20 vols hydrogen peroxide solution.

3.7.3 Chlorides, hazards
Chloride ion: Cl-
Toxicity varies widely.
When heated strongly, alone or with concentrated sulfuric acid, they can emit highly toxic fumes.

3.7.4 Chromates, dichromates, hazards
Chromate ion: CrO42-, dichromate ion Cr2O72-
These compounds have a corrosive action on skin and mucous membranes.
Because they are strong oxidizing agents, they could cause fire by a chemical reaction.
Hexavalent chromium compounds are known to be carcinogenic.

3.7.5 Ferricyanides, hazards
Ferricyanide ion: Fe(CN)63-
The ferricyanides as such are of low toxicity since the CN is bound.
However, when strongly heated or on contact with acids or acid fumes, highly toxic fumes are liberated.

3.7.6 Ferrocyanides, hazards
Ferrocyanide ion: Fe(CN)64-
Ferrocyanides as such are of low order of toxicity but highly toxic decomposition products can form on mixing them with hot
concentrated acids.
When strongly heated they emit highly toxic fumes.

3.7.7 Hypochlorites, hazards
Hypochlorite ion: ClO-
Hypochlorites are corrosive.
When heated or on contact with acids or acid fumes they emit highly toxic fumes.
They form a moderate fire hazard by chemical reaction with reducing agents and organic matter.

3.7.8 Iodates, hazards
Iodate ion: IO3-
Toxicity is variable, producing effects similar to those produced by chlorates.
Iodates are a dangerous fire hazard because they are powerful oxidizers.
In contact with flammable or even combustible materials they can start fires.

3.7.9 Iodides, hazards, iodine allergy
Iodide ion: I-
Iodides are similar in toxicity to bromides.
When strongly heated they emit highly toxic fumes.
An iodine allergy is very rare and is usually confused with an allergy to shellfish or fish, a rich source of iodine.
However, only about 5% of people allergic to shellfish show symptoms of iodine allergy.
An iodine allergy could be a response to iodine medicine on the skin or iodine injected for X-ray contrast and could result in
anaphylactic shock.
An injection of epinephrine may be necessary to stop the histamine reaction.
Also, people with impaired kidney function may not be able to eliminate iodine.

3.7.10 Nitrates, hazards
Nitrate ion: NO3-
Large amounts taken by mouth may have serious or even fatal effects.
Most nitrates are powerful oxidizing agents and, as such, constitute a moderate fire hazard by chemical reaction.
Nitrates may explode when exposed to heat or flame or by spontaneous chemical reaction.
Ammonium nitrate has all the properties of the other nitrates but is also able to detonate by itself.
On strong heating, nitrates emit toxic fumes.

3.7.11 Oxalates, hazards
Oxalate ion: C2O42-, sodium oxalate: Na2C2O4
Oxalates are corrosive and produce local irritation.
When taken by mouth they have a caustic effect on the mouth, oesophagus and stomach.
The soluble oxalates are readily absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract and can cause severe damage to the kidneys.
When strongly heated they emit toxic fumes.

3.7.12 Permanganates, hazards
Permanganate: manganate(VII) ion, MnO4-
Highly toxic compounds with irritant properties.
They are strong oxidizing agents and constitute a moderate fire hazard when reacting with reducing materials.
Metallic permanganate may detonate when exposed to high temperatures or shock.
The reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid can be violent.

3.7.13 Peroxides, hazards
Peroxide ion: O22-
Toxicity of these compounds is variable.
They may cause injury on contact with skin or mucous membranes.
They represent a moderate to dangerous fire hazard by chemical reaction with reducing agents and contaminants.
They are strong oxidizing agents.
Contact with water may cause violent decomposition.

3.7.14 Phosphates, hazards
Phosphate ion: PO43-
Phosphates have variable toxicity.
When strongly heated they can emit highly toxic fumes.

