School Science Lessons
Physics A to H
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Part 13. Physics websites
Table of contents
1. Alphabetical list of terms, below:
| A. | B. | C.
| D. | E. | F.
| G. | H. |

Physics A

Abbreviations Absolute zero, Kelvin cale

4.117 Absorption spectrum of sodium

30.1 AC circuits, Alternating current circuits AC circuits, Properties of different AC circuits

14.1.1 Acceleration

See: Acceleration (Commercial)

14.2.0 Acceleration due to gravity Accelerometers, spirit level accelerometer

32.7.0 Accumulator, Lead-acid battery, Motor vehicle battery Accuracy and error (Calculations)

See: Acids, (Commercial)

16.3.0 Action and reaction, Newton's third law Action reaction engine, balloon-powered rocket

See: Adaptor plug (Commercial)

Adhesives (Chemistry)

20.4.05 Adiabatic change, thermodynamics

20.4.8 Adiabatic processes, thermodynamics

13.2.29 Aerodynamic drafting, slipstreaming, tailgating

13.2.8 Aerofoils, Parts of an aircraft

3.40 Aerofoils, Paper aeroplane (Primary)

1.40 Aeroplane ground speed, vectors problem Aerosol (fogs, sunbeams)

13.2.0 Air, atmosphere

12.3.0 Air pressure, Atmospheric pressure

See: Air Compressor (Commercial)

11.5.0 Air, Density of air

4.242 Air streams, Bernoulli theorem Air track collision gliders

See: Air track, (Commercial)

4.230 Aneroid barometer, barograph

30.1 Alternating current circuits Alternating voltages and currents

36.20.9 Altitude of the Moon and the Sun

36.16 Albedo (Astronomy)

15.6.13 Alkaline battery

3.84.2 Alligator clips, Test a simple cell with different metals

See: Alligator Clips (Commercial)

Alpha radiation α radiation + alpha particle

12.1.06 Altimetry, height and altitude

See: Altimeters (Commercial)


33.7.3 Ammeter

See: Ammeters (Commercial)

3.33 Ammonia Ampère, Electric current Ampere-hour (Ah), Battery capacity Ampere's law, permeability

38.3.3 Amplifier, Transistor as current amplifier

See: Amusement Park Physics (Commercial)

26.9.0 Analogue and digital

37.1.1 Anemometers, Wind speed, wind vanes

See: Anemometers, (Commercial)

4.230 Aneroid barometer, barograph

6.3.01 Angle, angular

Angular Momentum (Serrata) Ångström unit, A

23.7.11 Anisotropic conduction, Conduction of heat by wood

Anode and cathode

15.1.8 Anodize aluminium Anodize iron nails

11.2.2 "Anomalous" properties of water, Maximum density of water

35.41.3 "Aquadag", Graphite

31.2.6 "Aquadag", Pith balls and Styrofoam balls show electric charge Aquarium, Air takes up space, transfer air under water

See: Aquarium (Commercial) Angle, radian, degree, arc minute, arc second

24.1.05 Aprons, Freezing point depression of carbonated water, cola

See: Aprons disposable, rubberised, (Commercial)


6.3.05 Area (shape)

Arithmetic mean and geometric mean (png file)

4.72 Artificial magnets, ferrite magnets

38.7.4 ASCII (Electronics) Aspect ratio

5.8 Aspiration hazard

See: Aspirators (Commercial)

35.3.01 Assay value of precious metals

36.3.1 Astrolabe, simple theodolite, sextant

36.50.0 Astrology and the zodiac Astronomical unit, au

36.0.0 Astronomy

See: Astronomy (Commercial)

37.1.0 Atmosphere (Weather)

13.2.0 Atmosphere, Air

12.3.0 Atmospheric pressure, air pressure

12.1.05 Atmospheric pressure, Conversions between units of atmospheric pressure

12.1.04 Atmospheric pressure water spray

Atoms atomic

27.195 Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAA)

2.4.0 Atomic mass unit, amu

2.2.0 Atomic number and mass number

2.3.0 Atomic weight

4.12 Atomizers Atwood's machine

26.2.4 Audible limit, Loudness, decibels, threshold of hearing

37.39.1 Auroras, Layers of the atmosphere, lapse rate

4.2.11 Australian voltage

16.0.1 Autoclave, Milk sampling

See: Autoclaves, sterilization of media and liquids, (Commercial)

