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Plant kingdom, Plant parts, Plant life cycles
Table of contents

9.7.0 Heterotrophic angiosperms

9.0.0 Plant kingdom

9.6.0 Plant parts

9.4.3 Seed-bearing plants

9.3.0 Acacia

9.4.0 Allium

9.0.0 Plant kingdom
See: Botany, (Commercial)
Liverworts, hepatics, Division Marchantiophyta, (Hepaticophyta Division)
Hornworts, Division Anthocerotophyta
Moss, Division Bryophyta
Conifers, Division Coniferophyta
Division Pteridophyta, pteridophytes, (after Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification [2016]
1. Class Lycopodiopsida, lycophytes
Subclass Lycopodiidae, clubmosses, club moss, ground pine, family Lycopodiaceae, Huperzia sp., Lycopodiella spp.
Subclass Selaginellidae, spikemosses or lesser clubmosses, family Selaginellaceae, Selaginella spp.
2. Class Polypodiopsida, (ferns)
Ferns, Division Pteridophyta
Subclass Equisetidae, horsetails, genus Equisetum spp.
Subclass Ophioglossidae, family Ophioglossaceae, Ophioglossum spp. (adder's-tongues), Botrychium spp. (moonworts)
Order Psilotales, whisk ferns, family Psilotaceae, Psilotum species, Tmesipteris spp.
Order Ophioglossales, grape-ferns, family Ophioglossaceae, Sceptridium spp.
3. Class ?Marattiopsida, marattioid ferns, family? ?Marattiaceae, Angiopteris spp, Christensenia spp. Danaea spp. Marattia spp.
4. Class Pteridopsida, subclass Polypodiidae, leptosporangiate ferns, most living ferns, e.g. royal ferns, filmy ferns, bristle ferns
Fossils: Rhyniopsida, Zosterophyllopsida, Trimerophytopsida, Lepidodendrales, Progymnospermopsida

9.4.3 Seed-bearing plants
Seed plants, Spermatophytes (gymnosperms and angiosperms)
9.5.0 Conifers, Division Coniferophyta (Pinophyta Division, Coniferae Division)
9.5.1 Gymnosperms
9.5.2 Angiosperms
9.6.01 Monocotyledons, grass (cereals), bamboo, sugar cane, maize
9.6.02 Dicotyledons (angiosperms), herbs, shrubs, trees, buttercup, potato
9.6.03 Monocotyledons and dicotyledons (angiosperms)
9.2.0 Grass family, Poaceae (Synonym: Gramineae)

9.6.0 Plant parts
9.6.22 Corm, false stem (pseudostem) banana, taro
9.6.14 Creeping stems, moneywort (creeping jenny), ground ivy
9.6.20 Herbaceous dicotyledon stem, buttercup
9.6.6 Herbaceous dicotyledon stem, carnation
9.6.5 Herbaceous stem, forage legume alfalfa (lucerne)
9.6.7 Herbaceous monocotyledon stem, iris
9.6.15 Runners, strawberry
9.6.18 Stem hooks, bramble (blackberry), rose
9.6.16 Stolons, currant, European gooseberry, banana
9.6.13 Terminal bud, linden tree (lime tree), beech, oak
9.6.8 Xeromorphic stem, spinifex
9.6.12 Twigs of trees in winter, horse chestnut, sycamore, beech, oak
9.6.21 Twining stem, climbing bean, yam
9.6.17 Woody stem, hawthorn

1.0.0 Algae, algae classification
18.7.15 Algicides, control of algae in swimming pools
7.0 Class Phaeophyceae (brown algae)
9.1.1Chlamydomonas, Sphaerella, green algae, Division Chlorophyta
9.1.5Closterium, desmid, Division Chlorophyta
Chlorella pyrenoidosa, common freshwater green algae, Division Chlorophyta
9.9.18 Effect of copper on the growth of algae
6.5.18 Microalgae
9.1.2Pleurococcus (Protococcus), Division Chlorophyta
6.15.4 Seaweed extracts
9.1.3Spirogyra, Zygnema, Division Chlorophyta Use of freshwater algae for hydroponics
9.1.8Vaucheria disperma, Xanthophyceae, yellow-green algae
9.1.4Volvox, Division Chlorophyta

9.2.0 Grass family, Poaceae
6.6.5 Grain crops and pasture grasses
9.67 Grass leaf
6.6.11 Tropical grasses

9.7.0 Heterotrophic angiosperms
9.7.1 Bird's nest orchid
9.7.5 Bladderwort
9.7.4 Butterwort
9.7.9 Hemiparasites, Olax, Nuytsia
9.7.2 Insectivorous plants, pitcher plant, Venus fly trap
9.7.8 Mycorrhizal plants, Eucalyptus, Dipodium
9.7.6 Parasitic angiosperms, mistletoe
9.7.7 Parasitic angiosperms, dodder
9.7.3 Parasitic angiosperms, sundew

9.3.0 Acacia
Acacia species, Rosaceae.
4.10 Legume family (Primary)
9.70.1 Plants in dry environments, Acacia Polysaccharide gums, Gums, Phycocolloids
Robinia pseudoacacia, False acacia Tannins, plant polyphenols
E414 Acacia gum, gum arabic (from Acacia senegal) (vegetable gum)

9.4.0 Allium
Allium, chives, garlic, onion, leek, shallot, Alliaceae (Amaryllidaceae)
Alliaceae, Family names, monocotyledons
Chinese chives, Allium tuberosum
Cultivated garlic, Allium sativum
Garden leek, Allium porrum
Onion, Allium cepa var. cepa
Spring onion, ramps, wild garlic, ail des bois, Allium tricoccum
9.215 Disinfectants, antiseptics and antibiotics
16.7.27 Garlic, Allium sativum Mitosis in cells of onion root tip
9.9.3 Onion leaf scale cells, onion leaf epidermis, bulb
9.177 Plasmolysis in onion epidermis
2.30 Stain onion epidermis Sulfides: RSR (R not equal to H), Formerly called thioethers
6.6.7 Tap root crops and bulb crops