3.7.15 Sulfates, hazards
Sulfate ion: SO42-
Sulfates have variable toxicity.
In general, the toxic quality of substances containing the sulfate radical is that of the material with which this radical is combined.
On strong heating, emits highly toxic fumes.

3.7.16 Sulfides, hazards
Sulfide ion: S2-
Sulfides have variable toxicity.
The sulfides of potassium, calcium, ammonium and sodium are similar in action to the alkalis.
They cause softening and irritation of the skin.
If taken by mouth they are corrosive.
Sulfides of the heavy metals are generally insoluble and hence have little toxic action except through the liberation of hydrogen sulfide.
They constitute a moderate fire hazard when exposed to flame or by spontaneous chemical reaction.
Many sulfides ignite easily in air at room temperature.
Others require a higher temperature or the presence of an oxidizer.
Many powerful oxidizers on contact with sulfides ignite violently.

3.7.17 Sulfites, hazards
Sulfite ion: SO32-
Fairly large doses of sulfites can be tolerated since they are rapidly oxidized to sulfates, although if swallowed they may cause irritation
of the stomach by liberating sulfurous acid.
When heated strongly or on contact with acids they emit highly toxic fumes.

3.7.18 Thiocyanates, hazards
Thiocyanate ion: CNS- or [SCN]-
Severe toxicity will occur with doses of less than one gram.
When strongly heated or on contact with acids or acid fumes, they emit highly toxic fumes.

3.7.19 Thiosulfates, hazards
Thiosulfate ion: S2O32-
Most of the thiosulfates have low toxicity.
When heated strongly, they emit highly toxic fumes.

3.8.1 Ammonia, anhydrous, hazards
Extremely irritating gas.
Flammable in the presence of sufficient oxygen gas.
Do not prepare ammonia in an open room.
Use a fume cupboard.

3.8.2 Carbon dioxide, hazards
Simple asphyxiant

3.8.4 Chlorine, hazards
Chlorine is very toxic and can react to cause fires or explosions upon contact with turpentine, ether, ammonia gas, illuminating gas,
hydrocarbon, hydrogen gas and powdered metals.
Chlorine dissolves readily in water to form a highly corrosive solution.
Do not prepare chlorine in an open room, but use a fume cupboard.
Direct combination of chlorine and hydrogen gas in a bright light can occur or the mixture can be ignited by a lighted taper or an
electric spark.
Use small quantities only for reactions of chlorine with metals, solid non-metals, and hydrocarbons.

3.8.5 Hydrogen gas, hazards
Do not allow direct combination of hydrogen gas and chlorine in a bright light or ignition of the mixture by a lighted taper or an
electric spark.
Do not ignite a jet of hydrogen gas from a delivery tube.
Reduction of metallic oxides can occur by passing hydrogen gas over the heated oxide.

3.8.6 Hydrogen chloride, anhydrous, hazards
Hydrogen chloride is corrosive.
Do not prepare hydrogen chloride in open room, bur use a fume cupboard.

3.8.7 Hydrogen sulfide, hazards
Hydrogen sulfide is both an irritant and an asphyxiant.
Do not prepare hydrogen sulfide in open room, but use a fume cupboard.
Do not ignite a jet of hydrogen sulfide issuing from a delivery tube.

3.8.8 LPG, LP-gas (bottled gas), hazards
LP- gas is a simple asphyxiant.
It consists of propane (approximately 95%), together with varying proportions of butane, propylene and butylene.
A rank smelling odorant ethyl mercaptan or thiophane is added to LP gas so that the presence of the gas can be easily detected
before leaking LP gas reaches one-fifth its lower limit of flammability.
Incomplete combustion of LP gas forms carbon monoxide.
Do not search for a gas leak with a lighted match or lighted taper, use a soap solution.

3.8.9 Natural gas, hazards
Natural gas is a simple asphyxiant.
It consists of methane (approximately 90%), together with varying proportions of ethane, propane, butane, nitrogen and carbon
dioxide.
A rank smelling compound is added to natural gas so that the presence of the gas can be easily detected.
Incomplete combustion forms carbon monoxide.
Do not search for a gas leak with a lighted match or lighted taper, but use a soap solution.