3.5.13 Autoignition temperature Automobiles, Motor vehicles, cars Avogadro's hypothesis

3.2.1 Avoirdupois weight, English and United States weights and measures

Physics B
See: Bags, Ziploc, (Commercial)
8.4.0 Balance, balances
See: Balances (Commercial)
8.2.22 Balanced forks on glass rim (stable equilibrium)
23.105 Ball and ring, ring and plug (heat expansion)
See: Ball and Ring (Commercial) Ball bearing rocket cart
8.147 Ball bearings fall together
15.7.1 Ballistics cart, Projectile cart, gun and tunnel, howitzer and tunnel
34.7.1 Balls, Bouncing balls, Silly putty, silicone, bouncing putty, "Tricky Putty" Balls, Tennis balls
See: Banana plug, banana leads, (Commercial) Bar magnets, Magnetic fields (See 1.)
23.3.8 Bar breaker, the force of contraction
See: Bar and Gauge (Commercial) Barlow's wheel
See: Barlow's Wheel (Commercial)
23.6.10 Barnard cell (convection)
12.4.0 Barometers
Battery Cells, electric cells, batteries
1.6 Beakers
8.1.0 Beam balance, Mass and weight
26.6.9 Beats with two tuning forks
18.2.0 Beer-Lambert law, Total dissolved solids and suspended solids
Beer can, Beverage can
26.4.4 Bell from a spoon, ringing spoon
4.100 Bell Jar, Sound cannot travel through a vacuum
See: Bell Jars, Bell Wire (Commercial)
Bell wire
21.2.2 Belt drives, transmission belts
See: Benchmats, (Commercial)
13.2.0 Bernoulli force
4.242 Bernoulli theorem, Air streams
See: Bernoulli Tube (Commercial)
Beta radiation β radiation
Beverage can, Beer can
23.8.20 Bichsel boxes, Black body radiation cavity radiation
9.2.21 Bicycle ergonometer, Power Bicycle pump
23.107 Bimetallic strip, compound bar, invar, thermostat
38.7.2 Decimal and binary codes for numbers 0 to 25, Powers of 2
See: Binoculars (Commercial)
27.15.0 Birefringence, double refraction
34.9.6 Birth stones (Geology)
39.5.0 Bistable circuits (Electronics)
38.7.1 Bits and bytes, prefixes for multiples (Electronics)
24.1.6 Bitumen foaming and bitumen decay
6.2.0 Billion, trillion, Different measurements
23.8.20 Black body radiation, cavity radiation, Bichsel boxes
23.109 Black body radiation, Heat transferred by radiation (Wien's law)
See: Block glass block, (Commercial)
See: Blood pressure (Commercial)
16.3.9 Blow on a sail, Newton's sailboat, fan on a sailing boat, fan cart
10.10.0 Blow pipe (See 2.) Blow rocket
4.220 Blow soap bubbles
27.170 Blue sky, Mie scattering, Rayleigh scattering
2.3 Blueprints and diazo prints
1.30 Boat crossing river, vectors problem
1.50 Boat travel displacement, triangle of vectors
Bohr model (of the atom)
7.5.0 Boiling point, B P
See: Boiling Flasks (Commercial)
20.0.11 Boltzmann constant / Ideal gas constant
22.5.7 Bomb calorimeter, energy values of food, Heat of combustion Boomerang, Cardboard boomerang
Bottled gas
12.3.30 Bottles stick together (atmospheric pressure)
See: Bottles (Commercial)
34.7.0 Bounce, Coefficient of restitution Bounce, Double ball drop, tennis ball over basketball
34.7.1 Bouncing balls, Silly putty, silicone, bouncing putty, "Tricky Putty"
See: Bourdon Gauge (Commercial)
20.2.0 Boyle's law, Constant gas temperature
See: Boyle's law (Commercial)
9.2.0c Braking distance and stopping distance, tyres
27.28.1 Branly coherer, Coherer effect
13.6.5 Brazil nut effect, Rising stones, granular mixtures
34.6.0 Bridges Brittle, Breaking strains, brittleness
9.145 Brix, sucrose concentration
3.55 Brownian motion, Brownian movement
See: Brownian Motion (Commercial)
Bubbles Soap
See: Surface Tension bubbles, (Commercial)
10.5.2 Bucket and cylinder experiment, (Archimedes' principle)
See: Buckets (Commercial)
34.5.03 Bulk modulus, modulus of incompressibility, K
22.6.0 Bunsen burners
See: Burettes, (Commercial)
See: Burners (Commercial)
11.4.0 Buoyancy, Archimedes' principle, floating
6.35 Burn candles in closed containers
Burners burn, burning
8.1.14 Burning candle, rising water
8.1.15 Burning candles over water Buzzing magnets

