School Science Lessons
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Plantae, Kingdom Plantae

Tracheobionta, Subkingdom, vascular plants

Spermatophyta, Superdivision, seed plants

9.5.1 Gymnosperms

9.5.2 Angiosperms

Not-flowering plants

Anthoceratophyta Division,Hornworts

Bryophyta Division,Mosses

Chlorophyta Division, green algae

Coniferophyta Division, conifers (Pinophyta Division, Coniferae Division)

Cyanophyta Division, blue-green "algae"

Cycadophyta Division,Cycads

Equisetophyta Division,Horsetails

Ginkgophyta Division,Ginkgo

Gnetophyta Division,Gnetophytes



Gnemon tree

Lycopodiophyta Division, lycopods,Clubmoss, spikemoss

Magnoliophyta Division, Angiospermae, flowering plants

Marchantiophyta Division (Hepaticophyta Division), Liverworts

Psilotopsida Division,Whisk ferns

Pteridophyta Division,Ferns

Rhodophyta Division, red algae

Xanthophyta Division, yellow-green algae

Cupressaceae, Cypress family
Callitris columellaris, Bribie Island pine
Leyland cypress (Cupressocyparis leylandii)
White cedar (Thuja occidentalis)
Western red cedar (Thuja plicata)
Dawn redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides)

Pinaceae, Pine family
Abies balsamea
Picea abies

Podocarpaceae, Podocarp family

Taxaceae, Yew family
Yew tree (Taxus baccata)
Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia)

Cephalotaxaceae, Plum-yew family
Ceplalotaxus harringtonia

Sciadopityaceae, Umbrella-pine family
Sciadopitys, Taxus verticillata

3.44 Bacteria
1.2.0 Bacteria classified by phylum
7.0 Phylum Phaeophyta, brown algae
9.0.0 Fungi
7.01 Kingdom Chromista
1.0.1 Kingdom Protista
9.4.0 Levels of organization, Biosphere to atomic particle
9.208 Lichens, Ascomycota Mushrooms, Edible mushrooms
9.0.3 Phylum Heterokontophyta
9.213 Viruses

1.0.0 Algae classification
Not algae:9.0.1 Phylum Cyanophyta, Cyanobacteria ("Blue-green algae")
7.0 Class Phaeophyceae, brown algae
1.0 Class Bacillariophyceae (Diatomophyceae) (Phylum Bacillariophyta), diatoms
9.0.6 Phylum Dinoflagellata, Dinophyta, (Dinoflagellates)
2.0 Class Chrysophyceae, golden algae golden-brown algae
2.0 Class Chrysophyceae, golden algae golden-brown algae (Ochromonas), (Dinobryon), (Chrysamoeba)
9.0.2 Phylum Chlorophyta (chlorophytes), green algae
9.0.14 Phylum Rhodophyta, red algae (protist), (Galaxaura subverticillata )
9.0.3 Charophyta, stoneworts, (Chara)
3.0 Class Xanthophyceae, yellow-green algae, Phylum Tribophyta, xanthophyceae (xanthophytes)

Clubmoss, Division Lycopodiophyta, Lycopods
Family Lycopodiaceae, Clubmoss family
Lycopodium, ground pines, creeping cedars ("lycopodium" means "wolf's foot")
Lycopodium cernum, nodding clubmoss, herbal medicine, Lycopodiaceae
Lycopodium clavatum, stag's horn clubmoss, stag horn moss, ground pine, Lycopodiaceae
Spores called "lycopodium powder", or "flash powder" may explode in the air if ignited.
Dried herb sold as club moss spores powder.
Lycopodium densum, mountain moss
Lycopodium flexuosum, climbing fern, herbal medicine, Lycopodiaceae
Lycopodium microphyllum, climbing fern, herbal medicine, Lycopodiaceae
Lycopodium phlegmaria, large epiphytic plant
Lycopodium volubile, long scrambling plant

Family Selaginellaceae, Spikemoss family
Selaginella species, spikemosses, lesser clubmosses, Family Selaginellaceae, Division Lycopodiophyta
Selaginella kraussiana, spreading clubmoss, African clubmoss, creeping stems, green foliage, prostrate plant with rhizophore shoots
root-like organs formed at forks in axis, roots readily (houseplant)
Selaginella lepidophylla, resurrection plant, when dry like ball of dead foliage, with water forms rosette shape (houseplant)
Selaginella martensii, upright stems to 30 cm, later decumbent, aerial roots (houseplant)
Selaginella mayeri
Selaginella plana
Selaginella uliginosa, erect radial plant
Selaginella willdenowii