3.9.2 Swimming pools, checklist
Swimming pools, checklist of daily routine for the swimming pool operator
1. Principals should:
1.1 ensure that approved guidelines are provided to, and observed by, operators of school pools, and
1.2 ensure that only one person has responsibility for the operation of the school swimming pool.
2. Operators should:
2.1 ensure that the water quality is both biologically and chemically acceptable,
2.2 follow the daily checklist,
2.3 maintain the swimming pool within the pool test ranges.
3. Morning
Check flow gauge.
Quick check of pumps, motors and filter.
Test swimming pool water for free and total chlorine (DPD 1 and 3.), Test swimming pool water for pH.
Record test results.
Adjust sodium hypochlorite feed rate if necessary.
Check level of hypochlorite and alum dosing tanks.
Adjust if necessary.
Tanks may have to be cleaned with hot water.
Adjust swimming pool pH if necessary before swimmers enter.
Remove leaves and floating matter using a skimmer.
Vacuum the swimming pool before swimmers enter, or backwash filters and commence dosing alum, or clean and disinfect lint filter and
strainer basket, or clean tiles around swimming pool surface and scum gutter.
4. Midday
Test swimming pool water for free and total chlorine (DPD 1 and 3.), Test swimming pool water pH.
Once per week test total alkalinity.
Record all results.
Adjust hypochlorite feed dose rate if necessary.
Stop alum dosing pump if filter was backwashed that morning.
5. Afternoon
Check flow gauge.
Tour the swimming pool complex, check general conditions of equipment.
Record any deficiencies.
Stock take weekly.
Report problems to the Principal.
Clean dosing pump equipment if necessary, or attend to swimming pool grounds, or special jobs such as removal of black spot algae,
or repairing tiles.
Wash out and disinfect change rooms, toilets and showers.
Test swimming pool water for free and total chlorine (DPD 1 and 3.), and pH.
Test swimming pool water cyanuric acid and hardness when necessary.
Record results.
Adjust hypochlorite dose rate if necessary.
Adjust pH, cyanuric acid, alkalinity and hardness if necessary after swimming pool is closed.
Empty bins.
Tidy plant room including chemical storeroom.
Check gauges, flow rate and pump motor.
Hose down concourse and disinfect if necessary.
Leave swimming pool complex securely locked, especially the plant room and chemical store.
Swimming pools, pool test ranges
The operator should maintain the swimming pool within the following ranges:
1. Free chlorine (DPD 3.): 3.5 to 3.0 mg / L
2. Total chlorine (DPD 3.): 3.5 to 3.0 mg / L
3. pH: 7.5 to 7.8 Optimum is pH 7.6 to 7.7
4. Total alkalinity: 60 to 120 mg / L Optimum: 80 to 110 mg / L
5. Hardness: 150 to 250 mg / L Optimum will depend on swimming pool water balance.
6. Cyanuric acid: 25 to 50 mg / L Optimum: 25 to 38 mg / L.