Physics C
C-Rates of batteries
36.50 Calendars, the Star of Bethlehem and birth of Jesus
15.6.16 Calomel half cell
4.38 Calorific value of fuel
22.5.0 Calorimeters, Heat measuring devices, Specific heat capacity
See: Calorimeters (Commercial)
"Can", beer can, beverage can
4.104 Candela, Luminance and illuminance, candlepower, lumen, lux
8.1.1 Candles (Chemistry)
8.1.1a Candles (Physics)
See: Candles, (Commercial)
4.101 Candoluminescence
34.6.3 Cantilever, used in building porches (GIF)
31.8.0 Capacitors, capacitance, farad, energy of a capacitor Capacitors in AC circuits, capacitive reactance, capacitor circuits, power
See: Capacitors (Commercial)
19.3.0 Capillary action
See: Capillary tubes, (Commercial)
32.7.0 Car battery, Lead-acid battery, Motor vehicle battery
3.2.2 Carat (Gold)
See: Carbon Blocks Charcoal, 100 x 25 mm, (Serrata) Cars, Motor vehicles, automobiles Carbon, C
3.34 Carbon dioxide, CO2 Carbon dioxide cartridge rocket, rocket to the moon, Dangerous experiment!
3.3.5 Carbon dioxide soda siphon (syphon), bulbs (Safety)
3.34.3a Carbonic acid, soda water
15.2.7 Carcinogenic substances
13.2.4 Card and cotton reel spool, lifting plate
9.242 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, (CPR) and (EAR)
20.4.1 Carnot cycle, Heat cycles, Stirling engine
See: Engines (Commercial)
4.201 Cartesian diver
26.9.3 Cassette recorder
14.140 Catapults Catch egg in a sheet
8.3.1 Catenary, Shape of a hanging cable or flexible chain, catenary curve
15.6.0 Cathode and anode, Electrochemical cell, voltaic cell, galvanic cell, "battery"
38.8.4 Cathode rays, cathode ray tube CRT, cathode ray oscilloscope CRO
7.4.0 Cathode tubes, Cold cathode tubes, discharge tubes, safety regulations (Safety)
15.4.0 Cathodic protection, Electrochemical prevention of rusting
Cells Battery, electric cells, batteries (Experiments) Celsius scale, oC
15.5.0 Central forces, Rotation
8.2.0 Centre of gravity, centre of mass
15.2.5 Centrifuge, milk separator
See: Centrifuge (Commercial)
15.2.0 Centripetal force and centrifugal motion
24.0 Change of state and solutions
Charcoal (Chemistry)
31.2.0 Charge, Electric charge, the coulomb, C, Coulomb's law
4.50 Charge, Many charges from one source
31.4.5 Charge on conductor, Distribution of charge, Kolbe cone conductor
31.02 Charge by induction, Electric charge movement
20.1.0 Charles's law, Constant gas pressure
See: Charles's Law (Commercial)
Chemical, chemicals, chemistry
3.4.2 Chemical, Quantity of chemical to be used in experiments, (Chemistry)
14.3.0 Chemiluminescence, bioluminescence
See: Charts (Commercial)
26.4.13 Chladni vibrating plate
33.3.6 Chocolate wrapper cell in the mouth Chopsticks, Use chopsticks
10.2.0 Chromatography, Separate by chromatography
33.6.0 Circuit analysis, house circuits
4.59 Circuit board Circuit breaker, Power surge circuit breaker, fuses
32.5.0 Circuits, Electric circuits, cells and resistors in series and parallel Circuits in homes
See: Circuits (Commercial)
15.0.0 Circular motion and vibration
See: Circular (Commercial)
36.41 Circumference of the Earth, Eratosthenes
See: Clamps, (Commercial) Clay (Geology)
See: Cleaning (Commercial)
35.9 Cleavage, fracture, twinning, crystal face (Geology)
37.43.1 Climate change, Global warming and climate change (Weather)
Climate change (Weather)
5.17 Clinical thermometer, Body temperature (Biology)
See: Clinometer (Commercial)
See: Clinostats, (Commercial) Clocked bistable (Electronics)
37.5.0 Clouds (Weather)
13.2.27 Coanda effect (spoon touches a water stream)
3.66.7 Coade stone (construction material)
35.23.9 Coal seam gas, CSG, and coal to liquid, CTL (Geology)
39.7.0 Coding (Electronics)
34.7.0 Coefficient of restitution, bounce
23.0.0 Coefficient of thermal expansion, negative thermal expansion (NTE) Coffee, coffee tins (uses of coffee tins)
27.60 Coherent light / incoherent light, Cylindrical tube interference patterns,
27.28.1 Coherer effect (to detect radio waves)
30.3.0 Coils and solenoids, Magnetic fields of current-carrying coils & solenoids
Coins - Physics
Cola kola (mass, pressure)
4.243 Cold air is heavier than warm air, inverted paper bag balance
12.3.13 Collapsible can, Crush drink can with atmospheric pressure,
24.1.02 Colligative properties, Vapour pressure of pure water and solution of a non-volatile solvent
17.4.0 Collisions in one dimension, air track, pendulum, double ball drop
17.5.0 Collisions in two dimensions, air table, snooker
See: Collisions air track, (Commercial)
9.12.0 Colloids, diffusion
18.6.9 Colorimeter tests, test methods
18.2.0 Colorimetric tests, Total dissolved solids and suspended solids, Beer-Lambert law
See: Colorimeters (Commercial)
27.1.0 Colour, spectrum
See: Colour (Commercial)
20.0.5 Combined gas equation
See: Combustion Tube (Commercial)
See: Commercial suppliers (by subject)
3.5.4 Common measures
26.9.4 Compact disc, CD
29.3.0 Compass, Magnetic field of the Earth, magnetic compass
See: Compass magnetic needle, (Commercial)
23.3.16 Compensated balance wheel of a watch (thermal expansion)
36.3.01 Composition of Earth's crust, Elements in the Earth's crust, abundance of elements (Table)
36.3.02 Composition of the Sun, Elements in the Sun, abundance of elements (Table)
27.118 Complementary shadow Complex impedance, RXL graph, AC (Electronics) Complex systems, yo-yo on a balance
Composition of (Chemistry)
See: Compound Bar (Commercial)
Compressed gas LPG gas, LP-gas, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed gas, bottled gas
34.5.01 Compression, Elasticity, (Stress: tension, compression, shear)
38.7.0 Computers (Electronics)
5.7.0 Concentration, molarity
24.4.3 Condensation nuclei, supersaturation
38.2.04 Condenser, Capacitor (formerly "condenser"), capacitance in an AC circuit
Conductance, siemens, S (A / V), Ω-1
23.7.0 Conduction of heat, thermal conductivity, insulation
See: Conduction of heat, (Commercial)
32.4.0 Conduction of electricity, Conductivity, Specific conductance of an electrolyte solution
32.2.0 Conductivity and temperature, Thermistors
15.59.0 Conductivity, Electrical conductivity of a substance
See: Conductivity (Commercial)
4.58 Conductors and non-conductors of electricity
2.0.5: Conic sections, parabola (GIF)
17.6.0 Conservation of linear momentum, Linear momentum and collisions, impulse and thrust
18.3.4 Conservation of angular momentum
9.2.0 Conservation of energy
20.1.0 Constant gas pressure, Charles's law
20.2.0 Constant gas temperature, Boyle's law
20.3.0 Constant gas volume (pressure law) Constantan wire
See: Construction activities (Commercial)
See: Conductivity (Commercial)
See: Containers, sharps, jerrycan, (Commercial)
37.37.3 Contrails (condensation trails) (Weather)
3.4.2 Construct a rectangle from parts of a square
23.6.0 Convection
23.6.5 Convection cells
See: Convection (Commercial)
Conventional current
24.3.01 Cooling by evaporation, sweat glands
36.51 Copernicus, "On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres", by Nicolaus Copernicus
23.7.6 Copper coil candle snuffer
See: Copper (Commercial)
37.41 Coriolis effect, Plug hole experiments
37.40 Coriolis, Trade winds and weather rotations (Coriolis force, Coriolis effect)
See: Cork, borer, (Commercial)
31.1.27 Cotton thread rises (Electrostatics)
31.4.44 Cottrell smoke precipitator
31.2.0 Coulomb, Electric charge, the coulomb, C, Coulomb's law
See: Coulomb's law (Commercial)
15.5.4 Coulometer, Electrolysis of water
See: Electrolysis (Commercial)
39.9.0 Counting circuits (Electronics) Couple, Moments, parallel forces
9.242.3 CPR, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
28.6.0 Critical angle, Total internal reflection
28.6.3 Critical angle and total internal reflection, "Pour" light from a beverage can
24.1.07 Critical point, critical temperature
20.4.2 Crookes' radiometer
See: Crooke's Tubes (Commercial)
See: Crucibles (Commercial)
12.3.13 Crushed can, collapsing beverage can with atmospheric pressure, collapsing can
See: Crucibles, (Commercial)
Crystal crystals
See: Crystals (Commercial)
39.1.0 CSP (concentrated solar power system), Solar panels, CPV
23.6.5 Cumulus cloud, Convection cells (See: 2.)
12.3.29 Cupping (partial vacuum) Curie, Radioactivity, radiation units Curie point, Curie temperature Current, AC, root mean square value (RMS)
32.0.0 Current electricity Current loops, coils, magnetic torque, solenoids Current-carrying wire in magnetic field
See: Current Balance (Commercial)
28.3.0 Curved mirrors, Reflection of light at curved surfaces
See: Cutters, (Commercial)