Ferns, Division PteridophytaFerns experiments
Adiantum, Family Pteridaceae, Maidenhair Fern family
Adiantum capillus-veneris, Venus's hair fern, southern maidenhair fern, American maidenhair, feathery fronds, dark stems, herbal
medicine, popular garden fern in American tropic region has siphonostele, tubular stele with xylem and phloem as a hollow tube around
the pith frond repels water (tannin, traditional medicine) (houseplant) garden fern, Pteridaceae
Adiantum chilense, fern, Pteridaceae
Adiantum hispidulum, new fronds pink-bronze (houseplant), fern, Pteridaceae
Adiantum raddianum, delta maidenhair fern, erect fronds later curve, popular (houseplant), Pteridaceae
Adiantum trapeziforme, giant maidenhair fern, Pteridaceae

Angiopteris evecta, elephant fern, Marattiaceae
Aspidium, male fern, rusty back fern, Polypodiaceae

Asplenium, Family Aspleniaceae, Spleenwort family
Asplenium australasicum, birds's nest fern (houseplant), Aspleniaceae
Asplenium bulbiferum, mother spleenwort, fronds up to 60 cm, small plantlets on upper leaf surfaces can be repotted,
Asplenium flabellifolium, necklace fern, "walking fern", buds develop at ends of pinnate fronds, fern, Aspleniaceae

Bird's-nest fern (Asplenium nidus), common on wayside trees, glossy, thick, leathery fronds form vase-like rosette rotating from a
short, central stem, forming a "nest" which collects fallen leaves from surrounding trees, brown spore cases on undersides, narrow sori
form lateral veins of sporophyll (houseplant), folk medicine, Chinese vegetable, folk medicine, ease labour pains, to treat fever
Asplenium rhizophyllum, "walking fern", North America, Aspleniaceae
Asplenium scolopendrium, hart's-tongue fern, common ornamental, folk medicine, Europe, Aspleniaceae
Asplenium viride, green spleenwort, small rock fern, North America, Aspleniaceae

Athyrium filix-femina, lady fern, common lady-fern, Northern Hemisphere, Athyriaceae
Athyrium nipponicum, Japanese painted fern, pictum, ornamental, Japan, Athyriaceae

Azolla filiculoides, water fern, duckweed fern, floating fern, mosquito fern, extremley reduced form of fern, N-fixing symbiotic
Azolla pinnata, feathered mosquito fern, velvet fern, ferny azolla, nitrogen biofertilizer used by rice farmers, Azollaceae
The genus (Azolla) is an important source of nitrogen fertilizer for the rice industry in Vietnam, China and the Philippines.

Blechnum, hard fern, tropical Southern Hemisphere
Blechnum brasiliense, Brazil tree fern, rib fern, crown fern, Blechnaceae
Blechnum cartilagineum fern, distinct vegetative sporophylls and spore-bearing sporophylls, Blechnaceae
Blechnum capense, palm leaf fern, Blechnaceae
Blechnum gibbum fern (houseplant), older plants with distinct trunk, Blechnaceae
Blechnum occidentale, hammock fern, Blechnaceae
Ceratopteris richardii, "C-fern", aquarium plant, Pteridaceae
Ceratopteris thalictroides, water fern, Indian fern, water sprite, water hornfern, roots in mud, spongy air-filled fronds, salad vegetable,
Cheilanthes species, lip ferns, live on rocks
Cheilanthes tomentosa, woolly lipfern, rocky cliffs, United States, Pteridaceae

Golden chicken fern (Cibotium barometz), woolly fern, "vegetable lamb of Tartary, Tartarian lamb, Scythium lamb" (woolly
rootstock like an animal), up to 1 m, folk medicine, rhizome used for liver and kidney ailments, Asia, Dicksoniaceae
Cryptogamma crispa fern, parsley fern, alpine Arctic region, Pteridaceae
Cyathea latebrosa fern, common tree fern, thick erect stem, up to 4 m needs frost-free cultivation, Southeast Asia, Cyatheaceae
Cyrtomium falcatum fern, holly fern, Japanese holly fern, rocky cliffs, (houseplant), garden ornamental, widespread, Dryopteridaceae
Cystopteris species, bladder ferns, Dryopteridaceae
Cystopteris montana, mountain bladder fern, arctic bladder fern, berry, bladder fern, Dryopteridaceae

