School Science Lessons
Appendix E
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Table of contents

15.0.4 Low-cost chemicals and common substances:

16.9.0 Biochemistry terms and organic chemistry terms

16.14.0 Dioxins, Agent orange, PCBs
16.14.1 PBDE
16.14.2 PFOA, Perfluorooctanoic acid
16.14.3 PFOS, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid
16.14.4 Erucic acid
16.14.5 Canola oil

15.0.4 Low-cost chemicals and common substances:

See: Chemicals, (Commercial)






Baby powder

Baking soda

Base metals


Beverage can






Cobalt chloride



Cu acetoarsenite

Corn oil







Cresylic acid

Cyanuric acid



Eucalyptus oil

Evening primrose

Gases, "lab gas"


Glass wool






Isocyanuric acid

Javelle water

Lavender oil

Lemon juice

Linseed oil

Liver of sulfur


Mg ribbon

Magic candles






Neatsfoot oil

Noble metals

Paraffin, "kero"




Salad oil




Steel wool

Tartar emetic

Talcum powder

Tannic acid, tea

Tea tree oil

Tincture of iodine

Tung oil


Uric acid




White spirit

16.9.0 Biochemistry terms and organic chemistry terms
See: Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry (Commercial)
16.9.01 Alkyl group
16.9.1 Alkyd resin
16.9.2 Alkylation
16.9.3 Alkyne group
16.9.20 Bergamottin
16.9.4 Catenation
16.9.5 Citric acid cycle, Kreb's cycle
16.9.6 Conjugated
16.9.19 Coumarin, warfarin
16.9.7 Denature
16.9.8 Epoxy resin
16.9.9 Esterification
16.9.21 Green tea extract
16.9.11 Hydrogenation
16.9.12 Hydrolysis
16.9.13 Peptides
16.9.14 Phosphorylation
3.6.0 Polymer terminology
16.9.15 Racemic
16.9.16 Sulfonation
16.9.18 Statins
16.9.17 Tautomer

Agonist: chemical combining with a receptor for a physiological response.

Albumen, albumin
Albumen, albumin, Experiments
1. Albumen is egg white, white of an egg, albumen flakes, albumen egg powder.
2. Albumin is any protein soluble in water and can be coagulated by heat.
3. Albumin soluble protein in blood serum, serum albumin in blood serum
Alphlactalbumin in milk, a globular protein.
Albumin from bovine serum is sold as Bovine Serum Albumin, and Bovine Plasma Albumin, (BSA).
Albumin from humans is sold as Albumin, Human, tested negative for HIV and HBSAG [surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBV)].

Alka-Seltzer, (trade name), is mainly sodium hydrogen carbonate + citric acid + aspirin.
Use Alka-Seltzer to clean toilets, vases, jewellery, thermos pans with burned-on grease, and unclog a drain.
Alka-Seltzer + vinegar is used to soothe insect bites.

Antacids increase pH in stomach contents as medicines for reflux, e.g. sodium hydrogen carbonate, magnesium oxide.

Asphalt, bitumen, Experiments
Asphalt, (bitumen tar pitch), is black plastic solid from the final residues left after volatile substances are removed by fractional
distillation of the petroleum of natural occurrence.
It is used for road construction and sealing roofs.
Asphalt is a natural organic material, often occurring in tar pits, with a hydrocarbon base that softens with heat and has been used for
thousands of years for basins, impermeable water ways, sealing roof shingles, and caulking wooden ships.
English sailors on naval sailing ships were called "tars", from their use of tar for waterproofing.
Bitumen is any naturally occurring asphalt or any black, viscous hydrocarbon mixture.
Bituminous coal burns with a bright smoky flame.

Baking soda
soda, Experiments
Baking soda is sodium hydrogen carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3, bicarbonate of soda, "bicarb".
Use baking soda to:
1. Clean baby utensils, barbecue grills, bathtubs, bathroom tiles, coffee pots, vacuum flasks, refrigerators, stainless
steel sinks, microwave ovens, dishcloths, and laundry towels
2. Remove fruit juice stains, crayon marks, perspiration from cloth, and cookware burnt-on food.
3. Soften and whiten woollen socks, remove tarnish from silver and coffee stains.
4. As a hair conditioner, to increase strength of liquid laundry detergent and bleach, and maintain septic tanks.
5. Deodorize cutting boards, carpets diapers, food containers, garbage disposals, dishwashers, clothes, shoes.
6. Treat rashes, insect bites, sunburn, sore feet and use as toothpaste, mouth wash, , under arm deodorant, and remove vomit odour.

White and yellow beeswax, food additive, E901, glazing agent, release agent, for craft modelling, ointments, and polishes.
Beeswax from bee honeycomb mixture includes the palmitic acid ester of melissyl alcohol, melissyl palmitate, C15H31COOC30H61.

Beverage can
Beverage can, Experiments
Beverage, prepared drink, but not water, e.g. tea, soft drink, alcoholic drink
Beverage can, aluminium can, beer can, "can", drink can, drinking can, soda pop can, soft drink can, tin-plated steel can
1. Beverage cans are usually cylindrical containers made of aluminium or tin-plated steel in which food and drink can be stored and
hermetically sealed.
2. The sizes and composition of the walls of the can may vary as follows:
2.1 USA and Canada, "aluminium cans", 355 mL, 92-97% Al, <5.5% Mg , <1.5% , Mn, <0.15 % Co
The empty beverage can weight is 15 g.
2.2 Australia, 375 mL
2.3 Europe, China, India, 330 mL
3. Aluminium is highly suitable as a packaging material for beverages, but have a protective epoxy resin polymer coating applied on
the inside to prolong storage life so acids and salts in certain foods or beverages do not contact the metal.
4. Aluminium does not corrode easily,
5. Aluminium has density 2.70 g / cm3, compared with steel 7.86 g / cm3, so it is very light and cuts down on transport costs.
6. Aluminium transfers heat 2.4 times faster than iron, and very thin sheets can be produced, so heat is lost and gained by aluminium
very quickly, giving it ideal qualities for cooking and as a cold drink container
7. Aluminium can be rolled into extremely thin foil, and can be cast and joined , yet still retain much of its strength, so less of it is
needed as a light packaging material.
8. Aluminium has melting point of 660oC, compared with 154oC for iron, so less energy is required for processing and recycling it.
9. The lids of beverage cans may be a different composition than the cup portion of the can.