9.1.0 Angiosperm asexual reproduction Bulb, onion, Narcissus, Oxalis Corm, gladiolus, crocus, taro Lignotuber, Banksia, Eucalyptus Rhizome, ginger, iris, banana
Ginger rhizome
5.5 Banana rhizome Runners, strawberry Stem tuber, potato tuber Tuberous roots, root tuber, sweet potato Bulb, onion, Narcissus, Oxalis
See diagram 9.81: Bulb of Narcissus (daffodil, jonquil)
A inflorescence, B storage scales, C axillary bud, D protective scales, E stem, F adventitious roots
A bulb is an aggregation of fleshy leaf base developed on a short disc-like stem.
It is protected by a series of thin, membranous, scale-like leaf bases.
The scale leaves are the swollen bases of the vegetative leaves.
They are composed of parenchyma cells and are swollen with food stored during the growing season.
A longitudinal section shows a terminal bud or growing point, surrounded by the vegetative leaves, with the flowering stem in one of their axils.
In Narcissusl, unlike most bulbs, the flowering shoot is thus lateral to the growing point, is not directly involved in the formation of
the shoot, so persists from year to year.
The bases of the vegetative leaves swell to form the new fleshy scales, bulb scales, as their organic material passes down to the base.
Axillary buds in the axils of the outermost scales may form two daughter bulbs.
The innermost scales are the most recently formed, and the outer scales represent the bases of leaves of previous seasons.
The stem is flat with many adventitious roots at its base.
In onion or hyacinth the growing point produces a flowering shoot with leaves that terminates its growth.
Axillary buds arising in the axils of fleshy scales grow at the expense of food synthesized in the green leaves or stored in the bulb
scales and enlarge to form the bulbs for the next season.
The surface of the bulb is covered by the thin papery exhausted scales of the old bulb.
The bulb is a very condensed shoot with extremely short internodes and with leaf bases swollen with stored food.

1. Cut the bulb of an onion longitudinally through the middle.
Note the stem, the outer membranous and inner fleshy scale leaves, and the large central bud containing the rudiments of foliage
leaves and the flower.
Dissect a bulb and note the presence of buds in the axils of the scale leaves.
2. Cut a bulb transversely and note the arrangement of the scale leaves.
Test the fleshy scale leaves for reducing sugars, starch and food reserves with iodine solution.
Compare the bulbs.
Grow bulbs and investigate the origin of new bulbs.
3. Observe the annual top growth and perennial bulbs of Oxalis pes caprae, Bermuda buttercup, soursop.
The bulbs sprout in autumn to produce a slender underground stem which thickens to form the vertical rhizome.
The top of the rhizome produces leaves and flowers.
After flowering commences, a new bulb starts to form.
In summer, a contractile tuber forms underneath the new bulb that contracts, drawing the new bulb deeper into the soil.
So oxalis is called a bulb that pulls itself down into the soil. Corm, Gladiolus, crocus, taro
See diagram 9.82: Gladiolus corm
A corm is the swollen base of the flowering stem, usually a monocotyledon. Its surface is sheathed in the bases of withered leaves
forming membranous brown scales.
Remove the scales to see thin depressed scars where axillary buds form.
The upper axillary buds form the next season's leaves and flowering shoot.
The lower axillary buds can form little corms or "cormlets" (cormels) that can grow into suckers, separate, and reproduce vegetatively.
The growth of the vegetative leaves and flowering axis uses all the food stored in the old corm but the old corm can still be seen
below the new corm for some time.
The base of the flowering shoot gradually becomes swollen using the food transferred from the leaves, and the old corm.
This base stem swelling is the young corm, sheathed in the bases of the lower leaves of the flowering shoot.
At the close of the flowering period, the leaves and flowering stem wither and their stored food transfers to the swollen stem base,
while buds are produced in the axils of the withered leaves.
See much starch in the outer part of the corm in a vertical section stained with iodine solution.
Also, many scattered vascular bundles pass longitudinally to the uppermost buds and others pass laterally into the leaf bases.
At the top of the corm are scars left by the withered flowering stem and foliage leaves.
The flowering shoot of the next season develops from an upper bud in the axil of a scale leaf.
Each new corm is lateral to that of the previous season because it arises as a flowering shoot from a lateral bud in the axil of the
uppermost scale loaves.

1. Cut longitudinally through the middle of a corm, passing through one large bud.
Test the cut surface of the stem for reducing sugars and starch with iodine solution.
2. Observe the corm of crocus.
In the autumn, note the flattened swollen stem, the adventitious roots, the membranous scales encircling the stem, and the axillary buds.
One or more buds near the top of the corm are strongly developed.
Cut longitudinally through the middle of a corm and passing through one large bud.
Examine the cut surface and note the structure of the bud with its axis, scale leaves, foliage leaves and central flowers.
Test the cut surface of the stem with iodine solution.
Grow corms and trace the development of the flowering shoot and of the new corms.
Note that the old corms of are persistent.
Note also that some axillary buds produce widely spreading underground stems that terminate in new corms.
3. Observe the taro corm, underground stem swollen with stored starch.
Like other stems it has the following parts:
1. The growing point or a shoot apex.
2. Many leaves joined to the shoot apex.
3. Leaf scars appear as circular marks around the corm.
4. Axillary buds form just above the place where the leaf was joined to the stem.
The axillary buds can grow into little corms or "cormlets" (cormels).
The cormlets can grow into suckers.
See 5. Parts of the taro plant Lignotuber, Banksia, Eucalyptus
A lignotuber is a swollen region where the trunk and roots meet.
It enables the plant to survive fires. Rhizome, ginger, iris, banana
See diagram 9.9.3: Iris rhizome | See diagram 9.83: Ginger rhizome
A rhizome is part of a shoot with reduced scale-like leaves.
It usually develops horizontally and underground.
The apex sends up stems or leaves.
The rhizome is composed of a series of segments that have arisen from axillary buds.
At the apex of each segment is the apical bud (terminal bud), that forms the large strap-shaped, vertical, sheathing leaves and flowering axis.
Development of the flowering axis stops further growth of the segment. Axillary buds just behind form new branches of the rhizome.
They also have terminal buds that later form leaves and a flowering axis.
Each segment is marked by a series of concentric circles that represent the bases of the former sheathing leaves formed at the nodes.
Axillary buds are associated with the circles.
Fibrous adventitious roots develop from the under surface of the rhizome.
The rhizome can be separated into segments.
Each segment can reproduce the plant if it has a growing point.
The rhizome is a food storing organ, accumulating much starch.
Note the position of the aerial shoots and the way in which more growth of the rhizomes can continue.
Note at each node a scale leaf with an axillary bud or branch.
Adventitious roots also arise at the nodes.
Note how the system becomes progressively more extensive.
Note the presence of scale leaves, axillary buds, and adventitious roots.
Ginger rhizome
1. Observe the ginger rhizome.
It is hard and compressed sideways.
Inside it is pale yellow.
It is covered with scales and has fine fibrous roots. Runners, strawberry
A runner is a stolon, i.e. a long lateral shoot producing roots at intervals.
The shoot between the roots dies to form new individual plants.
Plant a well-developed strawberry plant in spring in a dish.
Put the dish on a windowsill and water regularly so that the soil does not become either too moist or too dry.
Note the runners that grow out of the leaf axils.
Note the runners that grow out of the leaf axils.
Small leaves appear at their tips.
Roots develop that anchor the tip of the runner in the soil and the leaves appear.
A new strawberry plan forms. Stem tuber, potato tuber
See diagram 9.9.5: Potato tuber with sprouting axillary buds to form aerial shoots
See diagram 9.86:: Potato cell with starch grains
A stem tuber starts from a specialized stem called a stolon, which is unlike other stems because it grows downwards into the soil to
form a stem tuber, a potato.
Later, the stolon withers to leave a scar on the potato.
A stem tuber is the swollen end of an axillary underground branch developed at one of the lower stem nodes from dormant
axillary buds called "eyes".
There is a terminal bud among the axillary buds.
Each eye can reproduce the plant.
A stem tuber has vestigial leaves as slight bumps.
Axillary buds are clustered at the apical end of the potato, i.e. furthest from the base.
The thin outer cork layer of the potato, the jacket, it pitted with lenticels for gas exchanges.
Hormones and light cause the axillary buds to form shoots, haulms.
Leaving the potato in the light is called "chitting".
However, when potatoes are exposed to light, the skin turns green and produces solanine, C46H73NO15, a poisonous glycoalkaloid.