3.9.4 Safety equipment
See: Safety (Commercial)
AS = Australian standard
Apron, Safety apron, PVC (resists strong acids)
Ear protection, ear muffs, AS1270, general protection, 25 dB rated, class 4
Ear protection, ear plugs, Hilo 27 dB rated class 5, individually packaged, box / 200 pairs
Ear protection, ear plugs, Hilo 24 dB rated class 5, in dispenser, box / 250
Eye-wash bottle, eye-wash cup
Face shield, Safety face shield (chemical, anti-splash face shield)
Face shield, moulded, lightweight, high impact and splash proof, visor suits brow guard (adjustable)
Face shield, small, adjustable, low impact and splash proof
Face shield, Black Eagle, clear visor, brow guard, chin guard, fully adjustable
Helmet, Safety helmet, ABS plastic, adjustable inner, AS 1801
Glasses, Safety glasses, safety goggles (polycarbonate lens glasses)
Gloves, MSA Grand Prix, general purpose, beige leather, small, medium, large
Gloves, disposable gloves, powder free and sulfur-free polyethylene, ambidextrous design unisize, suitable for food handling, catering
and child care
Gloves, Stretch vinyl medical gloves, non sterile powdered, small, medium, large, box / 100
Gloves, Stretch vinyl medical gloves, non sterile powder free, latex free, single use, small, medium, large, box / 100
Glove dispenser, three pack
Gloves, Mediflex nitrile gloves, disposable, blue, powder free with textured fingers, small, medium, large, box / 100
Gloves, latex medical gloves, examination powder free, non sterile, beaded cuff
Gloves, latex medical gloves, examination, powdered, non sterile, beaded cuff
Gloves, N-DEX Ambidextrous Powdered Nitrile Gloves
Goggles, Safety goggles, chemical / dust goggle, close-fitted face seal, self comfortable frame, anti-fog and anti-scratch lenses, certified
to AS/NZS1337 medium impact protection
Goggles, Safety goggles, ChemPro, wide vision lens provides room for most prescription spectacles, adjustable strap for individual fit,
compatible with most industrial head protection, anti-fog and anti-scratch lenses, certified to AS/NZS1337 medium impact protection
Mask, surgical with ties, fluid resistant
Mask MSA Affinity, Reduce exposure to mechanically and thermally generated dusts, mists, fumes and aerosols, as in crushing,
blasting, grinding, welding, soldering and refining processes
Mask, Dust mask, P1 filter, 3 panel flat fold design, for mechanically generated particle, grinding, sanding, crushing sawing
Overalls, Safety overalls, Kleenguard XP protective overalls, low-linting, antistatic, silicon free, suitable for hazardous dusts, chemical
handling, spray painting, pharmaceutical manufacturing electronic assembly
Overalls, Safety overalls, Kleenguard, polypropylene and microfibre, protect against hazardous dust, particulate matter, repels
water-based liquids, suitable for agriculture, emergency services, maintenance and cleaning duties
Respirators, MSA 2S, full face rubber mask, respirator, chemical resistant rubber with polycarbonate lens with impact and chemical
resistance
Spectacles, Safety spectacles, MSA Arctic Indoor, 100 % UV protection, maximum glare reduction, certified to AS/NZS1337
medium impact protection
Spectacles, Safety spectacles, medium impact resistant, clear lens, will fit over prescription glasses, adjustable arms with comfort
cushions, certified to AS/NZS1337 medium impact protection
Sun brim and neck flap, cool cotton brim with attached flap for maximum sun protection, white, blue gloves,
Safety gloves rubber, rubber safety gloves (small/medium/large rubber gloves) (rubber, caoutchouc)
First Aid kit, portable First Aid kit.

3.9.5 DEA list of chemicals
The United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), maintains lists regarding the classification of illicit drugs (see DEA
Schedules).
It also maintains List I of chemicals and List II of chemicals, which contain chemicals that are used to manufacture the controlled
substances/illicit drugs.
[This item at 23/06/2013]
List I of chemicals includes the following: (23/056/20130
Hypophosphorous acid
Iodine, including elemental iodine crystals and chemical mixtures containing greater than 2.2% concentration of iodine (e.g. strong
iodine tincture and Lugol's iodine)
Methylamine and its salts, [methylamine (amino ethane), CH3NH2]
Phosphorus (white, ["yellow"] or red allotropes)
List II chemicals
These chemicals are designated as those that are used in the manufacture of the controlled substances.
Acetic anhydride, Acetone, Benzyl chloride, 2-butanone (or methyl ethyl ketone or MEK), Diethyl ether,
Hydrochloric acid (including anhydrous hydrogen chloride), Potassium permanganate, Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK),
Sodium permanganate, Sulfuric acid, Toluene.