10. The history of opening beverage cans
1. Knife or bayonets were first used to open hermetically-sealed cans at home and during military service.
2. Can piercers church keys used a lever action to dig a triangular hole in the top of the beverage can with the cut metal being pushed
inside the can.
3. "Pull tabs", ring pulls, pulled of a section of the top of the beverage can, so that the ring and cut metal piece became detached.
However the separated pull tabs became an environmental hazard, and the opening in the top of the beverage can had sharp edges,
so adolescents could use them as dangerous rings on small fingers.
Some old people did not have the strength or dexterity to use pull tabs.
"Push tabs" detached an opening in the top of the can by pressing down , but people could cut their fingers on the cut metal.
5. "Stay-tabs", stay-on tabs, pop-tabs, are favoured nowadays, because they are easy to use, and cannot be detached to cause
pollution or injury.

Tapping a shaken soda pop can
To avoid an explosive emission of beverage and gas from a shaken soda pop can, some people lightly tap the side of the upright can
before pulling on the pull tab.
This practice may be regarded as an urban myth.
Tapping may release some bubbles from adhering to the walls of the soda pop can to collect at the top of the beverage just inside the
ring pull.
So when the drink-can is opened, these bubbles do not push through the beverage but push out some beverage explosively.
The time taken for the tapping gives some time for the carbon dioxide to dissolve back into the beverage, compared with a soda pop
can being opened immediately after the shaking.
The beverage is emitted less forcefully if the soda pop can is opened very slowly, or put back in the refrigerator to increase the
absorption of carbon dioxide.

Birdlime, bird lime, comes from the inner bark of holly mistletoe or elm branches, boiled , then evaporated, to form a sticky substance,
used to trap small birds.
Its use is illegal in many countries.
Birdlime is not "lime", calcium oxide.
The latex of breadfruit was formerly used as birdlime to catch birds by people in the South Pacific region.

Borax, Experiments
Borax, Na2B4O7.10H2O, disodiumetraborate-10-water, E285, sodium tetraborate decahydrate, but the borax sold is partially
dehydrated di-sodium tetraborate, colourless mineral, white powder, odourless, monoclinic crystals or granules, r.d. 1.73, m.p. 75oC,
efflorescent in dry air, anhydrous at 320oC, mildly toxic so avoid ingesting and skin contact.
Borax is used in buffer solutions, fire retardants, metallurgy flux, washing powders (laundry booster), bath cleaning, fungicide, insecticide,
detergent booster.
Borax used a lot in the furniture industry as a polish.
Sodium tetraborate borax preservative is not allowed in most countries because it is toxic and may cause skin problems.
Borax and sugar mixture is used with cut lemon over ant trails to deter ants.
Borax di-sodium tetraborate (III)-10-water Local Purchase.

Brass is mainly alloys of Cu and Zn but Al, Fe, Mn, Ni, Sn, and Pb may be added.
Brass filings Local Purchase

Bronze, Experiments
Bronze is mainly alloys of copper and tin, but some bronze may not contain tin, e.g. aluminium bronze, manganese bronze, and the
bronze in "copper" coins.
The first bronze made in the ancient world was probably copper combined with arsenic, and may have been quite toxic.

Bottled gas, compressed gas
Bottled gas is gas in metal cylinders under pressure e.g. O2 and N2 , and gas liquefied under pressure e.g. C4H10.
UK standard colours on cylinder shoulders, (EN 1089-3): black (N2), blue (N2O), brown (He), dark green (Ar), grey (CO2), light
blue (oxidizing gas), maroon (C2H2), red (flammable gas), white (O2), yellow (toxic gas and corrosive gas).
See the internet for colours in your country e.g. EU Compressed Gas Cylinder colour codes.

See: Buffer Solutions (Commercial)
Buffer reagent, phosphate buffer reagent: 9.2.25
Buffer solutions: 7.9.11
Buffers, food buffers, food additives: 19.4.12
Food buffers, adipic acid  food acid: E355
Prepare buffer solutions:
Prepare standard buffer solutions: 39.0

Buffer solutions tablets, pH 4, pH 6.4, pH 8, pH 9.2
Aluminium ammonium sulfate, food additive, E523, buffer stabilizer
Buffer ampoules, 1000 mL, pH 7.0, pH 8.0, pH 9.0, pH 10.0
Buffer solution, 500 mL, colour coded for pH 10.0, pH 9.0, pH 7.0, pH 4.0 pH 10.5
Buffer solutions, pH 10, Colour coded blue
Buffer solutions, pH 4, Colour coded red
Buffer solutions, pH 7, Colour coded yellow
Buffer tablets, pH 4.0.

A buffer or buffer solution is a mixture of substances that tend to hinder large changes in acid or basic properties of a solution.
The term "buffer" is used in a more general sense outside chemistry.
The pH of a buffer solution is not greatly changed by the addition of an acid or an alkali.
Most buffer solutions are a mixture of a weak acid or base with one of its salts.
In body fluids, the buffers include H2CO3 with HCO3-.
Acidic buffer, e.g. sodium hydrogen carbonate with carbonic acid solutions, the salt of the weak acid is completely dissociated into ions
but the weak acid is only partly dissociated.
Basic buffer, e.g. ammonium chloride in ammonia solutions.

Butane gas
Butane gas, Experiments
Butane gas, C4H10, 93.2 MJm-3, a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), liquefied gas, bottled gas, is liquefied butane, Calor gas.
Butane isomer is 2-methylpropane, CH3CH(CH3)CH3 , formerly called "isobutane".
A mixture of butane and 2-methylpropane is used in disposable cigarette lighters.
2C4H10 (g) + 13O2 (g) --> 8CO2 (g) + 10H2O (g).

"Cellophane" is the proprietary name for a glossy transparent wrapping material.
Modified cellulose (cellophane is a trade name name from: cellulose + diaphane (French: transparent)
cellulose + alkali + carbon disulfide --> viscose through sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate --> cellulose + glycerine --> cellophane rayon.
Cellophane is used in food and cigarette packages, "Sellotape", "Scotch Tape", dialysis tubing, (Visking tubing).
See: Dialysis, (Commercial)

Coal gas
Coal gas, (approximately 88 MJ / kg), is approximately 50% hydrogen gas, 35% methane, 8% carbon monoxide (poisonous gas),
hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen sulfide (for a "safety smell"),
Lately, "synthetic natural gas", SNG, is synthesized from coal or petroleum.