1. Cut the potato and test the cut surface with iodine solution.
Thin layers of cork cells cover the tubers formed from phellogen, cork cambium, layers in which lenticels form.
The eyes are within slight depressions with rims on which the scale leaves form, arranged in a distinct spiral.
At the apex of the tuber is the terminal bud.
At the opposite end is the scar of attachment to the stem that develops the tuber.
Tubers have thin-walled intercellular spaces containing starch grains of characteristic shape and protein.
This stem tuber is different from the root tuber of sweet potato, dahlia, lesser celandine.
2. Scrape a freshly cut surface of a potato tuber with a blunt knife.
Transfer some milky fluid on the knife to a drop of water on a slide, then add a coverslip.
Find isolated grains under low power then high power.
Note the structure of the starch grains.
Each grain has a hilum and eccentric stratification. Tuberous roots, root tuber, sweet potato
See diagram 9.87: Sweet potato tuber
A outer periderm, B may produce secondary roots, C the "crown" end that may produce sprouts
In many biennials and perennials the main taproot, and sometimes the chief lateral roots, is very much swollen with stored food.
When the aerial organs have died down, they preserve the plant until the next season.
In these tuberous roots the new shoot develops at the expense of the reserve foods.
Tubers form by secondary thickening of some adventitious secondary roots near the soil surface.
The cambium in these tuberous roots forms much xylem parenchyma and few lignified elements.
The food surplus is stored in the xylem parenchyma.
Weeds with tuberous roots may be broken up during cultivation, develop adventitious shoot buds and propagate the weed.
Axillary buds at the base of the foliage leaves also propagate the plant readily.
Tuberous roots, root tuber, include carrot, turnip, parsnip, beetroot, sweet potato, dahlia, skeleton weed, dandelion.

1. Examine plants at various seasons of the year and trace the origin and mode of development of the root tubers.
2. The sweet potato tuber is a root tuber so it has no nodes or internodes or reduced leaves.
The end neared the main plant, the "crown" end, may produce shoots, stems and foliage.
This end can be cut off and used as planting material.
The end farthest from the main plant may produce secondary roots.
Some botanists in USA refer to the storage organ of the sweet potato as a root, not a tuberous root, because only the swollen
end of an axillary underground branch is a tuber, e.g. potato, Irish potato.
In USA, sweet potatoes, Ipomoea batatas, are called "yams" but that name should apply only to plants in the genus Dioscorea.
Examine a sweet potato tuber (tuberous root).
Note the fibrous, normal roots, and the club-shaped root tubers.
3. In the dandelion, a peculiar longitudinal contraction of the tuberous taproots wrinkles its surface, and pulls the radical leaves
downwards to the soil surface.
At times the plant may form a shallow saucer-like pit on the surface of the soil.
Crocus, gladiolus, and oxalis develop similar contractile roots.
They drag the bulb, corm, or rhizome from which they arise, more deeply into the soil.
4. In gladiolus, each new corm arises on top of the old one and is higher in the soil, but the contractile roots at the base of the corm
pull it down to a lower level.
5. Aerial shoots (suckers) also result in vegetative reproduction.
They arise from adventitious buds on the roots, and produce new aerial shoots as in begonias, plums, apples, poplars.

9.1.1 Chlamydomonas, Sphaerella, Division Chlorophyta
See diagram 9.39: Chlamydomonas, Sphaerella, (Haematococcus)
1. Chlamydomonas
Look for Chlamydomonas as a bright green "water bloom" in freshwater pools, tanks and stagnant water.
It is unicellular, grows quickly, is about 10 microns in diameter, and has motile gametes.
Look for the cilium, contractile vacuole, cytoplasm, eye spot, cup-shaped chloroplast, nucleus, and cell wall.
1.1 Put cheese and the white of a hard-boiled egg in a glass container.
Add garden soil and washed sand.
Fill the container with rainwater and stand it in diffuse sunlight.
After a week, the water in the glass container may turn green with Chlamydomonas.
1.2 Put a drop of the culture water on a microscope slide, apply a coverslip, and examine the culture under low power.
Observe the rapid rhythmic rolling movements of Chlamydomonas.
Irrigate with iodine solution and observe the cell wall, basin-shaped chloroplast, eye spot and storage granules.
2.0 Sphaerella (Haematococcus)
It is another unicellular alga that occurs in stagnant pools.
It has a brick-red pigment in the vacuoles and so may form brown masses on trees and even brown rain and snow.
If cultured in a jar of water, it is attracted by low intensity light.

9.1.2 Pleurococcus (Protococcus) Division Chlorophyta,
See diagram 9.40: Pleurococcus (Protococcus)
Pleurococcus (Protococcus), causes red snow.
Scrape a green encrustation from a piece of damp wood or bark of a tree.
Mount in water and examine under low power.
The spherical green structures are single cells of the alga Pleurococcus.
Look for colonies of cells.
Stain with iodine solution.
Observe the cell surrounded by the cell wall.
Note the cytoplasm, the nucleus, and the large irregular-shaped chloroplast.
Look for division into two daughter cells that will become round and separate from each other.

9.1.3 Spirogyra, Zygnema, Division Chlorophyta
| See diagram 9.41:Spirogyra cell
| See diagram 9.41.1: Chloroplasts of Spirogyra and Ulothrix
Look for the nucleus, cytoplasm, cell wall, and spiral chloroplast.
Spirogyra and Zygnema are unbranched filaments with cylindrical cells arranged end to end.
Find these bright green, freely floating algae as clumps on the surface of ponds as "pond scum".
Keep them in water from the original site.
Spirogyra chloroplasts are in spiral bands.
Zygnema has two star-shaped chloroplasts.
These filamentous algae live as blue-green patches in rain puddles, on the moist walls of greenhouses and at the water's edge in dirty
ponds and pools.
Observe its threadlike growth.
Lift out a piece of green scum with attached mud and transfer it to a glass container with some water in which it was growing.
Keep it in a room in diffuse sunlight.
Examine the algae in a drop of the original water to see the blue-green filaments with cross walls.