Davallia species, epiphytes
Davallia bullata, squirrel's foot fern (houseplant), Davalliaceae
Davallia denticulata fern, hare's foot fern, rabbit's foot fern, squirrel's foot fern, deer's foot fern (houseplant), Davalliaceae
Davallia fejeensis fern (houseplant), Davalliaceae
Dennstaedtia punctiloba, hay-scented buckler fern
Dicksonia fibrosa fern, golden tree fern, soft tree ferns, wheki (woolly tree fern), thick erect stems, dictyostele, siphonostele as
network, Dicksoniaceae
Doodia aspera fern, prickly rasp fern, mat-forming, garden plant, fern, Blechnaceae
Dryopteris filix-mas fern (D. marginalis), male fern, male shield ferns, buckler fern, crested buckler fern, broad buckler fern, wood
fern, giant wood fern, autumn fern, Polypodiaceae

Horsetail (Equisetum) snake grass, puzzlegrass, Equisetaceae
Pteridophyta Division Pteridophyta, Family Equisetaceae
Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) (only genus in Equisetaceae), common horsetail, giant horsetail, field horsetail, zinnkraut, pewter
plant, scouring rush, candock, herbacious perennial, looks like Christmas tree, up to 60 cm, strange tasting tea, Kaempferol, herbal medicine,
wound-healing poultice, fern, invasive and almost ineradicable weed, garden herb (fossil: (Calamites), China, Equisitaceae.
Dried herb sold as aerials, see text below diagram
See:Stem of Equisetum, microscope slide (Commercial)
Scouring rush horsetail (Equisetum hyemale), Equisitaceae
Mare's tail (Equisetum telmeateia), Equisitaceae

Gleichenia, coral fern, parasol fern
Gleichenia flabellata fern has mesarch protostele where some metaxylem forms centrifugally adjacent to the phloem, but most forms
centriptetally towards the centre of the stem, fern, Gleicheniaceae
Gleichenia linearis fern, bracken tree fern, Gleicheniaceae
Gymnocarpium dryopteris fern, oak fern, Cystopteridaceae
Hymenophyllum, filmy fern, Tunbridge filmy fern, Wilson's filmy fern
Lycopodium phlegmaria fern, Lycopodiaceae
Lycopodium squarrosum fern, rock tassel fern, Lycopodiaceae
Lycopodium microphyllum fern (L. scandens), ribu-ribu, selada, fern, Schizaeaceae
Nardoo (Marsilea drummondii), nardoo lemna, water clover fern, perennial aquatic fern, roots in mud substrate, floats on the surface, native
Australian food, "seed" collected and processed into flour, Marsileaceae
Matteuccia struthiopteris, ostrich feather fern, Onocleaceae

Nephrolepis, erect sword fern, fishbone fern, Boston fern, Polypodiaceae
Nephrolepis exaltata, sword fern, lace fern, dense clump of leaves, (houseplant), ladder fern, Polypodiaceae
Nephrolepis biserrata, broad sword fern, Polypodiaceae
Nephrolepis corfdifolia, Duff's sword fern, Polypodiaceae
Onoclea sensibilis, sensitive fern, bead fern, Onocleaceae
Osmunda regalis, royal fern, cinnamon fern, herbal medicine, interrupted fern, Osmundaceae
Ophioglossum vulgatum, adder's tongue fern, up to 20 cm, very high chromosome count, folk medicine, wound poultice, "green oil of
charity" tea for internal bleeding, widespread, Ophioglossaceae
Pellaea species, cliffbrake ferns

Pellaea rotundifolia, button fern, sickle fern, leathery leaflets, dry conditions, has siphonostele, tubular stele with xylem and phloem
as a hollow tube around the pith, button fern, Pteridaceae
Pellaea viridis, sickle fern, green brake fern (houseplant), Pteridaceae