3.9.6 Hazardous, toxic
Products are considered hazardous if they meet the criteria outlined in the Federal Hazardous Substances Act, USA
The term ''hazardous substance'' means: Any substance or mixture of substances which (i) is toxic (ii) is corrosive (iii) is an irritant,
(iv) is a strong sensitizer (v) is flammable or combustible, or (vi) generates pressure through decomposition, heat, or other means, if
such substances or mixture of substances may cause substantial personal injury or substantial illness during or as a proximate result
of any customary or reasonably foreseeable handling or use, including reasonably foreseeable ingestion by children.
[It is important to note that there is no definition for the term "substantial."].
The term ''toxic'' shall apply to any substance (other than a radioactive substance) which has the capacity to produce personal injury
or illness to man through ingestion, inhalation, or absorption through any body surface.

3.9.7 DETE, Managing Chemical Risks
DETE, Managing Risks with Chemicals in Department of Education, Training and Employment (DETE), Workplaces
Print PDF.
Version Number 3.1
Implementation Date 14/08/2012.

Scope
Department-wide Purpose
Purpose
This procedure states the ways risks from chemicals are to be managed in order to minimize the risk to the health and safety of people
at DETE workplaces and to other persons who may be affected by the activities carried out at these sites.
Duties for managing chemicals including storage, handling and disposal of chemicals are also outlined in this procedure and associated
guideline.
Overview
In compliance with the Work Health and Safety Act 2011 (Qld), the Department of Education, Training and Employment (DETE), has
a duty to protect the health and safety of its employees and other persons, including students, volunteers and visitors to departmental
workplaces.
This procedure and related guideline provide information to assist staff at Department of Education, Training and Employment
workplaces meet legislative requirements for the safe use of chemicals and to implement effective management practices.
The Department is committed to an environmentally sensitive approach to pest control through an integrated pest management
framework.
The aim is to prevent unacceptable levels of pest damage by the most economical means and with the least hazard to people, property
and the environment.
The use of physical and biological controls to prevent pests from being attracted, obtaining food and reproducing on DETE sites should
be investigated prior to the implementation of chemical control strategies.
The Department aims to apply the principles of the Pest Management in Schools,
(http://www.apvma.gov.au/use_safely/docs/pest_management_schools_aug_09.pdf)
guidelines to pest management activities on all departmental sites.

Responsibilities
Officer in Charge:
1. Control the risks of chemical exposure by implementing the processes for the management of chemicals as outlined in this procedure
and the Guideline for Managing Risks with Chemicals in DETE Workplaces.
Process
Officer in Charge:
1. Ensure information, instruction and training is provided to employees, volunteers and visitors on the correct handling, use, storage
and disposal of chemicals.
2. Communicate to all staff their duties and the requirements for managing the risks from chemicals.
3. Provide appropriate time and resources to support the management of chemicals in the workplace.
4. Monitor work practices of staff, students and visitors to ensure compliance with appropriate work processes.
5. Monitor the work plans and practices of contractors to ensure that their work complies with appropriate work processes.
6. Ensure appropriate documentation such as, safety data sheets, risk assessments and a record of personal protective equipment, is
maintained.
7. Provide appropriate resources for personal protective equipment to control the risks of chemical exposure.
8. Review management practices regularly to ensure risks associated with chemicals are adequately managed.
9. Ensure staff are aware of prohibited chemicals and ensure that staff do not purchase or use prohibited chemicals.

In addition, School Principals:
1. Align and implement practices in accordance with the guidance provided in Pest Management in Schools.
2. Ensure that the following prohibited chemicals are not used by Schools Officers
(Education Queensland staff):
- Schedule 6 poisons
- Schedule 7 poisons
- Organophosphate insecticides
- Creosote
- 2, 4-D based insecticides.