Cobalt chloride, cobaltous chloride
Cobalt (II) chloride, CoCl2.6H2O, cobalt (II) chloride hydrated, cobalt (II) chloride-6-water, cobalt chloride hexahydrate, harmful
if ingested, environment danger, hydrated salt, pink-dark red, deliquescent crystals, pink powder, acidic solution, CoCl2 (anhydrous
salt blue test for water humidity paper in silica gel desiccant), blue borax bead.

Protein in animal connective tissue, boiled to make gelatine glue, insoluble fibrous protein in connective tissue, polypeptide chain mainly
glycine, and proline gristle used for sausage casings.

Solution of pyroxylin, (inflammable solution of nitrocelluloses), in ether to make a thin sticky film.
Cellulose nitrate, nitrocellulose, dissolved in a mixture of ethanol or diethyl ether.
Cellulose tetranitrate used as a surgical dressing or medicinal coating.
Collodion was used in an early photographic process, cellulose nitrate + soluble iodide coats a glass plate, then in darkroom,
immersed in silver nitrate to form silver iodide, then the wet plate was exposed in a camera, then developed with pyrogallic acid and
fixed with sodium thiosulfate or potassium cyanide solution.

Copper (II) acetoarsenite, Paris Green
Copper (II) acetoarsenite, [copper ethanoato-arsenate copper (II) acetate triarsenite], Emerald green, Paris Green, Schweinfurth
Green, is a double compound of copper arsenite, (Scheele's Green), and copper acetate, (verdigris), Cu(C2H3O2)2.3Cu(AsO2)2,
bright yellow-blue-green pigment, still used as a poison, and for green colour in fireworks, agricultural chemical, wood preservative,
and ship anti-fouling application.
However, it is very poisonous, and nowadays is thought to be too dangerous to use.
Its use in wallpaper may have killed the exiled Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte on St. Helena Island!
It is very poisonous and nowadays is thought to be too dangerous to use.
Highly toxic pigment.
Copper (II) arsenate, Cu3(AsO4)2.4H2O, Cu5H2(AsO4)4.2H2O
Copper arsenite, AsCuHO3, CuHAsO3, copper (II) arsenite, cupric arsenite, Scheele's green pigment, Paris green, emerald green, copper arsonate, Swedish green, cupric green, air-flo green, acid copper arsenite, green, acidic copper arsenite, pigment of significant toxicity

Corn oil, maize oil
5.0.0 Maize, (Zea mays, Indian corn)
Use corn oil to moisturize skin, add to bath water, prevent cat hair balls, condition human hair or dog's coat, and remove dirt, remove
oil paint or sap from skin, prepare and remove rust from cast iron skillets and barbecue grills, lubricate hinges, remove furniture marks
and glue, coat snow tools, remove decals, oil for wooden implements and tools, soothe sore skin, use before removing wood splinter,
soften new boots, remove price tags and paper stuck to wood, treat ear mites in cats and treat human ear wax.

Use cornstarch powder for baby powder vacuum cleaning inside rubber gloves and shoes dry dog shampoo toy stuffed animals, remove
excess furniture polish grease and oil stains cutting boards rolling pins
Use cornstarch to thicken gravy.
Use cornstarch paste for skin irritations and sunburn pain, blood stains, car shining, knot untangling, finger paints (+ colouring), and to
clean silverware.
Use cornstarch + plaster of Paris to kill cockroaches, when they eat the mixture.
"Johnson's baby powder" (Australia) contains "pure cornstarch".
It does not contain talc hydrated magnesium silicate.

Cornflour in USA "cornstarch", in Australia "wheaten starch".
Powdery starch, synthesized from maize, and used as a cooking thickener.

The crayons used by children for drawing and colouring are usually sticks of coloured wax, but artist's crayons may be made of charcoal,
chalk, oiled chalk (called an "oil pastel"), pigment with dry binder (called a "pastel").
Crayon marks made by naughty children can be removed with white toothpaste.
Use crayons to remove grease from collars and clothing, absorb moisture, in small boxes, make a non-slip tip to screwdriver, polish
marble and metal repair hole in plaster wall.

Cresol mixture: (2-hydroxytoluene 3-hydroxytoluene 4-hydroxytoluene), sensitizes skin to sunlight, use gloves.
Wood creosote is mixture of phenols of wood tar.
It is used as a disinfectant, cough medicine , diarrhoea medicine, preservative, antiseptic
Coal tar creosote is used as a wood preservative, fungicide, insecticide and for treating skin diseases, but may cause skin cancer.
Creosote (prohibited substance for schools)
Coal tar products, creosote: 16.2.10

Cresol, O-cresol, 2-Methylphenol, 2-hydroxytoluene; O-methylphenol; 2-Cresol
C7H8O or CH3C6H4OH
Cresol red, C21H12NaO5S
Cresol red, o-cresolsulfonephthalein: 12, (indicator)
Cresol red sodium salt, C21H17NaO5S: 12.1
Cresol is a colorless or yellow to brown-yellow or pink liquid with a phenol-like odor and insoluble in water.
Minor urinary metabolite of toluene, a widely used chemical with neurotoxicological properties, and used as a disinfectant.
Denature and precipitate cellular proteins poisoning may occur by inhalation, cutaneous adsorption, oral ingestion.
Ingestion may cause intense burning of mouth and throat, abdominal pain, burns to skin, eyes and mucous membranes.
The minimum lethal dose of cresol by mouth is about 2 g.
m-cresol, 3-hydroxytoluene, Highly toxic by all routes, lung irritant vapour, highly corrosive to skin
m-cresol, Solution < 12%, Not hazardous
o-Cresolsulfonephthalein, triarylmethane dye, acid-base indicator, used to monitor pH in aquaria, irritates eyes, do not ingest.
Paracresol, p-cresol, (CH3)C6H4(OH), in pig and human smell
See diagram Cresol