Platycerium bifurcatum, stag's horn fern, elk horn, elk's horn, broad fertile fronds like stag's horns, sterile fronds cover roots, fern,
Platycerium coronarium, stag horn fern, Polypodiaceae
Platycerium grande, stag horn fern, stakhorn fern, elk horn fern, epiphyte fertile fronds like a stag's antlers Polypodiaceae
Platycerium superbum fern, supurb-fronded elk horn, fern, Polypodiaceae
Platycerium wandae, queen staghorn, the largest staghorn, Polypodiaceae

Polypodium vulgare, common polypody, hare's foot fern, rockcap fern, climbing fern, angle vein fern, leather leaf fern, American
rock fern, herbal medicine clime on tree trunks by using adherent scales, branched rhizome, fern, Polypodiaceae
Polypodium pustulatum, climbing fern, has dictyostele, siphonostele as a network, New Zealand, Polypodiaceae

Polystichum acrostichoides, shield fern, soft shield fern, sword fern, American sword fern, Christmas fern, Australian shield fern,
many rows of sori on pinnules of fern, Dryopteridaceae
Polystichum aculeatum, hard shield fern, buds formed near end of frond may root when touching the soil, the true indusium is stalked
structure lower epidermis, Dryopteridaceae
Polystichum falcatum, fishtail fern, tough, glossy fronds with large feathery leaflets (houseplant), Dryopteridaceae
Polystichum tsus-simense, tsus-simense holly fern, Korean rock fern, (houseplant), Dryopteridaceae

Pteridium aquilinum, western bracken fern, bracken, induces abortion crozier-like coiling of of young leaves, the false indusium is
the leaf margin curved towards the lower surface of the sporophyll, creeping branching rhizome, starchy rhizomes are edible, herbal
medicine, Pteridaceae

Pteris species, brake fern, slender brake fern, jungle brake fern, table fern, induces abortion, Pteridaceae
Pteris cretica, Cretan brake fern, stove fern, deeply divided green fronds with slender serrated leaflets (houseplant), Pteridaceae
Pteris ensiformis, slender brake fern, silver lace fern, paku padang, (houseplant), herbal medicine, Pteridaceae
Pteris tripartita, Giant brake fern, Pteridaceae
Pyrrosia piloselloides, sakat ribu-ribu, fern, Polypodiaceae

Salvinia species, Salviniaceae
Salvinia auriculata, Salviniaceae
Salvinia minima, aquatic, floating fern, Salviniaceae
Salvinia molesta, giant salvinia, water spangle, water fern, floating fern, annual fern, no true roots, serious water weed, Salviniaceae
Salvinia natans, annual floating aquatic fern, Salviniaceae
Tectaria fissa, fern, Tectariaceae
Woodwardsia, chain fern, Blechnaceae

Whisk ferns, Psilotopsida Division
Family Psilotaceae, Whisk-fern family
Psilotum nudum, whisk fern, fork fern, two species, tropics and subtropics, "living fossil", no roots, epiphytic and terrestrial, no leaves
but green wiry stems, lives in rock crevices, Psilotaceae
Tmesipteris elongata, hanging fork fern, "living fossil" has several hundred chromosomes, Psilotaceae

Coniferophyta Division, conifers (Pinophyta Division, Coniferae Division)
Araucariaceae, araucarian family, conifers, very large trees
Cupressaceae, cyprus family, conifers, juniper, redwood
Pinaceae, pine family, conifers, cedar, fir, hemlock, larch, pine, spruce
Podocarpaceae, podocarpus family, conifers, mostly Southern Hemisphere
Taxaceae, yew family, conifers