Line managers/supervisors:
1. Conduct/provide information, instruction and training for employees, volunteers and visitors on the handling, use, storage and
disposal of chemicals.
2. Communicate to staff their duties and the requirements for managing the risks from chemicals Implement the processes in the
Guideline for Managing Risks with Chemicals in DET Workplaces to control the risks of chemical exposure.
3. Maintain appropriate documentation such as safety data sheets, risk assessments, register of hazardous substances and a record of
personal protective equipment.
4. Monitor and approve risk assessments associated with the acquisition, use, storage and disposal of chemicals.
5. Provide supervision and support to ensure safe chemical work practices are followed.
6. Ensure volunteers and others follow safe work practices developed for the management of chemicals
7. Provide appropriate equipment for the purpose of workplace health and safety, including personal protective equipment and
monitor its correct usage.
8. Report any incidents or injuries to the officer in charge/administration at the DETE workplace.
9. Ensure staff are aware of prohibited chemicals and ensure that staff do not purchase or use prohibited chemicals.

All employees:
1. Utilize information provided in the Guideline for Managing Risks with Chemicals in DETE Workplaces.
2. Assist in identifying, assessing and managing risks associated with the acquisition, use, storage and disposal of chemicals.
3. Participate in training regarding the management of chemicals.
4. Assist in the implementation of chemicals management practices to ensure the health and safety of staff, students and others follow
safe chemical work practices.
5. Ensure volunteers and others follow safe work practices developed for the management of chemicals.
6. Be aware of prohibited chemicals and ensure they are not purchased or used at relevant DETE workplaces.
7. Use appropriate equipment provided for the purpose of workplace health and safety including personal protective equipment.
8. Take reasonable care of own health and safety and that acts or omissions do not endanger the health and safety of others.
9. Report any incidents or injuries to the supervisor or administration at the DETE workplace.

Non-employees (e.g. contractors, volunteers, visitors and pre-service teachers):
1. Participate in induction training prior to using chemicals.
2. Follow safe work practices for the management of chemicals.
3. Take reasonable care of own health and safety and ensure that acts or omissions do not endanger the health and safety of others.
4. Report any incidents or injuries to the supervisor or administration at the DETE workplace.

High risk substances with uncertain or unpredictable risk levels
A number of other chemical substances pose potentially major health and physical risks.
Departmental workplaces should consider very carefully whether the curriculum/industry relevance of experiments, demonstrations,
cleaning, maintenance and/or agricultural/horticultural activities involving these substances is sufficient to warrant their being stocked.
In such cases, minimum quantities should be obtained, stored and used.
Such substances include but are not limited to:
1. Heavy metals and the salts of heavy metals;
2. Very strong oxidizing (e.g. nitric acid, nitrates), reducing (chlorides) and toxic agents;
3. Caustic/corrosive (very strong acids, hydroxides), chemicals;
4. Extremely flammable or volatile, explosive, carcinogenic and halogenic chemicals;
5. Substances subject to hazardous decomposition;
6. Environmental toxins (e.g. agricultural chemicals); and
7. substances and materials that may be diverted for illicit drug manufacture and security sensitive chemicals (SSANs).

3.9.8 Scheduling
Scheduling basics
Scheduling is a Australian national classification system that controls how medicines and poisons are made available to the public.
Medicines and poisons are classified into Schedules according to the level of regulatory control over the availability of the medicine
or poison required to protect public health and safety.
Schedule 1 Not currently in use
Schedule 2 Pharmacy Medicine
Schedule 3 Pharmacist Only Medicine
Schedule 4 Prescription Only Medicine OR Prescription Animal Remedy
Schedule 5 Caution
Schedule 6 Poison
Schedule 7 Dangerous Poison
Schedule 8 Controlled Drug
Schedule 9 Prohibited Substance
Schedule 10 Substances of such danger to health as to warrant prohibition of sale, supply and use
The Schedules are published in the Poisons Standard and are given legal effect through state and territory legislation.
The Poisons Standard is also referred to as the Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP).
The Scheduling Handbook provides guidance on the pathway a scheduling application may follow and other details of the scheduling process.