Physics D Daguerreotypes
20.0.8 Dalton's law of partial pressures
11.4.23 Dancing rice grains
11.4.24 Dancing sultanas
30.3.10 Dancing spring, electric current in parallel coils
See: Danger signs, (Commercial)
33.3.2 Daniell cell, porous pot, Zn anode, Cu cathode
See: Data-loggers (Commercial)
23.119 Davy lamp, Conduction of heat by metals
32.4.1 DC circuits, circuit diagrams, Kirchhoff's circuit laws
26.2.4 Decibels, Loudness, threshold of hearing, audible limits
Decilitre (deciliter US), 1 dL = 100 mL = 10-1L
38.7.2 Decimal and binary codes for numbers 0 to 25, Powers of 2 (Electronics)
15.5.4 Decomposition of water, Electrolysis of water
See: Electrolysis (Commercial)
22.2.06 Deep-cycle battery Degree, Angle, radian, degree, arc second Degree, Temperature, Celsius scale, Kelvin scale, Fahrenheit scale Deionized water, Distilled water
Deliquescent substances
See: Demonstration Devices, air racer, crane, mousetrap car, wind turbine, (Commercial)
37.43.01 "Deniers", "Climate change deniers"
11.0.0 Density, buoyancy, Archimedes' principle, floating
11.5.0 Density of air
11.2.0 Density of liquid, relative density, RD, density bottle
Density of gases (Table)
11.1.0 Density of solids
4.5.0 Density test of polymers, flotation tests
See: Density (Commercial)
24.1.04 Depression of FP, Freezing point depression and boiling point elevation Derived units, SI derived units
Desiccants drying agents
See: Desiccators (Commercial)
Detergents SYNDET, Synthetic Detergents
See: Detergents (Commercial)
Devarda's alloy
22.2.8 Dewar flask, Heat transfer by Dewar flask (vacuum flask, "Thermos" flask)
See: Thermos flask, vacuum flask, Dewar flask, (Commercial)
24.4.0 Dew point and humidity
See: Humidity (Commercial)
Dialysis: 9.181 Separate a colloid from a crystalloid by dialysis
See: Dialysis Tubing (Commercial) Dielectric constant, Permittivity
2.3 Diazo prints, Blueprints and diazo prints
27.82 Dichroic polarization colours
27.124 Dichromatism Dielectrics, conductors and insulators, electrical conductivity
20.4.7 Diesel engine, Isothermal change and adiabatic change
Diesel fuel
27.2.0 Diffraction
10.1.0 Diffusion, particles of matter
26.9.0 Digital recording, Analogue and digital recording
17.3.03 Dilitancy, Non-Newtonian fluids, thixotropy
Dioptre (UK), diopter (US), = 1 / focal length of a lens, in metres Distilled water, deionized water
See: Distilling (Commercial) Diodes, laser diodes (Electronics)
See: Dip needle (Commercial)
Discharge curves of batteries
38.8.0 Discharge tubes, Gas discharge tubes, discharge tubes, cathode ray tubes
See: Dishes, Petri dishes, weighing trays, (Commercial)
27.3.0 Dispersion (light)
3.4.11 Disposal of waste chemicals, (Safety) Distance, Equations of uniformly accelerated motion Distilled water, deionized water
See: Distilling, distilling flasks with sidearm, (Commercial)
4.201 Diver, Cartesian diver
4.210 Diving bell (Model diving bell0
25.14 Doppler effect (change in pitch) Double ball drop, tennis ball over basketball Draft (draught) of a ship
13.2.29 Drafting, Aerodynamic drafting, slipstreaming, tailgating
14.2.01 Drag, Forces on a falling object, weight and drag, terminal velocity
27.189 Drink bottle, Birefringent clear plastics
Drink can, Beverage can
Drinking straws soda straws, "straws"
24.3.7 Drinking bird heat engine, drinking duck, dippy bird, dunking bird
39.6.0 Drivers (Electronics)
See: Dropping bottles, (Commercial)
Dry cells Dry cell battery, Leclanché cells
3.34.5 Dry ice, Frozen carbon dioxide, ("dry ice", "hot ice" "cardice")
See: Drying Tubes (Commercial)
34.5.0 Ductile, Mechanical properties of materials, elastic, ductile, malleable
37.5.4 Dust in the air (Weather)
3.2.0 Duties of a teacher
16.0.0 Dynamics, Force
13.0 Dynamics of fluids, Bernoulli force, hydraulics Dynamo, Bicycle dynamo, the "missing wire" Dynamo, Motor vehicle generator (dynamo), charging system
See: Dynamo / Generator (Commercial)