9.1.4 Volvox, Division Chlorophyta
See diagram 9.42: Eudorina, Gonium, Pandorina, Volvox
Volvox (Latin volvere, to roam), is a coenobium of ciliated cells forming minute, hollow spheres with a rolling motion, spinning
around in the water.
Volvox looks like a hollow sphere colony of Sphaerella.
Each Volvox is composed of many flagellate cells each similar to a Chlamydomonas, about 1000-3000 in total, interconnected
by plasmodesmata and arranged in a hollow sphere (coenobium).
Each cell has beating cilia that cause the Volvox to roll along through the water.
Inside a Volvox colony may be daughter colonies.
It reproduces asexually from large gonidia cells and sexually from male antheridia and female oogonia cells.
Culture Volvox in the water in which they were living and observe their spinning or rolling motion.

9.1.5 Closterium, desmid, Division Chlorophyta
See diagram 9.43:Closterium
The desmids (Greek desmos, chain), family Desmidiaceae, are microscopic, unicellular green algae, usually found united in
chains or masses.
Closterium and other desmids occur in acidic clean water, e.g. ponds and drainage ditches.
Culture them in the water in which they were living.
Examine the crescent-shaped cells.
Desmids contain barium sulfate crystals and they indicate clean, unpolluted water with acid pH.
Look for the nucleus, pyrenoids, and chloroplasts in two "semi-cells".

9.1.6 Ecklonia, Sargassum, Division Phaeophyta, Class Phaeophyceae, brown algae, brown seaweed, kelps
The seaweed solutions sold to gardeners are usually made from cold water bull kelp (Durvillea potatorum), and knotweed
kelp (Ascophyllum nodosum).
Kelps washed up on the sea shore may be gathered then washed to remove the sea salts and composted before adding to the garden soil.
7.0 Class Phaeophyceae, brown algae
See diagram 9.44: Ecklonia
Ecklonia maxima, red algae, kelp, sea bamboo
Look for the fronds, stem, and holdfast.
The Sargasso Sea in the Atlantic Ocean is famous for huge areas of the floating brown algae, Sargassum.
Examine a brown seaweed found between low and high tide marks.
Observe the holdfast for anchorage, the stem and the expanded frond containing chlorophyll for photosynthesis and the
yellow-brown pigment fucoxanthin.

9.1.7 Hormosira banksii, Cladophora, Dictyota, Phaeophyceae, brown algae
| See diagram 9.45: Hormosira, Neptune's necklace, kelp
| See diagram 9.45.1: Dictyota
Observe: 1. repeated forking at the receptacles, 2. inflated internodes forming hollow bladders, 3. flask-shaped conceptacles sunken
into the bladder wall that produce sperm and ova.
Hormosira is a marine alga, also called sea grapes or bubble weed, that grows in the intertidal zone.
Observe the holdfast and body like a string of hollow beads or grapes, receptacles.
The bumps on the receptacles are the conceptacles, round little holes containing the sexual organs.
At high tides, gas in the receptacles keeps the plant erect.
At low tides, the exposed plant collapses but the tough leathery body protects it.

9.1.8 Vaucheria disperma, Xanthophyceae, yellow-green algae
Mount some fresh filaments.
Observe the method of branching.
Examine part of a filament under high power.
Examine a prepared slide showing antheridia and oogonia.

9.1.9 Fucus, Ecklonia, brown seaweed, kelp
See diagram 9.44: Ecklonia seaweed
Fucus vesiculosus, kelp, bladderwrack, herbal medicine, Fucaceae
1. Examine a brown seaweed found between low and high tide marks.
Observe the holdfast for anchorage, the stem and the expanded frond containing chlorophyll for photosynthesis and the yellow
pigment fucoxanthin.
Examine a plant of Fucus as an example of a brown seaweed.
Observe the disc shaped or branched holdfast, the stalk or stipe, and the expanded lamina showing thick midrib and wings.
Note also the indentations at the tips of the thallus where the growing points are situated.
2. Observe the holdfast, stipe and fronds.
If the specimen is Fucus vesiculosus, note also the bladders that give buoyancy.
Cut a transverse section across a vegetative branch and mount and examine under low power.
Note the differentiation into limiting layer, cortex and medulla.
Examine prepared slides of transverse sections cut through male and female conceptacles.
Observe the antheridia, oogonia and paraphyses.

Liverworts, hepatics, Division Marchantiophyta (Hepaticophyta Division)
| See diagram 9.46.2: Marchantia life cycle
| See 9.46.1:Marchantia
Marchantia polymorpha (M. aquatica), common liverwort, umbrella liverwort, Family Marchantiaceae
Pellia epiphylla, common pellia, overleaf pellia, Family pelliaceae
Riccia fluitans, floating crystalwort (a floating liverwort), Family Ricciaceae
Liverworts are the most lowly land plants with single-celled rhizoids and no clearly-differentiated stem and leaves.
They grow in moist shady habitats on wet rocks or near shallow streams, usually clumped together to save moisture.
The plant is the gametophyte generation, a broad branching thallus.
Together the plants look like little leaves clumped together and attached to the damp soil by hair-like rhizoids.
The antheridia produce swimming sperm that fertilize an ovum in the archegonium to form the zygote that grows into the sporophyte.
The sporophyte has no chlorophyll and remains a sort of parasite with no connection to the soil, but attached to the archegonium.
It releases spores that develop into the next gametophyte generation.
Marchantia reproduces rapidly by vegetative buds produced in gemma cups.
The sexual organs, the antheridia and archegonia are formed on different plants.
Riccia is a floating liverwort.
Liverworts have alternation of generations because they have a flat leafy (n, haploid) gametophyte and have a delicate stalk (seta)
(2n, diploid) sporophyte that dies after spore dispersal.