Cresyl, CH3C6H4O-
Cresyl violet acetate, C18H15N3O3, 9-Amino-5-imino-5H-benzo[a]phenoxazine acetate salt, stains neurones
Cresyl violet perchlorate, C16H11N3O.HClO4, oxazine 9 perchlorate, biological stain
Cresylic acid, CH3C6H4OH, "cresol"

Cresylic acid, cresols
See Cresols
Cresylic acid is a mixture of coal tar or petroleum byproduct phenols, disinfectant, Highly toxic by all routes.
CH3C6H4OH, cresol, (mixed isomers), coal tar acids, coal tar cresols, coal tar phenols, methylphenol mixed, crysylol, hydroxytoluene
cresol all isomers, tricresol, methylphenol, mixed cresols
Cresylic acid, Solution < 3%, Not hazardous
Cresylic acid compounds are called cresol when the boiling point is below 204oC.
Cresols are mixtures of the ortho-, meta- and para- isomers.
Crude cresol contains approximately 20% o-cresol, 40% m-cresol, and 30% p-cresol.
Amber to red colour.
Cresols are used to manufacture synthetic resins, as degreasing compounds, paintbrush cleaner, fumigants in photographic developers,
and explosives.
Any combustion process that results in the generation of phenolic compounds, e.g. exhausts from motor cars, coal, wood, or trash smoke,
may be a potential source of exposure to cresols.

Crude oil
Petroleum distillate oil, unrefined natural petroleum.

Cyanuric acid
Cyanuric acid, (CNOH)3, H3C3N3O3), is used in for swimming pools, purifying tablets, white soluble crystals, solution converts to urea.

Dimethyl sulfoxide, (CH3)2SO, (C2H6OS), from wood pulp, oyster garlic taste, (irritant, penetrates skin, horse liniment,
anti-inflammatory, paint stripper

Drying agents, e.g. anhydrous calcium chloride, anhydrous calcium sulfate, concentrated sulfuric acid, phosphorus (V) oxide, sodium
hydroxide lump, calcium oxide lump (lime), silica gel.
Glass desiccators used to dry chemicals in the laboratory may have tap in the lid to increase evaporation by decreasing pressure in the
Glass desiccators can also preserve organic materials by desiccation.

Gases, "lab gas", household gas
Bottled gas compressed gas LPG LP Gas
Butane gas
Coal gas
Fossil fuels peak oil: 3.32.2
Household gas
Laboratory gas, piped gas
LPG (liquefied petroleum gas LP gas)
Methane gas
Natural gas
Producer gas
Propane gas
Town gas

Gelatin, gelatine
Amorphous, yellow to colourless, transparent, tasteless, material, brittle when dry, from collagen protein produced by boiling animal
tissues, e.g. skin and ligaments, used in glue, jelly crystals, e.g. puragel, photographic emulsions, adhesives.
Also, gelatin dynamite and blasting gelatin, underwater explosives, containing nitroglycerine and cellulose nitrate.

Glass wool
Glass wool, Irritant, (glass wool, silane-treated)
Glass wool is not recommended for use in school laboratories.
Students should not handle glass wool.
Thin pieces of glass wool can get into cuts and then into the bloodstream.
Do not touch glass wool with the fingers, wear protective gloves.
Do not breathe in glass wool fibres.
Teachers and laboratory assistants may use glass wool in the preparation room but they should wear an appropriate respiratory mask.
Do not reuse damaged glass wool because it may release glass fibre particles into the air.
Glass wool is sold as "Glass wool for laboratory use", with suggestions for eye shields, gloves and respirator filters.

Pottery glazes were formerly metal oxides, e.g. lead oxide and cadmium oxide, often heavy metals, but most glazes nowadays have
the metal oxide fired with silica to form sintered glass.
Glazes for school use must contain no cadmium and < 0.1% lead dry weight.
Glazes are sold as "school glazes."

Glycogen, (C6H10O5)n, animal starch, liver starch, is a branched polymer of glucose synthesized by animal cells for energy storage
Glycogen is constructed mostly of α14 glycosidic bonds with branches created through α16 glycosidic bonds.
Glycogen is usually prepared for sale rom rabbit liver and from Mytilus edulis, (Blue mussel).

Keratin is a fibrous protein occurring in hair, wool, feathers, hooves and horns, imbedded in a matrix that makes them strong and elastic.
The proteins contain sulfur and are held together by disulfide bonds.

Inks include solvent-based ink, water-based ink, ball pen refill, "Biro" or "Bic" refill, Indian ink, variable toxicity, solvent may be
flammable, marbling ink.
Students must not ingest marbling ink used in primary schools.
Indian ink, (Chinese ink), is a mixture of lampblack, carbon black, bone black.
For block printing and screen printing, do not use oil-based solvents, but use water-based screen printing inks, e.g. "Lascaux".

Invertase from baker's yeast, is a yeast extract enzyme.
It catalases sucrose hydrolysis to fructose and glucose, (invert sugar).
Invertase is harmful if ingested, irritates eyes, food additive E1103
It is used as a stabilizer, a food processing aid, and in the production of confectionery foods and artificial honey
Invertase hydrolyses sucrose into glucose and fructose, yielding a colourless product, unlike acid hydrolysis of sucrose, which produces
coloured products.
Invertase is sold as "Invertase from baker's yeast (S. cerevisiae), practical grade".

"The process of examining or inquiring into something with organization, care and precision." Queensland Studies Authority.

Iodine monochloride
Iodine monochloride, ICl, Wijs' solution, Tests for fats and oils
Wijs' solution, iodine chloride, iodine monochloride, Toxic by all routes, avoid vapours, brown-red crystals
Iodine monochloride is dissolved in acetic acid to form Wijs' solution to test fats and oils for the iodine value or iodine number to
determine the degree of unsaturation in fatty acids, e.g. coconut oil about 9, olive oil about 85, linseed oil about 200.

Isocyanuric acid
Isocyanuric acid, tricarbamide, s-triazinetriol, C3H3N3O3, is a chlorine stabilizer for swimming pools, administered as sodium
dichloroisocyanurate granules or trichloroisocyanuric acid tablets.

Javelle water
Aqueous solution of potassium or sodium hypochlorite, used as a disinfectant and bleaching agent.