Physics E
9.3.0 Ear and hearing, balance
9.242.1 EAR, Expired air resuscitation
38.2.05 Earphones, crystal microphones
36.36.0 Earth, effect of the earth's motion
35.0.0 Earth science, Geology
29.3.0 Earth's magnetic field, Magnetic field of the Earth
31.3.9 Ebonite rod, Charged ebonite rod on electroscope
See: Ebonite rod (Commercial)
7.5.1 Ebullioscopic constant, Elevation of boiling points, kB
36.20.11 Eclipse of the moon
36.22 Ecliptic, apparent yearly path of the Sun
21.04 Efficiency of a machine
Egg chicken egg
3.13.1 Einstein was right, e = mc2, Speed of light
34.5.0 Elastic, Mechanical properties of materials, elastic, ductile, malleable
34.5.01 Elasticity (Stress: tension, compression, shear)
23.6.1 Elasticity, Natural rubber, latex (See 2.)
38.0 Electronics
See: Electronics (Commercial) Elements, Properties of elements
36.3.01 Elements in the Earth's crust, abundance of elements
36.3.02 Elements in the Sun, abundance of elements
7.5.1 Elevation of boiling points, ebullioscopic constant, kB
6.15.4 Ellipse (draw an ellipse) EMF, Electromotive force, measure EMF of cells
4.115 Emission spectrum
14.2.0 Endothermic reactions take in heat energy
See: Energy (Commercial)
See: Engines (Commercial)
14.1.0 Enthalpy of reaction, heat of reaction:
23.6.3 Entropy, Negative thermal expansion (NTE) of rubber
20.4.03 Entropy, Third law of thermodynamics
4.163 Equal forces from spring clothes pegs
4.162 Equal forces on light and heavy bodies Equations of uniformly accelerated motion
36.42.0 Equinox, precession of the equinoxes, (Astronomy)
6.0.0 Equipment and solutions
2.1.0 Equipment care
3.9.4 Equipment safety, Safety equipment
36.41 Eratosthenes, Circumference of the Earth Errors, Accuracy and error
6.4.0 Errors, theory of errors, addition of uncertainties
12.4.7 Escape from a submerged car
3.6.0 Estimating
Constantan Eureka wire, (Commercial)
5.5.1 Eutectic mixture
24.3.0 Evaporation
See: Evaporating, basin, dish, (Commercial)
13.2.26 Exercise, Deep breathing exerciser
14.1.0 Exothermic reactions give out heat energy
20.1.0 Expansion, Constant gas pressure, Charles's law
23.2.0 Expansion, Liquid expansion caused by heat
23.3.0 Expansion, Solid expansion caused by heat
See: Expansion, Linear expansion (Commercial)
2.2 Experimental investigations
3.2.3 Experimental procedures
9.242.1 Expired air resuscitation (EAR), Adult
9.242.2 Expired air resuscitation (EAR), Infant (under 1 year), and Child (aged 1 to 8)
33.5.16 Exposure meter
3.3.3 Eye-washing and safety showers
9.5.0 Eyes and sight

Physics F Fahrenheit scale, oF.
14.5.0 Falling, measuring standard gravity, g (Experiments)
See: Falling (Commercial)
See: Fan cart battery operated (Commercial)
16.3.9 Fan on a sailing boat, Newton's sailboat, fan cart (Experiment)
31.5.3 Faraday cage, electrostatic shielding, electric field lines
See: Faraday Cage (Commercial)
30.4.9 Faraday flashlight
31.1.4 Faraday's ice pail experiment
30.6.4 Faraday's law for induced EMF
35.18 Feel and conductivity (Geology)
4.35 Feel radiation through glass
26.1.14 Feel vibrations with a balloon (sound)
29.4.72 Ferrite magnets, Artificial magnets
28.6.1 Fibre optic cable, Total internal reflection
See: Fibre Optics (Commercial)
33.4.0 Filament lamp, Incandescence, electric light bulb
See: Filter paper (Commercial)
10.11.0 Filters, Separate by sedimentation and filtration of precipitates
See: Filters (Commercial)
11.4.17 Finger in glass of water (upthrust) Finger sparks, rubbed balloon sparks Fire extinguisher cart
3.5.0 Fire safety and fire equipment
See: Fire Safety (Commercial)
See: First Aid (Commercial)
See: First Aid (Commercial)
Fission Uranium, U
See: Flame spreader, for Bunsen burner, (Commercial)
3.5.14 Flash point Flashing lamp direction indicators (motor car)
4.57 Flashlight, Electric torch
See: Flasks (Commercial)
9.6.0 Flavour, Nose and smelling, taste, flavour
4.223 Float razor blades
4.213 Float needle, paper clip, razor blade, cotton loop on water
11.4.0 Floating, Buoyancy, Archimedes' principle
Flocculent (bacteriology) (mining)
11.4.03 Fluid density
13.0.0 Fluid dynamics, Bernoulli force
23.3.02 Fluid expansion, coefficient of volume change, thermal expansion of water
12.2.0 Fluid pressure, Liquid pressure, hydrostatics
Fluorescence fluorescein, fluorescence microscopy
14.3.0a Fluorophores
2.33 Flux (soldering flux) Flywheel, Gyroscope, precession
4.119 Focal length of a convex lens
4.33 Focus radiant heat waves
See: Foil, Ag, Al, Cu, Pb, Ni, (Commercial)
16.0.0 Force
See: Force (Commercial) Forceps, Use forceps
9.240 Forensic science topics
See: Forensics (Commercial)
8.2.22 Forks, Balanced forks on glass rim
15.1.30 Foucault pendulum
35.23.10 Fracking, Oil shale and fracking (hydraulic fracturing) (Geology)
Fractions (mathematics symbols)
4.43.1 Franklin's bell, lightning warning device
24.5.0 Freezing, Melting Point (M P), Freezing Point (F P)
30.5.02 Frequency, Hz, cycles per second
26.2.0 Frequency, Pitch (sound)
27.61 Fresnel lens, lighthouse prism
17.1.0 Friction, static friction and rolling friction
37.5.5 Frost (Weather)
35.3.04 Froth flotation Fuel pump, Electric fuel pump (motor vehicle)
Fuels fuel cell
See: Fuel Cell (Commercial)
2.4 Fume cupboards, fume hoods (Safety)
See: Funnels (Commercial)
31.7.17 Fur in mineral oil shows electric fields Fuses (electric)