1. Collect plants from moist sheltered places, e.g. behind waterfalls, in cooler periods of the year.
2. Collect plants of Pellia in the early spring.
Observe the leafy gametophyte with rhizoids at its base and the capsule or sporogonium.
Note the presence of dark green globular capsules just behind the growing points of some thallus branches.
Also, note small warty prominences further back from the tip and either side of the midrib.
These prominences are old antheridia cavities, now empty.
Dissect out a sporogonium, noting the short seta.
Crush the capsule into a drop of water.
Observe the wall with its characteristic thickenings, the spores and the elaters.
Cut a transverse section of the thallus, mount in water and note the structure, similar to the lamina of Fucus but attached to the
soil, with hair-like rhizoids.
3. Collect Pellia plants in the early summer.
Observe the presence of antheridia and cut sections through the thallus where they occur.
Note also involucres just behind the tips of some branches and cut longitudinal sections through these to see the archegonia.
Look for the thallus, gemma cups, rhizoids, sperm with two flagella, male thallus, antheridium, female thallus, and archegonium.
Liverworts are the most lowly land plants with single-celled rhizoids and no clearly-differentiated stem and leaves.
They grow in moist shady habitats on wet rocks or near shallow streams, usually clumped together to save moisture.
The plant is the gametophyte generation, a broad branching thallus.
Together the plants look like little leaves clumped together and attached to the damp soil by hair-like rhizoids.
The antheridia produce swimming sperm that fertilize an ovum in the archegonium to form the zygote that grows into the sporophyte.
The sporophyte has no chlorophyll and remains a sort of parasite with no connection to the soil but attached to the archegonium.
It releases spores that develop into the next gametophyte generation.
Marchantia reproduces rapidly by vegetative buds produced in gemma cups.
The sexual organs, the antheridia and archegonia are formed on different plants.
Collect plants from moist sheltered places, e.g. behind waterfalls, in cooler periods of the year.

Hornworts, Division Anthocerotophyta
Anthoceros agrestis, field hornwort
Dendroceros japonicus ("tree horn"), Taiwan, Japan
Phaeoceros leavis, smooth hornwort
Hornworts have a simple gametophyte and a long horn-like sporophyte.

Moss, Division Bryophyta
Catharinea, Dawsonia, Funaria, Mnium, carpet moss, Polytrichum, haircap moss, Sphagnum, peat moss Stricta herbal medicine
| See diagram 9.47.1: Funaria, sporogonium
| See diagram 9.47.2: Moss life cycle
| See diagram 9.47.3: Dawsonia, male and female plant
Mosses have an upright or creeping gametophyte with leaves arranges spirally.
The sporophyte has a tough seta that persists after spore dispersal.
In open country, moss grows mostly on the north side of trees in the Northern hemisphere and on the south side of trees in the
Southern hemisphere.
Mosses grow 1-10 cm tall in clumps or mats in shady or damp locations.
Some grow on trees, fences and walls.
Mosses have multicellular rhizoids and distinct stems and leaves.
Mosses have an upright or creeping gametophyte with leaves arranged spirally.
If the sex organs are developed on different plants, as with Dawsonia, the antheridia are attached to a cup-like receptacle at the
apex of the male plant.
The antheridia burst to release sperm that use their two cilia to swim in rain water to the archegonia at the apex of the female
plants and fertilize the ova.
The zygote grows vertically into the sporophyte that remains attached to the female plant and consists of a long stalk, seta and
a capsule containing the sporogonium.
The mature capsule will release very light spores to be dispersed by the wind and grow into the next gametophyte generation.
1. Examine capsules of Funaria or other mosses at different stages of maturity and note the peristome and the method of
liberation of spores.
If you fix a cut off capsule in wax, you can examine the peristome under low power.
Breath on the capsule to show the hygroscopic movements of the peristome teeth.
2. Collect protonema of Polytrichum from hedgerows or on the soil in flower pots.
Polytrichum spores germinate to form a filamentous stage called a protonema.
Later, buds form on the protonema to grow into the moss plant.
Polytrichum often mingles with Vaucheria, but Polytrichum is septate.
Observe the green filaments with transverse septa and the brownish rhizoids with oblique septa.
Observe buds on the green filaments and young plants in various stages of development.
3. Look for the male and female plant, female plant with attached sporogonium, leaves, stem, rhizoids, sporogonium capsule,
sporogonium seta.
4. Collect common woodland mosses usually found in compact colonies or cushions in damp shady places.
Some grow on the damper side or south side of tree trunks and fence posts.
Observe the erect stems, small leaves, and the rhizoids that attach the plant to the soil.
Look for terminal cups, sexual organs, and tubular capsules that contain asexual spores.
Some tufts of plants bear rosette-like antheridia cups containing spores.
Dissect out the contents of one of these into water and note the structure of the antheridia and paraphyses, sterile hairs or
filaments that bear the spore-making structures, the sporangia.
The archegonia cups that house the ovum are less conspicuous,
so you may have to dissect more than one apex to find an archegonium.
5. Use four areas of activity:
5.1 field observations,
5.2 spore culture,
5.3 cultivation of gametophytes,
5.4 experimental investigation of spore and leafy gametophyte growth to study the times of spore discharge, growth of the protonema,
leafy gametophyte production, sex organ production (archegonia and antheridia), fertilization, growth of sporophyte, relative importance
of reproduction by spores or gemmae and tubers.
You will need information on local temperatures, day length, rainfall, to relate to observations of life cycles.
6. The upper part of the moss capsule (sporangium) may be specialized for gradual spore discharge.
The life cycle of moss begins with asexual reproduction.
Leaf-like moss grow thin, brown stalk with capsules at the top.
The capsules contain tiny spores instead of sex cells.
Spores are the cells that can develop into a new individual without fertilization.
Mosses reproduce by means of spores (small blue spheres) which are dispersed from the mouth of the capsule by the numerous
rays (orange and brown), that snap open.
Grow moss spores can be grown under sterile conditions, e.g. Funaria hygrometrica, club moss, and study which factors of the
environment controls germination, growth, differentiation of leafy gametophytes.
Mature spore filled capsules are mostly available in the latter half of the year in the Southern
but if collected in February, March may be hard to sterilize.
A problem is how to count the numbers of spores per capsule, per culture, or the number of leafy gametophytes that form.
Leafy gametophytes grow from the protonema.

Club moss, Division Lycopodiophyta
| Lycopodium
| Selaginella
| Diagram 9.49:Selaginella
1. Look for the Selaginella plant, cone, scale leaves, lateral leaves, rhizophores, microsporangia containing many microspores,
and megasporangium containing four megaspores.
The club mosses have club-shaped cones that bear spores and are known as "fern allies".
Plants of the Selaginella genus, spikemoss, are small prostrate plants with four rows of small leaves on the axis.
They live in damp places.
Selaginella kraussiana and Selaginella martensii are grown in greenhouses.
The Selaginella plant is a sporophyte bearing microsporangia and megasporangia in the same cone.
A microsporangium produces microspores to be dropped onto damp soil and later eject a swimming sperm.
The larger megasporangium produces megaspores to be dropped onto the soil, germinate in rainy weather, and produce a female
prothallus with an ovum inside.
The ovum is fertilized by the sperm to form a zygote that grows into the next sporophyte generation.
Both types of spores have a tri-radiate ridge from origin in the tetrads following meiosis.
Collect the microspores and megaspores from a ripe cone and scatter the spores on moist absorbent paper.
Observe the development of young sporophytes.
2. In Lycopodium note the presence of definite cones.
Examine the sporangia, both externally and by cutting sections of the cones.