Laboratory gas
In a laboratory, the pilot light should burn with a 90% blue flame.
If the flame is yellow, the gas may be contaminated with condensates.
Do not use such a gas but immediately inform the local gas authority.
The heating values of fuels: town gas 88 MJ / kg, natural gas 55.6 MJ / kg, LPG gas 49 MJ / kg, diesel fuel oil 38 MJ / L,
kerosene 36.7 MJ / L, coke or coal 27 MJ / kg, dry split wood 12.5 MJ / kg.

Lavender oil
Lavender flower oil, mainly linalyl acetate, from Lavandula latifolia, (insect repellent, dog inhibitor, air freshener, pain relief)

Lemon juice, lemon oil
Use lemon juice to treat dandruff, blackheads, facial blemishes, rough hands, sore feet, constipation, itches, minor wounds, with honey
and olive oil relieve coughing, unclog ketchup bottles, write with invisible ink, blonde hair, deodorize cooked fish, cutting boards, fish
cooking utensils, microwave ovens and refrigerators, remove fruit stains, rust, mineral discoloration, ink spots from clothing, whiten
fingernails, with salt clean brass and stainless steel sink.
Use lemon juice to prepare bathtub rust stains cleaner.
Lemon oil is oil from lemon peel, D-limonene, a terpene, used for furniture polish, inhibits spiders and insects, stain remover.

Light oil, sewing machine oil
Sewing machine oil, WD-40 penetrating oil to prevent corrosion.

Linseed oil
From seeds of flax, Linum usitatissimum, glycerides of oleic acid and other unsaturated acids.
Used to condition and seal bare wood in putty, paints, varnishes, for cricket bats, linoleum, outdoor furniture.

Liver of sulfur
Alkaline mixture of mainly potassium polysulfides that turns silver black.

LPG, Liquefied Petroleum gas,
LPG, LP Gas, Liquefied Petroleum gas, is a clean burning fuel and is stored in gas cylinders as bottled gas.
LPG is a simple asphyxiant.
It consists of propane, (about 95%), together with varying proportions of butane, propylene and butylene.
A rank smelling compound, odorant, e.g. ethyl mercaptan, is added so that the presence of the gas can be easily detected.
Incomplete combustion forms carbon monoxide.
Do not search for a gas leak with a lighted match or lighted taper.
Use a soap solution.
Highly flammable, violently explosive mixture with air, toxic if inhaled, purchased as cylinders containing the liquefied gas.
Fill cylinders by weight only.
Hazchem Code 2YE.
UN number 1075. Keep container upright in a well-ventilated place away from sources of ignition.

Magnesium ribbon
Magnesium powder is too dangerous for school use.
Magnesium powder dispersed in air is explosive and may explode on contact with oxidizing agents, e.g. metal nitrates or chlorates, and
should not be combined with carbon tetrachloride, carbon dioxide, chlorinated hydrocarbons, halogens.
Magnesium ribbon is easily ignited and burns very exothermically almost instantaneously, with a white hot flame that emits UV radiation
and may cause eye damage.
Use < 1 cm of magnesium ribbon in experiments.

Re-lighting candles
Re-lighting candles, (happy birthday candles you can't blow out!), "Trick Candles", "Magic Candles".
The relatively low autoignition temperature, 473oC, is used in trick happy birthday candles that cannot be blown out.
When a candle is blown out a glowing ember usually remains in the wick but it does not provide enough heat to ignite the paraffin.
The wicks of trick candles contain particles of magnesium powder, which may be ignited by the glowing ember to then ignite any
remaining paraffin vapour.
Look closely at the wick of a trick candle just before it reignites to see sparks of burning magnesium powder.
Only the magnesium in the glowing ember ignites, so the trick candle can be blown out then reignites many times because the
magnesium in the rest of the wick does not burn, being isolated from the air by the liquid paraffin.
Extinguish the trick candles by putting
them in water.
Put away for the trick candle for storage only after several minutes and be sure that they are extinguished.
The wicks of re-lighting candles should be < 6 mm.

Metaldehyde is an ethanal tetramer formed by polymerization of ethanal, acetaldehyde, (CH3CHO)4 --> C4O4H4(CH3)4, "meta"
fuel, fire lighter, canned heat, snail bait, "Esbit", "Blitzem".

Metglas is a ribbon of an alloy, e.g. iron, boron silicon, phosphorus, formed by very rapid solidification.
It is used for joining metals by braising, transformer cores, and in pulse power switches.
Metglas can be rapidly magnetized and demagnetized.
For example, Powerlite C-Core, an iron-based Metglas , has low loss and high saturation flux density compared to other
ferromagnetic materials.

Methane gas
Methane gas, CH4, natural gas, (55.6 MJ / kg), marsh gas.
Natural gas is flammable gas, 99% methane, occurring naturally underground, usually associated with petroleum
CH4 (g) + 2O2 (g) --> CO2 (g) + 2H2O (g) + heat.
Methane is large proportion of coal gas, (firedamp in coal mines, methane burns to form air depleted of oxygen, called blackdamp,
choke damp).

Natural gas
CH4, C2H6, C3H8
It occurs usually over petroleum products so its composition varies.
Natural gas usually contains about 90% methane + various proportions of ethane, propane, butane, nitrogen and carbon dioxide.
It is odourless but during manufacture a rotten egg rank smelling compound, e.g. a mercaptan, captan, (ethane thiol or ethyl mercaptan),
may is added for gas detection.
Incomplete combustion produces carbon monoxide.
It should burn with a 90% blue flame.
Natural gas is used in heating and cooking appliances, buses and other motor vehicles and is transported by large tankers or gas grids.
In many places it has replaced town gas.
Safety procedures
1. Check the colour of the flame in the pilot light is yellow.
If a yellow condensate forms on the nearby wall or the bottom of cooking pots have a black smudge, ask the gas distribution authority
for advice because the gas may be contaminated.
2. Gas leaks
Cover a suspected gas leak with a soap solution.
If any bubbles form in the solution, contact the gas distribution authority and report a gas leak.
Be careful! Do not search for a gas leak with a lighted match or lighted taper but use a soap solution.
3. Regularly check all equipment using natural gas.
Use sturdy undamaged tubing to connect Bunsen burners to gas taps.
Replace any perished tubing or tubing damaged at one end.
Check that tubing is connected securely to both the tap and the Bunsen burner before the gas is turned on.
5. Clean or replace any Bunsen burners that have damaged jets, or are known to burn back (strike back).
6. At the end of the school day, turn off the master gas switches in each laboratory.
7. Do not allow dangerous practices, e.g. turning on a gas tap and then lighting it.
8. If you smell an overpowering gas odour in a laboratory, evacuate the area rapidly, open all windows and seek assistance.