Physics G
14.5.0 g, Falling, measuring standard gravity
14.4.0 Galileo (Galileo Galilei, 1564-1642, Italy)
31.6.0 Galvani, Electrophorus, Volta, Galvani
33.84.7 Galvanic cell, Pencil sharpener galvanic cell
33.84.1 Galvanic cell, Voltaic cell
33.84.2 Galvanic cell, Voltaic cell, with salt bridge Galvanic Series
Galvanized iron galvanized steel Galvanometer, Tangent galvanometer
See: Galvanometer, Tangent galvanometer (Commercial)
27.22 Gamma rays, γ-rays
Gamma radiation γ radiation
20.0 Gas laws
Gases gas
3.0.0 Gases, Prepare gases
See: Gases (Commercial)
31.7.1 Gauss' law, permittivity, farad
See: Gauze, mats (Commercial)
20.1.0 Gay-Lussac's law, Constant gas pressure, Charles's law
21.4.0 Gears
2.9.0 Geiger counter, Radiation, ionizingradiation
See: Geiger Counters (Commercial)
7.0.3 General safety education
30.1.0 Generators, Motors and generators, DC / AC
35.0.0 Geology, Earth science
See: Geology suppliers, (Commercial)
29.3.0 Geomagnetism, Magnetic field of the Earth
Geometric mean Arithmetic mean and geometric mean (png file) (Ghost crystals), Prepare sodium polyacrylate gels
See: Glass Block (Commercial)
2.0.0 Glass cutting, tubing, cleaning
26.3.7 Glass harmonica (sound waves)
7.2.3 Glass, silicon compounds, (Chemistry)
3.3.6 Glass wool (Safety)
See: Glassware (Commercial)
37.43.1 Global warming and climate change
37.43.02 "Global warmists", "warmists"
Gloves, Protective clothing and equipment: 3.2.2 (Safety)
See: Gloves (Commercial)
See: Glue (Commercial)
Gold Au
4.145 Gold leaf electroscope
See: Gold leaf (Commercial)
2.0.2 Golden mean, golden ratio (GIF file), (Mathematics)
Googol "Google"
35.17 Grain size and roundness (Geology)
Gram, also gramme, unit of mass, 1 gram = 1/1000 of a kilogram
29.9.6 Gramophone record, "vinyl"
27.64 Graphic file formats
4.1.0 Graphs
9.1.0 Gravesande's experiment, Energy, potential energy, kinetic energy
36.10.0 Gravitational attraction of the Earth (Astronomy)
14.2.0 Gravity, Acceleration due to gravity
Greek alphabet
Greenhouse gases Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), Universal Time (UT, UTC), Longitude
36.12.04 Greenwich meridian, Meridians
36.10.2 Greenwich Meridian, Make amodel Earth with a balloon Grip bar
17.5.16 Gripping rice, stabbed rice, (friction, pile driver action)
15.7.1 Gun and tunnel, projectile cart, howitzer and tunnel
14.2.6 Guinea and feather, Coin and feather, penny and feather Gyroscope, precession, flywheel
See: Gyroscope (Commercial)

Physics H
23.6.5 Hadley cells, Convection cells (See: 3.)
27.192 Haidinger's brush Halbach array, Magnetic levitation, refrigerator door magnet, Maglev train
30.2.3 Hall effect
See: Hall Effect, (Commercial)
Hammer, bent class 1 lever
See: Hammers (Commercial)
14.1.12 Hand warmers, Iron powder heat pack
2.0 Hands-on, Why are "hands-on" science activities so effective for student learning? Hanging block, suspended block Hanging magnets and inverse square law, magnetic pole strength of bar magnet
Hardness Mohs scale of hardness (Geology)
15.1.0 Hazards: Explosive, Flammable, Oxidizing, Poison, Harmful, Corrosive, Irritant
4.217 Heap up water up in a glass
9.3.0 Hearing, Ear and hearing, balance
Heat henry, H, Inductors (alternating current, AC)
24.7.3 Hero's engine, eolipile
See: Hero's Engine (Commercial)
12.2.11 Hero's Fountain
12.1.01 hectopascal, Pressure definitions, (Pascal)
37.49 Height values, sea level henry, H, Inductors
20.0.9 Henry's law and decompression sickness, "the bends"
14.07 Hess's law
15.5.4 Hofmann voltameter, Electrolysis of water Hold a deflating big balloon
4.216 Hold water in a sieve Homopolar motor, unipolar motor Hooke's law, elastic limit, deforming force, stress and strain
23.2.7 Hope's experiment, maximum densityof water
See: Hope's Apparatus (Commercial) Horseshoe magnets, Magnetic fields
4.79 Horseshoe electromagnets
20.1.05 Hot air balloons
37.47 Hot air rising
1.38 Hotplates, Stirrers, magnetic stirrers, hotplates (Commercial)
See: Hotplates (Commercial)
33.6.0 House circuits, circuit analysis
Household home, kitchen items
17.2.3 Hovercraft, Reduce friction with air streams, balloon hovercraft
http: Hypertext Transfer Protocol
9.12.7 Human reaction time
37.3.0 Humidity (Weather)
See: Humidity (Commercial)
13.3.0 Hydraulics, hydraulic lift, Pascal's hydraulic press, Bramah press
35.13 Hydrochloric acid test, effervescence, (Geology)
5.8 Hydroelectric power, Water wheel (Primary)
3.41.0 Hydrogen gas, H2
33.3.8 Hydrogen / oxygen fuel cell
See: Hydrogen (Commercial)
10.2.0 Hydrometers, relative density, RD
See: Hydrometers (Commercial)
12.2.0 Hydrostatics, Liquid pressure, fluid pressure
37.8.1 Hygrometer, Wet and dry bulb thermometer, (hygrometer, psychrometer) (Weather)
37.8.3 Hygrometer, Dew point hygrometer, (Weather)
Hygroscopic deliquescent and efflorescent substances Hysteresis (magnetism)
30.5.02 Frequency, Hz, cycles per second

10.5.1 Archimedes and the gold crown of King Hiero
28.3.12 Archimedes' burning ship
11.4.0 Archimedes' principle
21.3.7 Archimedes' screw
11.4.8 Archimedes' principle experiment
11.4.9 Archimedes' bucket and cylinder experiment