Ferns, Division Pteridophyta
| Ferns, Division Pteridophyta, Pteridium, Dryopteris
| See diagram 9.48.0:Dryopteris
| See diagram 9.48.2: Pteridium frond, leaflet, rhizome
| See diagram 9.48.3: Pteridium prothallus, sporophyte
| See diagram 9.48.4: Fern life cycle
Ferns are vascular plants with xylem and phloem, true leaves, but no seeds.
hygrometrica, club moss, They are mostly terrestrial but Marsilea lives in swamps.
Azolla and Salvinia are floating ferns.
The stag's horn is a common epiphyte in rainforests.
The asexual phase, the sporophyte, is the large fern that develops spores in sporangia.
The sexual phase, the gametophyte, develops the sexual organs.
It is an insignificant little plant like a little flat leaf, the size of a fingernail.
1. Examine Dryopteris, wood fern.
Note the rhizome and adventitious roots, stem and compound leaves, fronds.
Note the sori (singular: sorus) under the recurved fronds where spores are formed.
Dryopteris has rounded sori.
Pteridium has long sori along the margins of the pinnules.
Look for the sori under a leaf, compound leaf or frond, coiled young leaf, rhizome, and roots.
2. Cut a transverse section of a pinnule of Dryopteris to pass through a sorus.
Observe the tissues of the leaf, the placenta, sporangia in various stages of development in the indusium.
3. Dehiscence of fern sporangia Pteridium
Scrape some ripe sporangia into a drop of glycerine on a slide.
The glycerine withdraws water from the annulus cells and thus causes the opening of the sporangia.
You can slow the movements of the annulus with glycerine.
Scrape other sporangia on to a warm slide and observe the annulus movements under the microscope.
4. Fern prothallus Pteridium
To grow fern prothalli, place a soaked flower pot inside a larger one, packing the space between with wet sphagnum or peat.
Allow a mature frond bearing a sorus to dry on a piece of paper and then scatter the spores so obtained on the inner surface of the
small flower pot.
Stand the pots in an inch or so of water and cover the top of the pots with a sheet of glass.
Green prothalli will soon appear, and you can observe successive stages in their development.
Observe the archegonia and the liberation of sperms from the antheridia.
Young sporophytes will develop if you water the prothalli after they show archegonia.

9.5.0 Conifers
Coniferophyta Division, conifers (Pinophyta Division, Coniferae Division)
Conifers are seed-bearing plants with ovules on the edge of an open sporophyll.
The sporophylls are arranged in cone-like structures.
Conifers are pyramidal or conical trees with long straight stems that taper to an apical growing point, the leader.
The almost horizontal branches bear narrow needle-shaped leaves.
The original tap root dies leaving shallow roots that let the tree be blown over by storms.
Smaller roots have no root hairs but have a sheath of fungus that penetrates into the root epidermis.
Small microspore cones at the ends of branches produce microspores, pollen grains.
Large megaspore cones are made up of leaf-like sporophylls that contain the ova.
The fertilized ova develop to form seeds released when the woody cone opens.
Most conifers produce woody cones by lignification of the seed-bearing sporophylls, but Juniperus, Podocarpus and Taxus have soft fruit.
| See diagram 9.50: Pinus
| See diagram 9.50.1: Pine cone
Look for a microspore cone, pollen grain, pollen tube, microsporophyll, microspores (pollen) megasporophyll, micropyle, ovule,
megaspore, and bract.
1. Examine twigs of Pinus in summer.
The twigs should show evidence of at least three years' growth.
Observe the structure of purely vegetative twigs, the position and structure of seed cones of varying age, the position and structure of
staminate cones.
2. Examine the male and female cones of Pinus.
Dig up some shallow roots and examine the mycorrhiza under the microscope Dissect first year, second year and third year seed cones
and note their general structure.
Note the seeds lying naked on the cone scales.
3. Remove a megasporophyll from a first year cone and look for the two megasporangia (ovules) on the upper surface.
The bract scale is on the lower surface.
4. Examine the structure in longitudinal section under high power.
5. Examine a sporophyll from a second year cone in the same way.
6. Examine a third year cone.
Remove a megasporophyll and note the seeds with their wings attached.
Cut a longitudinal section through a seed and examine under low power.
7. Dissect a staminate cone and note the form of the microsporophylls (stamens).
Crush one of them into a drop of glycerine and examine the pollen grains under high power.
Examine transverse and longitudinal sections of staminate cones.
8. Examine the structure of the current year stem and the older stems by means of transverse and longitudinal sections.
Examine the tracheids, the sieve tubes, the medullary rays and the resin canals.
9. Cut a transverse section of a leaf.

9.5.1 Gymnosperms
Gymnosperms, the "naked seed plants", the naked seeds are not enclosed in an ovary, so they have ovules and seeds on surface of
leaf-like sporophylls.
Gymnosperms are woody plants with no flowers with seeds unprotected by an ovary or fruit.
They include Coniferophyta, Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, Gnetophyta.
Cycads have a multciliate sperm released in liquid the pollen tube the microspore (pollen grain), to swim to the archegonium (female
sex organ), within the female prothallus (gametophyte), formed by the megasporangium (ovule)
Nowadays, the term "gymnosperm" is not used in plant classification.

9.5.2 Angiosperms
Angiosperms, Angiospermae, Magnoliophyta
Angiosperms, anthophyta, have seeds enclosed in an ovary, they are the "flowering plants".
Angiosperms have endosperm inside the seeds which are enclosed in a fruit.
Nowadays the term "angiosperm is not used in plant classification.
1. Angiosperms have the following characteristics:
1.1 The ovules are enclosed in a carpel.
The carpel with three parts, the stigma where pollen germinates, the style that allows pollen tubes to reach the ovary, and an ovary that
encloses the ovules and where fertilization occurs.
The three parts together are called the pistil.
1.2 Double fertilization produces a zygote that becomes the embryo plant and endosperm nutritive tissue in the seed for the developing plant embryo.
1.3 Stamens with pollen sacs produce pollen.
1.4 Phloem tissue consisting of sieve tubes and companion cells for the transport of nutrients and hormones.
2. The shoot system consists of stem, leaves and buds.
The leaves are attached to the stem at the nodes.
The internode is the part of the stem between two nodes.
The leaf is attached to the stem by a leaf base.
The petiole, leaf stalk, joins the leaf base to the expanded lamina, the leaf blade.
The leaf venation, pattern of veins, is net-like.
This reticulate venation is typical of dicotyledons.
At the apex of the shoot is the terminal bud with the growing point protected and covered by young unexpanded leaves.
The nodes and young leaves are telescoped together.
Elongation of the short internodes in this region results in growth in length of the shoot.
Axillary buds in the axils of leaves are also embryonic shoot systems that can grow into lateral branches, stems bearing leaves, or they
may just remain dormant.
Inflorescences, clusters of flowers, can be produced from axillary or terminal buds.
Examine the external features of a herbaceous flowering plant, e.g. buttercup, wallflower, groundsel.