Paraffin oil, kerosene
Paraffin, hard paraffin wax, (chunks), alkane mixture, CnH2n+2, paraffin wax black 43 / 46
The term "paraffins" was the former name for "alkanes".
Paraffin, (Latin: parum little, affinis connected), because of its low chemical activity.
The name invented by German chemist Karl Reichenbach in 1830.
1. Paraffin, fp 60oC, (UK paraffin oil), (USA, Australia, kerosene),
(also kerosine, "kero"), is a petroleum fraction containing a mixture
of about ten different hydrocarbons, 10 to 16 carbon atoms per molecule, depending on the origin of the original petroleum.
Its flash point, temperature to form flammable vapour, is 38oC, so it is a relatively safe fuel.
Use paraffin oil, kerosene, in a well-ventilated space for kerosene lamps and domestic heaters, but do not use it as a degreaser of
2. Paraffin wax is alkanes C20H42 to C40H82, and is used to make candles, polish, "wax" paper.
3. Liquid paraffin, (petrolatum liquid, paraffin liquid), is a pure mineral white oil emulsion used as a medicine
It is a colourless, tasteless, liquid form of petroleum jelly, mixture of >C12 alkanes, known a petrolatum jelly, ("Vaseline", trade name)
White paraffin, is another kind of petroleum jelly.
Paraffin wax, has m.p. 45 to 65oC, (sold as pastillated wax, 52oC), relative density 0.9.

Pennyroyal, (Mentha pulegium), European pennyroyal, squaw mint, mosquito plant, pudding grass,   pouliot, pulegium, pungent,
 pepper tasting, culinary herb, herbal medicine, abortifacient but pennyroyal oil is poisonous, liver toxicity, Lamiaceae.
Dried herb sold as aerials.
Perennial, dicotyledon, grows up to 50 cm tall with smooth roundish stalks and aromatic, grey-green oval leaves, lilac flowers in
distinct whorls in late summer and autumn, fibrous creeping root.
Used for ground cover, rockeries and paths when walked on releases refreshing peppermint, strong fragrance, culinary uses, to flavour
root vegetable, infusions as pet rinse to deter fleas. Europe, Middle East.
Pennyroyal oil, herbal medicine for temporary relief of headaches and cramps, (not during pregnancy).
However, it is toxic and an abortifacient and can even in small quantities cause acute liver and lung damage.
Pennyroyal oil should not be used in aromatherapy.
Formerly it was used to "purify the blood", and for digestive and menstrual problems and feverish colds.
It is an effective insect repellent and deters ants, fleas, flies and moths.
The main chemical components of pennyroyal oil are pulegone, menthone, iso-menthone and neomenthone.

Producer gas
Air gas.
Similar to water gas, formed by passing air and steam over hot carbon.

Propane gas
Propane gas, C3H8, a bottled gas, a liquefied petroleum gas, (LPG).

Ion exchange resin
Anion exchange resin, zeolite, ("Permutit")

16.9.01 Alkyl group
Alkyls are saturated hydrocarbons, e.g. methyl, ethyl ..
Alkyls, symbol R, name ends in -yl, named from alkanes by removing an H from the formula, e.g. methane CH4 becomes the alkyl
called methyl CH3-.

16.9.1 Alkyd resin
An alkyd resin is any synthetic polyester resin prepared from a dicarboxylic acid, used in paints and adhesives.
Adhesive and coating resins are made from glycerol and unsaturated organic acids.
Rigid cross-linked polymers are formed when there are more than two functional groups on linear chain monomers.
They are used in paint enamels and making dentures.

16.9.2 Alkylation
Alkylation is replacing a hydrogen on a cyclic compound with an alkyl CH3 or longer chain group, by heating isobutane with the lower
boiling point alkenes, C3-C6, under acid conditions.
To add the isobutane to the alkene and form a larger branched alkane and so converting some lower boiling gas fractions into high
octane fractions.
Alkylation, Distil crude oil, collect fractions, composition of petroleum: 10.6.3

16.9.3 Alkyne group
Alkynes are unsaturated hydrocarbons containing a triple bond and with the general formula R1-CCR2, (CnH2n-2), e.g. acetylene.
Prefix: alkynl-, Suffix: -yne, (no principal functional group)
Alkynes are also called "acetylenes".

16.9.4 Catenation
Formation of chains of atoms.

16.9.5 Citric acid cycle, Kreb's cycle
A cycle of reactions in mitochondria as part of aerobic cell respiration in which oxaloacxetic acid is regenerated by a series of reactions
in which ADP is converted to energy rich ATP, as part of the energy conversion processes in the body.
(Sir Hans Adolf Krebs, Germany / Great Britain, 1900-1981)

16.9.6 Conjugated
Alternating double and single bonds.
Note that polyunsaturated chains have "cis-methylene interrupted" or "skipped" double bonds.

16.9.7 Denature
Destroy structure of a protein by heating or oxidation.
The tertiary structure of a protein collapses, denatured, by heating, acid or agitation in air.

16.9.8 Epoxy, epoxy resin
Epoxy compounds, (O atoms in CCO ring, -C-O-C- in epoxides), epoxy resin polymers, thermoset plastics
Oxygen directly linked to two adjacent bonded carbon atoms forming a triangle.
Epoxides contain an oxygen atom linked to two carbon atoms as part of a three-member cyclic ring, e.g. the cyclic ether ethylene
oxide, C2H4O, oxirane, oxiran, Extremely toxic, carcinogenic
Epoxy hardener, e.g. diethylenetriamine / methyl isobutyl ketone ketamine mixture, fumes may be toxic if heated.
Epoxy resins are the uncured resins used for fibreglass and may contain isocyanate residues that are strong irritants to the eye nose and
respiratory organs.
Epoxy resins are easy to ignite, orange yellow smoky flame, burns after removing flame, acrid smell.
Araldite polymer is an epoxy resin.
Sold as: (Epoxy hardener, H180 FAST, H180 SLOW, Epoxy resin DER353).