See: Balloons, helium chart, (Commercial)
Experiments Action- reaction engine, balloon-driven boat Action- reaction engine, balloon-powered rocket
37.9 Air expands when heated (See: 2.)
13.2.23 Air flow, hair dryer, vacuum cleaner, ping-pong ball, balloon (See : 1. to 5.)
12.3.3 Air has mass, air has weight, weigh a balloon (See : 1. to 4.)
4.226 Air has mass, break ruler under newspaper (See: 2.)
5.26 Air pressure in all directions (Primary), (See : 1.)
4.242 Air streams, Bernoulli theorem (See: 5, 6.)
4.230 Aneroid barometer, barograph, (See 2.)
12.3.14 Balanced balloons (Atmospheric pressure) Balloon accelerometer
26.7.3 Balloon as a sound lens, acoustic lens
31.3.6 Balloon electroscope Balloon pushed into a flask (Atmospheric pressure)
31.2.7 Balloons rubbed with wool or fur repel each other (Electrostatics)
4.42 Balloon stays in place (Electrostatics) Buoyancy of air with a balloon
4.201 Cartesian diver (See: 9.)
37.29 Cloud in a bottle (See 2.)
4.243 Cold air is heavier than warm air, inverted paper bag balance
19.3.10 Connect two unequal size balloons
11.3.20 Density of air with a balloon
11.3.22 Density of Freon and air, with a balloon
17.1.4 Dilute hydrochloric acid with marble chips
12.3.28 Expanded balloon with cup "ears" (Electrostatics)
2.112 Expansion of air in a balloon
16.3.9 Fan on a boat, Newton's sailboat, fan on a roller skate (See 2,)
26.1.14 Feel vibrations with a balloon, (Sound) Finger sparks, rubbed balloon sparks Heated air expands, with a balloon and glass tube Helium balloon in a motor car (Inertia)
See: Balloons, helium chart, (Commercial)
20.1.05 Hot air balloons (not toy rubber balloons)
16.3.6 Impulsive force, thrust, balloon on a balance
19.3.11 Inflate and connect two unequal bubbles, balloons
12.3.17 Inflate balloon with low pressure and high pressure bottle (See : 1. to 2.)
12.3.23 Lifting power of balloons containing different gases
4.240 Lung simulator
36.10.2 Make a model Earth with a balloon
17.2.3 Reduce friction with gases and air streams, balloon hovercraft
4.140 Repulsing balloons
9.239.1 Simulated diaphragm breathing, (See 2.) (Human physiology)
10.3.5 Shrinking balloons (Molecular spacing)
3.91 Size of particles and rate of reaction with balloons
26.1.14 Squealing balloon, Feel vibrations with a balloon (See: 5.)
4.137 Static electricity from rubbing, (See: 2.)
36.53 Thrust experiments, Discover thrust
15.5.7 Turning motor car, with a candle and balloon
37.33 Upper winds
26.1.9 Vibrating drums and balloons, ping-pong ball and tuning fork
23.7.8 Water is a poor conductor of heat, boil water in a balloon

Battery, Cells, electric cells, batteries
See: Batteries, (Commercial)
15.6.13 Alkaline battery
Anode and cathode
Battery, batteries
("Battery" cages for egg laying hens, banned in some countries)
Battery-operated electronic pH meter Battery capacity, Ampere-hour (Ah)
Battery charger, tropicalized, 12 V, Local Purchase
Battery holder, 2 cell, Low Cost Battery, source of EMF
22.2.05 Battery storage capacity Battery sulfation, Sulfates
15.6.16 Calomel half cell, Hg2Cl2
33.3.00 Cells and batteries, dry cells
35.41.5 Graphite, "lead pencil", "Aquadag", C
15.6.15 Lithium-ion battery, Li-ion battery
22.2.06 Deep-cycle battery
22.2.03 Megawatt-hour, MWh (alternating current, AC)
3.3.7 Mercuric oxide battery Motor vehicle generator (dynamo), charging system
32.3.01 Ohm's law, rheostat:
Primary cells
15.6.12 Sealed lead-acid battery, SLA battery
Secondary cells, rechargeable batteries
33.3.03 Silver-oxide battery (a button cell)
22.2.05 Storage capacity of a battery Sulfation, Battery sulfation, Sulfates Sulfuric acid (battery acid), (See 3.)
22.2.07 VRLA sealed battery
33.3.01 Weston Standard Cell, Weston cell (cadmium cell) Zinc (used for dry cell battery case)

Experiments and instructions Battery care, Lead cell acumulator
4.61 Cells in parallel
4.60 Cells in series Cells in series and parallel, internal resistance
33.3.2 Daniell cell
38.1.05 Diode in a battery charger, (Electronics)
Dry cells Dry cell battery, Leclanché cells
3.4.4 Electric writing (Use 6V battery)
4.57 Electric torch (flashlight) Electrophoresis, food dyes, marking pen ink
See: Electrophoresis (Commercial)
33.84.1 Galvanic cell, Voltaic cell
33.84.2 Galvanic cell, Voltaic cell, with salt bridge
32.7.0 Lead-acid battery, Motor vehicle battery
33.88 Leclanché cell, dry cell, electric torch battery, flashlight battery
33.3.4 Lemon cells, electricity from lemons
15.6.17 Magnesium / copper battery
3.4.3 Movement of copper ions in ammonium nitrate solution, (Use 12V battery)
3.4.2 Movement of ions, sodium sulfate solution, (Use 12V battery)
15.6.14 Nickel-cadmium battery, NiCad battery, (Instructions)
15.6.14 Nickel-metal hydride battery, NiMH battery:
4.222 Oscillating mercury, "chemical battery"
1.25 Pipettes, (battery-operated pipette filler), (Instructions)
33.3.7 Potato cell, noisy potato cell, potato battery Prepare lead-acid battery electrolyte, (Instructions)
22.2.08Starting battery (starter battery), car battery, (Instructions) State of charge of a car battery, Battery hydrometer, (Instructions)
3.84.3 Test simple electric cell, copper and zinc in dilute sulfuric acid
33.4.2Zinc-carbon cell, dry cell torch battery, flashlight battery

See: Burners (Commercial)
Burner, Kerosene, Chinese type
Burner, methylated spirit, 100 cm
Burner, methylated spirit wick, pk 10 Ethanol safety
Natural gas, methane, safety
Wick, spirit burner, 120 mm, pk
Experiments and instructions
5.0 Burn (Primary)
Burn, burning (Chemistry)
22.6.0 Bunsen burners
8.1.2 Spirit burner, alcohol lamp

Coins - Physics
5.5.11 Alloys of noble metals and coinage metals
8.2.22 Balanced forks on glass rim, (See: 2. and 3.)
8.2.16 Balanced H-shape
Brass, Bronze in alloys for coins
14.3.6 Catch a coin
14.2.6 Coin and feather, penny and feather, guinea and feather
33.3.3 Coin cells, electricity from coins Coin keeps moving
15.2.1 Coin on a coat hanger, revolving coin Coin snatching
Coinage metals
14.2.5 Coins falling at the same time
6.11 Coins on a slope, (Primary)
4.21 Conduction of heat by a coin on paper
17.5.2 Cross friction, Friction blocks, (See 6.)
14.3.17 Falling chimney paradox, (See 2.) Faster than gravity, falling chimney, coins on metre stick
19.2.4 Heap up water in a glass, liquid surface is higher than brim Inertia of rotational solid
4.13 Inertia tricks: See 3, Inertia with coin on card trick Pile of coins or other objects, (See 4, 10)
21.4.3 Rolling coins Spinning coin
15.6.5 Spinning disc
9.2.8 Transmission of compressive energy, motion of coins, dominoes
15.2 20 Turning the corner