9.6.01 Monocotyledons, grass (cereals), bamboo, sugar cane, maize
See diagram 9.52: Monocotyledon, grass
Monocotyledons include arrowroot, banana, coconut palm, canna, ginger, maize, onion, orchids, pineapple, screw-pine, sisal, taro, yam.
Monocotyledons have the following characteristics:
1. The embryo has one cotyledon.
2. They are mostly herbaceous plants, except palms and the larger bamboo.
3. Tap roots rarely occur.
4. The vascular bundles are closed, cambium is absent, and secondary thickening is rare.
5. The leaves have parallel veins with simple cross connections.
The midrib is absent.
6. The floral parts are usually in threes.
A typical floral formula is as follows: P 3+3 A 3+3, G (3).
7. Many monocotyledons have bulbs or corms, or rhizomes.
8. Monocotyledons include sisal, onion, taro, pineapple, canna, yam, grasses (cereals) arrowroot, banana, orchids, palms, screw-pine
and ginger.

1. Cut stems transversely, e.g. grass (cereals), bamboo, sugar cane, maize (corn).
Note the similarities in the cross sections.
Note the tubes of vascular bundles scattered through the pith.
2. Examine a grass and note flowers (inflorescence), ligule, leaf blade, parallel veins, leaf sheath, node, internode, fibrous roots,

9.6.02 Dicotyledons, geranium, tomato, willow
See diagram 9.53: Dicotyledon (diagrammatic)
Dicotyledons have the following characteristics:
1. The embryo has two cotyledons.
2. They are mostly woody plants.
3. Tap roots are common.
4. Vascular bundles are open, cambium is present, and secondary thickening is common.
5. The leaves have a network of veins and a midrib.
6. The floral parts are usually in fives, so a typical floral formula is K5 C5 A5 G5.
7. Dicotyledons include mango, kapok, hemp, sunflower, sweet potato, cress, pumpkin, cassava, avocado, peas and beans, cotton,
fig, nutmeg, eucalyptus, passion fruit, sesame, pepper, coffee, citrus, tomato, potato, cocoa, tea, jute, and many trees and shrubs.

1. Examine a dicotyledon and note terminal bud, axillary bud, branch or lateral shoot, roots, root tips, stem,
1st node, 2nd node, axil, 3rd node, leaf, flower, and flower stalk or pedicel.
2. Cut stems transversely, e.g. geranium, tomato, willow.
Note a bright green layer, the cambium layer, under the outside layer of the stem.
Note tubes of vascular bundles arranged in a ring about the central, or woody, portion of the stem.
3. Compare monocotyledon stems with dicotyledon plant stems.
Cut stems downwards under water then put the cut ends in an ink solution.
Later, cut the stems transversely to see which cells are involved in the upward movement of water.

9.6.5 Herbaceous stem, forage legume alfalfa (lucerne)
Herbaceous stems have growth from the cambium limited to one season or part of one season, or lacking.
They have no distinctive anatomical structure, but some features are typical of monocotyledons others of dicotyledons.
Vascular bundles in stems are collateral with endarch xylem.
Alfalfa (lucerne), Medicago sativa, Fabaceae, is a perennial herbaceous plant grown for fodder.
Observe the following tissues:
1. The epidermis is covered by a cuticle.
2. The cortex is narrow compared with the cortex of the root and consists of collenchyma as four corner strands forming longitudinal
ridges on the stem and parenchyma.
3. The outer part of the cortex contains chloroplasts.
4. The single peripheral ring of discrete bundles without active cambium.
5. The vascular tissue arranged as discrete collateral bundles with phloem to the outside, xylem to the inside and cambium
between the xylem and phloem.
6. The pith consisting of parenchyma in the centre of the stem.
7. The parenchyma rays between the vascular bundles.

9.6.6 Herbaceous dicotyledon stem, carnation
Carnation is a perennial herbaceous plant with a complete vascular cylinder.
Observe the following: epidermis covered by a cuticle, cortex comprising chlorenchyma and sclerenchyma, stele is a continuous ring
comprising phloem, cambium, xylem, endarch (the first formed xylem next to the pith) medulla parenchyma.

9.6.7 Herbaceous monocotyledon stem, iris
Observe the widely spaced discrete vascular bundles arranged peripherally in two rings or scattered throughout the transverse section.
Cambium is not usually formed and most vascular bundles have a sclerenchyma sheath.
In monocotyledons with scattered bundles there is no distinction of ground tissue into cortex and medulla.
Where the vascular strands are confined to the periphery of the stem there is either a medulla cavity or a distinct parenchyma medulla.

9.6.8 Xeromorphic stem, spinifex
See: diagram 9.6.8: Spinifex stem, T.S. (from EBOT, University of Sydney)
Spinifex (Triodia sp), is a grass that grows on sand dunes.
It has a prostrate stem with roots and shoots at the nodes.
The anatomical structure is a typical monocotyledon stem with scattered bundles and no cambium.
Observe the epidermis covered by cuticle, vascular bundles scattered in the parenchyma ground tissue, fibre sheath
around each vascular bundle, band of sclerenchyma in the peripheral region where the sheaths merge to give rigidity to the stem.

9.6.12 Twigs of trees in winter, horse chestnut, sycamore, linden tree (lime tree), beech, oak
See diagram 9.51.2: Horse chestnut shoot
Note the terminal bud, the leaf scars with associated axillary buds, the ring of bud scale scars and the lenticels.
Dissect a terminal bud.
Arrange the scales and young foliage leaves in series.
The scales are leaf bases.
A large scar between two terminal buds shows the position occupied by an inflorescence in the previous spring.
The formation of an inflorescence by the terminal bud leads to the growth of the branch being carried on by the two axillary buds
immediately below.
Examine stages in the opening of the buds in spring.

9.6.13 Terminal bud, linden tree (lime tree), beech, oak
Examine the apparently terminal bud and note that at the side of a leaf scar another small scar has been formed when the original
terminal portion of the shoot falls off.
So the apparently the terminal bud is really an axillary bud.
Dissect a bud and arrange the parts in a series.
Note the pair of outer scales followed by pairs of inner scales that have a small foliage leaf between them.
The bud scales are stipules.
Note the opening of the buds in the spring and note that the stipules soon fall from the foliage leaves.

9.6.14 Creeping stems, moneywort (creeping jenny), ground ivy
Note the long, recumbent habit of the stem, the absence of scale leaves and the position of the adventitious roots.