16.9.9 Esterification
Forming an ester, reaction of organic acid with an alcohol.
Carboxylic acid --> (acid catalyst) ester + water
R:O:OH --> (R-OH) R:O:OR + H2O (Fischer esterification)
The reverse process is ester hydrolysis, e.g. saponification, the making of soap from fat.

16.9.11 Hydrogenation
Hydrogenation is the addition of hydrogen to a molecule to convert unsaturated organic molecules to saturated molecules and reducing
double bonds to single bonds.
For example:
H2C=CH2 + H2 --> CH3CH3
alkene + hydrogen --> alkane
Trans fatty acid are fatty acids formed as a result of hydrogenation.

16.9.12 Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis is the splitting of molecule using a reaction with water.
AB + H2O --> AH + BOH
In the above equation, compound AB is decomposed and the hydrogen and hydroxyl group of water are attached to the separate
chemical products, AH and BOH.

16.9.13 Peptide
Peptides have amino acids linked in a linear sequence, where the carboxyl group of a amino acid is linked to the amino group of the
next amino acid.
A covalent bond forms between the carbonyl carbon of a amino acid with the nitrogen atom of the next amino acid, with the loss of
Peptides include structures formed from α-amino acids and from any amino carboxylic acid.
Natural peptides include oxytocin, (uterus contraction hormone and stimulates lactation), and insulin, (pancreatic hormone).

16.9.14 Phosphorylation
Phosphorylation means adding a phosphate group to a molecule.

16.9.15 Racemic
A one-to-one mixture of left handed and right-handed, chiral, forms of the same molecule.
Most chemical reactions produce products as racemic mixtures, whereas biological reactions generally produce one or the other form
R, R".
The R designates an undefined organic group, e.g. a hydrocarbon chain.
The R is not necessarily the same as R".

16.9.16 Sulfonation
Addition of the function group (-SO3H) to a molecule.
Aromatic ring-H to aromatic ring (-SO3H), a sulfonic acid, e.g. sulfonation of benzene.

16.9.17 Tautomer
When an atom, e.g. hydrogen, moves backwards and forwards between different places on a molecule, the new and original molecules
form a tautomeric pair.

16.9.18 Statins
Statins include atorvastatin, (Atorvastatin calcium salt trihydrate, C33H34FN2O5)2Ca3H2O, "Lipitor"), simvastatin "Zocor", lovastatin
"Mevacor", pravastatin "Pravachol", rosuvastatin "Crestor".
The first statin produced for sale was lovastatin, isolated from Aspergillus terreus.
Statins are synthetic lipid-lowering agents that lower cholesterol levels by restricting the activity of enzyme HMG-CoA reductase
essential for production of cholesterol in the liver.
Ischaemic heart disease will develop in more than one half of adults and continues to account for over one quarter of all deaths.
Mortality rises exponentially with increasing serum cholesterol.
Statins (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors) lower cholesterol very effectively and have a major role in the
prevention of coronary and other arterial disease, in concert with attention to other risk factors, in particular smoking, blood pressure
and weight.
The relationship with coronary events weakens with lower levels of cholesterol.
However, statin side effects are common and are dose related. and include fatigue, myopathy (skeletal muscle weakness), cerebral
haemorrhage and acute renal failure
A doctor may prescribe statins if a patient has 1. a total cholesterol level of 240 milligrams per decilitre, (mg / dL), (6.22 millimoles per
litre, or mmol / L), or higher, or 2. a low density lipoprotein cholesterol, (LDL, or "bad" cholesterol), level is 130 mg / dL,
(3.37 mmol / L), or higher.

16.9.19 Coumarin, warfarin
Coumarin, (C9H6O2, 1, 2-benzopyrone, 1-benzopyran-2-one), in perfumes, (from tonka bean Dipterix odorata, Aloe vera,
Artemisia vulgaris), (used to make warfarin, C19H16O4, a medical anticoagulant and rat poison, e.g. "Ratsac".)

16.9.20 Bergamottin
Bergamottin, C21H22O4, oil of bergamot, is a furanocoumarin, (furan ring C4H4O + coumarin), from Citrus bergamia, bergamot
orange, (in Earl Grey tea), in grapefruit juice, in oil of Bergamot orange and other citrus fruits.
Bergamottin is an inhibitor of enzyme CYP3A4 in liver and intestine, cause the "grapefruit effect" on some drugs, e.g. atorvastin (lipitor),
cannot be eliminated.
The bergamottin in grapefruit interferes with the action of drugs, e.g. atorvastatin, e.g. "Lipitor", to lower bad cholesterol, by blocking
the action of enzymes in the small intestine to increase the amount of drug absorbed and the action of fexofenadine, ("Allegra", allergy
medicine, runny nose), by blocking the action of transporters to decrease the amount of drug to target cells.
Grapefruit juice increases oral bioavailability of drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 through inhibiting the enzymatic activity
and decreasing the content of intestinal P450 3A4.
Bergamottin also causes increased glucuronidation of bergamottin analog
So be cautious when drinking grapefruit juice and taking certain medications, e.g. statins. CPY3A4

16.9.21 Green tea extract
Green tea extract, catechin gallate, C22H18O10, antioxidant and free radical scavenger
(2S, 3R)-2-(3, 4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-3, 4-dihydro-1(2H)-benzopyran-3, 5, 7-triol 3-(3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoate)
Antioxidant and free radical scavenger.

16.14.0 Dioxins, Agent orange, PCBs
See diagram 16.14.0 Dioxins
1. The term "dioxins" generally refers to a series of chlorinated dioxins. The most widely studied compound, usually just called "dioxin",
is 2, 3, 7, 8-tetracholoro-p-dibenzodioxin, (2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD), "TCDD", C12H4Cl4O2, by-product of manufacture of herbicide,
"2, 4, 5-T", 2, 4, 5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, C8H5Cl3O3, and occurred in the Agent Orange defoliant used in the Vietnam War,
1954-75 .
They are chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds called dibenzo-p-dioxins.
The compounds have low water solubility, low vapour pressure many are very stable and tend to bioaccumulate, e.g. in human milk.
They are very toxic and persist in the environment for long periods.
They are produced during incineration of wastes and are a contaminant in chemical manufacturing processes.
They interfere with the action of hormones and the genetic system even in very small concentrations.
They accumulate in the fat cells but are not metabolized.
They damage the immune system, leading to increased susceptibility to infectious disease. When chemicals and plastics are
manufactured or burned, dioxin may be produced as a by-product and dumped into landfill.
Landfill gas may include dioxins, which may spread into the community if landfill gas, mainly methane is burned as a source of energy.
An important source of dioxins is from burning polyvinyl chloride in incinerators.
Agent orange was widely thought to ruin the agricultural economy and be the cause of infant birth defects of children in Vietnam and
in US military families during the Vietnam War, (1954-75).
The name "Agent Orange" came from the colour-coding orange stripe on the preparation package.
Dioxins also enter the environment from the manufacture of certain herbicides and bleached paper.