Drinking straws, soda straws, "straws"
See: Straws class pack, (Serrata)
Drink can Beverage can
Experiments and instructions
2.29 Drinking straw balance (Primary)
4.208 Drinking straw hydrometer Drinking straw lever
1.33 Drinking straws, soda straws (technical information)
1.42 Drinking straws game, medicine dropper, pipette (Primary) Drinking straws, finger block, (air pressure)
See diagram 37.117: "Sucking" water up (air pressure)
36.20.9 Simple astrolabe, (sextant), (Astronomy)
12.3.6 Push drinking straw through a potato, Potato puncture, (Pressure)

Electric, electrical, electricity

See: Electricity (Commercial)
Volt, voltage Electric bell
31.2.0 Electric charge, the coulomb, C, Coulomb's law
6.37 Electric circuit (Primary) Electric circuit board
32.5.0 Electric circuits, cells and resistors in series and parallel Electric current, 33.7.0 Electric current measurement
33.7.0 Electric current detectors
31.2.0 Electric fields and potential
See: Electric Field (Commercial)
33.5.14 Electric kettle heating efficiency
4.62 Electric light bulbs, resistors, in series and parallel
30.2.0 Electric motors
See: Electric Motors (Commercial)
4.42.1 Electric pinwheel, a simple electrostatic motor
33.5.0 Electric power and energy, power supply
4.57 Electric torch (flashlight)
3.4.4 Electric writing, sodium chloride with litmus paper
33.4.0 Incandescent filament lamp, electric light bulb
33.7.0 Instruments to detect and measure electric current

See: Electricity (Commercial)
33.5.17 Electrical appliances in the home
15.59.0 Electrical conductivity of a substance
3.84 Electrical energy from displacement of copper by zinc
3.5.3 Electrical fires Electrical fuse, fuse wire, household fuse box, circuit breakers, Fuses
1.0.0 Electrical hazards
2.2 Electrical outlets and equipment (Electrical safety)
Electrical potential difference = voltage
3.3.7 Electrical safety rules
See diagram 32.2.00 Electrical symbols
8.0.0 Equipment for electrical experiments Fuses
7.0.0 Tools for electrical experiments

See: Electricity (Commercial)
4.52 Electricity from lemons
4.51 Electricity from two coins
32.5 Electricity in motor vehicles
8.0 Electricity (Primary)
4.19 Liquids that conduct electricity
4.18 Solids that conduct electricity
32.2.6 Test electricity with the tongue

See: Electronics (Commercial)
See: Electrophoresis (Commercial)
See: Electrostatics (Commercial)
5.18 Electrocardiogram, Feel your pulse
33.1.0 Electrochemical cells
15.6.0 Electrochemical cell
33.1.0 Electrochemical cells, batteries, electrolysis
33.3.0 Electrochemical cells, Cells and batteries, dry cells
15.5.19 Electrochemical equivalent of copper
33.1.0 Electrochemical cells, batteries, electrolysis
12.14.0 Electrochemical series, Reactivity series of metals as reducing agents
15.1.7 Electroforming using copper
15.5.0 Electrolysis
See: Electrolysis (Commercial)
15.5.23 Electrolysis of potassium iodide solution, electrolytic writing Electrolytes, Conductivity of electrolytes
15.8.0 Electrolytes, electrolytic
Electrolytic cells
30.6.0 Electromagnetic induction, induction
27.20 Electromagnetic radiation
28.133 Electromagnetic spectrum (GIF)
27.4.0 Electromagnetic waves, electromagnetic spectrum
30.4.0 Electromagnets
See: Electromagnetism (Commercial) Electromotive force, EMF, measure EMF of cells Electron transfer reactions, red ox reactions, oxidation-reduction reactions
1.4.0 Electronegativity
39.0 Electronics components, switches, logic circuits, drivers, coding
14.0 Electrophiles and nucleophiles, hydrogen chloride Electrophoresis, food dyes, marking pen ink
See: Electrophoresis (Commercial)
31.6.0 Electrophorus, Volta, Galvani
See: Electrophorus (Commercial)
15.1.0 Electroplating Electrorheological fluid (ER fluid), cornflour and vegetable oil
31.3.0 Electroscopes
See: Electroscope, Gold Leaf Electroscope (Commercial)
31.0.0 Electrostatics, static electricity
See: Electrostatics (Commercial)
3.01.1 Electrovalent bonds, ionic bonds, sodium chloride

See: Heat (Commercial)
See: Hotplates (Commercial)
14.01 Energy of reactions, enthalpy, thermal capacity, heat of reaction, Hess's law
24.3.0 Evaporation
4.37 Heat and temperature
22.2.00 Heat as a form of energy
20.4.1 Heat cycles, Carnot cycle, Stirling engine
3.12.0 Heat energy from chemical reactions
2.1.5 Heat insulation, properties of common materials
24.7.4 Heat loss by the human body
24.7.2 Refrigerator, ice chest, portable ice boxes, espresso coffee machine
20.1.0 Charles's law (V / T = constant)
14.2.0 Endothermic reactions take in heat energy
14.1.0 Exothermic reactions give out heat energy
11.0 Heat (Primary)
23.11.0 Heat energy changes liquid to vapour, B P, latent heat of vaporization, water
Heat of, heat of reaction (Chemistry)
23.1.0 Heat radiation
23.0 Heat transfer, conduction, convection
23.1.0 Heat transfer, radiation
34.2.0 Heat treatment of metals
Heat up (apply heat to something) (Chemistry) Latent heat of fusion and latent heat of vaporization
23.2.0 Liquid expansion caused by heat
24.5.0 Melting point, M P, Freezing point, F P
23.3.0 Solid expansion caused by heat Superheating in a microwave oven
14.0.0 Thermochemistry, endothermic, exothermic