9.6.15 Runners, strawberry
Study the formation of new plants.
The short stem, the crown, produces runners, stolons, from it axillary buds.
The stolons are modified shoots.
The second node on the stolon touches the ground and forms a new plant.

9.6.16 Stolons, currant, European gooseberry, banana
See diagram 51.13.0: Banana stool
Note the curved stems and how adventitious roots are given off from where the stem touches the ground.
Note exactly where the new adventitious shoots form.

9.6.17 Woody stem, hawthorn
| See diagram 9.57: Wood sections 1
| See diagram 9.57.1: Wood sections 2
| See diagram 9.57.2: Piece of cut wood
Stems have four functions:
1. Transport of food from leaves to roots,
2. Transport of water and plant nutrients from roots to leaves,
3. Support of leaves and branches,
4. Store food.
Note the position of the thorns on the hawthorn stem.
Look also for larger examples that bear foliage leaves.
Compare the structure of a twig of gorse with that of the hawthorn.

9.6.18 Stem hooks, bramble (blackberry), rose
Examine the hooks on the stem and petioles of the bramble or rose.
Compare them with thorns.
Hooks are modified hairs.
Thorns are modified branch shoots.

9.6.20 Herbaceous stem, buttercup
| See diagram 9.51: Buttercup
| See diagram 9.59.1: T. S. Pumpkin stem
Cut by hand TS and LS sections of young buttercup stems.

9.6.21 Twining stem, climbing bean, yam
See diagram 63.4: Yam twining stem
Swollen rounded underground stem, i.e. stem tuber, e.g. yam.
Twining tendrils: white bryony, passion fruit, sweet pea, garden pea.
Virginia creeper has adhesive tendrils.

9.6.22 Corm, false stem (pseudostem) banana, taro
See diagram 51.5: Banana corm | See diagram 51.1: Cultivated and "village" banana plant
See diagram 62.7: Taro corm | See diagram 9.82: Gladiolus corm
1. The true stem of the banana plant is an underground stem, a rhizome.
The swollen stem base is the corm with very short internodes.
The corm makes shoots that grow into branches or other corms.
New plants come from these shoots.
Suckers grow from the dormant buds called "eyes" on the corm.
Each sucker formed is higher than the corm it came from.
If the land is sloping, the suckers are usually formed on the uphill side.
If left alone, generations of banana plants will gradually move up a hill.
2. The taro corm is an underground stem swollen with stored starch.
Like other stems it has these parts: The growing point or a shoot apex.
Many leaves joined to the shoot apex.
Leaf scars are seen as circular marks that go around the corm.
Axillary buds form just above the place where the leaf was joined to the stem.
The axillary buds can grow into little corms or "cormlets" (cormels).
The cormlets can grow into suckers.

9.7.1 Bird's nest orchid
Note the matted underground stems and the fleshy roots.
Sections of the latter will show the endotrophic mycorrhiza.

9.7.2 Insectivorous plants, pitcher plant, Venus fly trap
See diagram 9.66.3:Nepenthes
Butterworts and sundews live on wet acid soils where there is a lack of nitrogenous compounds.
Keep plants damp in the laboratory with the original soil left around the roots.

9.7.3 Sundew
Drosera rotundifolia occurs in bogs.
Observe the creeping rhizomes, rosette arrangement of the leaves and short petioles.
In the field, touch the leaf to get the tentacles to respond as if trying to trap an insect.
Mount tentacles and examine under low power.
Note the stalk and the glandular head.

9.7.4 Butterwort
Note the rosette leaves with incurved margins of the butterwort and the sticky nature of the upper surface.
Mount a piece of leaf with the upper surface uppermost and examine under low power.
Note the stalked capturing glands and the sessile digestive glands.

9.7.5 Bladderwort
The bladderwort lives in pools of brackish water.
This plant has no roots.
The leaves are very finely divided.
The flowers project above the water.
Note the shape of the bladder and the presence of hairs at the orifice.
Open several bladders and look for the remains of animal prey.

9.7.6 Parasitic angiosperms, mistletoe
Parasitic angiosperms include toothworts, broomrapes, mistletoe, sandalwood, devil's twine, olax, sarracenia
Rafflesia has the largest flower in the world.
See diagram 9.53.11: Mulberry mistletoe
See sections across a branch in TS or LS and through the haustorium longitudinally.
Greenhouses of botanic gardens often contain examples of tropical carnivorous plants.

9.7.7 Dodder
See diagram 9.53.12: Dodder haustorium penetrating host mistletoe
Cuscuta australis, Australian dodder, Convolvulaceae.
Observe dodder plants coiling around the stems of clover, heather, gorse and nettle, Urica.
Note the manner in which it coils around its host, its reduced, scale-like leaves and its pink flowers.
Notice the absence of chlorophyll and explain the parasite's method of nutrition in view of this.
Examine the haustoria and cut a transverse section of the stem of the host plant in the region of a haustorium.
Notice the type of host tissue that the haustoria cells penetrate.

9.7.8 Mycorrhizal plants, Eucalyptus, Dipodium
The mycelia of certain fungi assist in absorbing of plant nutrients, especially poor soils.
The relationship between the fungus and the plant is mutualism.
Some fungi live just outside the roots of woody species, e.g. Eucalyptus, oaks, pines, olives.
Other fungi penetrate the root and live between the cells in many grain plants.
The myco-heterotrophic orchids, Dipodium variegatum and Dipodium hamiltonianum are colonized by Russulaceae fungi.

9.7.9 Hemiparasites
| Olax
, | Nuytsia
| Olax stricta, [small shrub, yellow-green foliage, root hemiparasite]
| Oldenlandiopsis, creeping-bluet, Rubiaceae
| Nuytsia floribunda, West Australian Christmas tree, Loranthaceae,
has green leaves and is unable to live without connections with roots of other plants through haustoria.
Experiment on what stimulates roots to make haustoria, which may be attached to non-living things, e.g. electric cables.

9.6.03 Monocotyledons and dicotyledons
| See diagram 9.53: Dicotyledon, parts of a plant
| See diagram 9.52: Monocotyledon - parts of a plant, grass
Table 9.6.0 Monocotyledons and dicotyledon
Monocotyledons / Dicotyledons
1. Embryo has one cotyledon / Embryo has two cotyledons
2. Mostly herbaceous plants, except palms / Mostly woody plants
3. Tap roots are common / Tap roots are rare
4. Vascular bundles closed, no cambium, secondary thickening rare / Vascular bundles open, have cambium, secondary thickening common
5. Leaves have parallel veins with simple cross connections, midrib is absent / Leaves have network of veins, midrib is present
6. Floral parts usually in threes, typical floral formula: P 3+3 A 3+3 G3./ Floral parts usually in fives, typical floral formula: K5 C5 A5 G5
7. Include grasses, orchids, lilies, palms.
Many have bulbs, corms, rhizomes / Most trees and shrubs