2. There are also a number of dioxin-like PCBs, polybrominated biphenyls, (PBBs), and mixed chlorinated and brominated congeners
with dioxin-like properties.
The molecule 1, 2-Dioxin, 1, 2 dioxine, C4H4O2, is very unstable.
Molecules called "dioxins" have a pair of benzene rings, two oxygen atoms and four chlorine atoms.
The chemical DDT is similar so DDT and dioxins are toxic in small quantities, do not degrade, and both dissolve and accumulate in fat.
Both are still being detected in human milk.
Dioxins and DDT accumulate in the fat of animals and destroys their ability to reproduce.

16.14.1 PBDE
PBDE, pentabromodiphenyl ether, C12H5Br5O, PBB, polybrominated biphenyls, 4, 4'-dibromobiphenyl, C12H8Br2
PBDE consists of two benzene rings linked with an oxygen atom, instead of hydrogen, and up to 10 bromine atoms may be attached
to the benzene rings.
For flame protection the congeners are 5 to 10 bromine atoms.
PBB consists of two directly linked benzene rings, and up to 10 bromine atoms.
PCB is a partly volatile liquid while the current flame retardants are solid with very low volatility.
Both PBDE and PBB are additive substances, i.e. without chemical reaction they are mixed with materials to be anti-inflammable.
Like the corresponding chlorinated substances, can develop dioxins and furans (polybrominated dibenzodioxins and polybrominated
dibenzofurans) in case of incomplete combustion.
Some of the corresponding chlorinated substances have a very high toxicity as well as being carcinogenic.
The toxic effects of brominated dioxins and furans are not known.
PBB has been detected in human milk.
Many PBDEs have been banned in many countries.

16.14.2 PFOA, Perfluorooctanoic acid
Perfluorooctanoic acid, (PFOA), C8HF15O2, a surfactant, is used to make non-stick cookware, e.g. PTFE, ("Teflon"), and
stain-resistant footwear and clothing.
It persists in the environment and is toxic to animals and may be a carcinogen.
Long-chain perfluorinated chemicals, LCPFCs, are very persistent in the environment and are found in the blood of the general U.S.
population and in human milk.
PFOA is used to make fluoropolymers, e.g. polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).
TeflonTM is not a specific chemical or product
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), is used in the process of making Teflon and similar fluorotelomers, but it is burned off during the
process and is not present in significant amounts in the final products, e.g. non-stick cookware.
Some major manufacturers have agreed to eliminate the use of PFOA by 2015.
They are increasingly linked to cancer, liver and thyroid disease, immune suppression and reduced fertility.
Fluoroform (CHF3)
Tetrafluoroethene (CF2CF2), Teflon
Polytetrafluoroethene (PTFE, Teflon), poly(1.1.2, 2-tetrafluoroethylene), Repeat unit: -[CF2=CF2]n-, C2F4
Teflon  is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene.

Perfluoroalkyls are stable, synthetic chemicals which repel oil, grease, and water.
They have been used in surface protection coatings for carpet, clothing, paper, cardboard packaging, and in fire-fighting foams.
The largest amounts made in the U. S. are perflurooctanoic acid, (PFOA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, (PFOS).
16.14.3 PFOS, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid
PFOS, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, C8HF17O3S
Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), man-made fluorosurfactant and global pollutant was the key ingredient in Scotchgard,
a fabric protector and different stain repellents.
PFOS was added to Annex B of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in May 2009, so it is banned under
international environmental treaties.
In Australia, June 2016, residents of the town of Oakey have received assistance from an AUD 55 million dollar government
assistance to fund blood testing and counselling, fearful of contamination from PFOS and PFOA fire fighting chemicals used at the Oakey
Army Aviation Base, southern Queensland. Residents are also asking for a government commitment to buying back contaminated land
or adequate compensation. These chemicals have also been found at Brisbane Airport and close to the Williamtown RAAF base, near
Newcastle. They are increasingly linked to cancer, liver and thyroid disease, immune suppression and reduced fertility.
Australian health protection drinking water guidelines of 0.5 micrograms per litre for PFOS and 5 micrograms per litre for PFOA are
said to be above the 0.07 micrograms per litre adopted by the US.
In addition to industrial production, PFOS can form from the degradation of its precursors.
PFOS levels detected in wildlife are thought to be high enough to affect health parameters, and higher serum levels of PFOS are
associated with increased risk of chronic kidney disease in the U.S.

16.14.4 Erucic acid, 13-docosenoic acid, C22H42O2, monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid, very long chain 22-carbon backbone and single
double bond, in Brassicaceae oils often with bitter-tasting compounds, used as transmission oil because high tolerance to temperature,
readily bio-degradable, binder for oil paints, babies should not be given foods high in erucic acid.

16.14.5 Canola (Canadian oil, low acid), trademark cultivar of rapeseed plant, (rape Latin rapum, turnip),
Canola species: Brassica napus, Brassica rapa, rapeseed oil has distinctive taste, green colour from chlorophyll, high concentration of
erucic acid and glucosinolates, was used as lubricant for machinery.
Canola variety bred from rapeseed, has low erucic acid and glucosinolates, was called, "LEAR" oil (Low Erucic Acid Rapeseed)
Canola variety is disease and drought resistant, herbicide-tolerant, GM (genetically modified food), culinary uses, low ratio of saturated
to unsaturated fat, blossom is source of nectar for honeybees, also used for biodiesel.
Canola oil (Brassica napus): 19.2.11, (Table)