Family Araucariaceae, Araucaria family, conifers
Agathis dammara, Amboyna pine, damar pine, black kauri, evergreen, up to 28 m, ornamental and lumber, Australia, Java, Araucariaceae
Agathis borneensis, Borneo kauri, Malayan kauri, damar minyak, Araucariaceae
Queensland kauri pine (Agathis robusta), smooth-barked kauri, in Brisbane City Botanic Gardens, Queensland, Araucariaceae
Queensland kauri pine, Daley's Fruit Trees
Araucaria angustifolia, Paraná pine, Brazilian pine, candelabra tree, evergreen, to 40 m, thick scale-like leaves, endangered species, Brazil,
Araucaria araucana, Monkey Puzzle Tree, Chilean pine, prickly leaf, up to 24 m, 1.2 m trunk diameter, longevity, national tree of Chile,
endangered species, Araucariaceae
Bunya pine (Araucaria bidwillii), bunya nut, up to 40 m, large pineapple-shaped bunya cones called "bunya nuts"
every 3 years, Brisbane City Botanic Gardens, Australian native food, Araucariaceae
Bunya pine, Daley's Fruit Trees
Araucaria: Australian native fruits with potential for development.
Piggy back Araucaria (Araucaria biramulata) (because develop second growth tip halfway up the trunk), in Blue
Mountains Botanic Garden, vulnerable species, New Caledonia, Araucariaceae
Cook's pine (Araucaria columnaris), New Caledonia pine, in Brisbane City Botanic Gardens, New Caledonia, Araucariaceae
Cook's pine, Daley's Fruit Trees
Hoop pine (Araucaria cunninghamii), Moreton Bay pine, colonial pine, paranza pine, up to 30 m, transversely
cracked coarse bark, dimorphous leaves, in Brisbane City Botanic Gardens, Australia, Araucariaceae
Hoop pine, Daley's Fruit Trees
Norfolk Island pine (Araucaria heterophylla), symmetrical pyramidal shape, in native habitat up to 65 m tall, straight vertical trunk up to 3 m
diameter, regular tiers of short, horizontal, spreading branches, male cones oblong to 5 cm, female cones erect to 12 cm long, seeds winged
up to 3 cm long, if grown indoors rarely exceeds 2 m, dimorphous leaves, grown in attractive groves or in containers, the only plant of this
genus grown as houseplant, used as ecological Christmas trees as they are not dumped after holidays, Araucariaceae.
Norfolk Island pine, Daley's Fruit Trees
Klinki pine (Araucaria hunsteinii), Papua New Guinea mountains, to 80 m, habitat loss threat, Araucariaceae
Wollemi "pine" (Wollemia nobilis), discovered 1994, formerly known only as a fossil, height to 36 m, now being
extensively propagated, Araucariaceae
Wollemi pine, Daley's Fruit Trees

Family Cupressaceae, Cyprus family, conifers
Chamaecyparis species, cypress, conifers, Cupressaceae
Chamaecyparis funebris (Cupressus funebris), mourning cypress, Chinese weeping cypress, Chinese cedar wood oil, Cupressaceae
Chamaecyparis formosensis, Taiwan cypress, Cupressaceae, conifer
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Lawson cypress, Port Orford cedar, Oregon cedar, lawson false cypress, Cupressaceae
Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Alaska cedar, Alaska yellow cedar, yellow cedar, Cupressaceae
Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana (C. taiwanensis), Formosan hinoki, Cupressaceae
Chamaecyparis obtusa var. obtusa, Hinoki cypress, false cypress, Taiwan cypress, Cupressaceae
Chamaecyparis pisifera, sawara cypress, Cupressaceae, conifer
Chamaecyparis thyroides, white cypress, Atlantic white cedar, narrow conical tree, North America, Cupressaceae

Cupressus species, conifers
Cupressus arizonica var. glabra, Smooth Arizona cypress, Cupressaceae
Cupressus macrocarpa, Monterey cypress, Cupressaceae
Cupressus lindleyi, Mexican cypress, Cupressaceae,
Cupressus lusitanica, Mexican cypress, Kenya cypress, Cupressaceae
Cupressus sempervirens, Italian cypress, Mediterranean cypress, true cypress, cemetery tree, funeral tree, Arizona cypress, long-living,
garden plant, funeral tree because once cut it never grows again, wood formerly used to make coffins, Cupressaceae
Cupressus sempervirens cv. Stricta, Italian cypress, herbal medicine, Cupressaceae
Cupressus torulosa, Himalayan cypress, Cupressaceae

Patagonian cypress (Fitzroya cupressoides), named after Captain Robert Fitzroy, captain of HMS Beagle, with passenger Charles
Darwin, strong reddish timber, Tasmania, Cupressaceae

Juniperus species, Northern Hemisphere, Cupressaceae, conifers,
Juniper, self-pollinating, female, male, hand wash, room spray, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Juniper Female plant (Juniperus communis), common juniper, more than 4 metres, plant male and female trees if berries
are required, scales of reproductive cone coalesce to form a fleshy "berry" around the seeds, immature berries have pinene smell
and are used to in Northern Europe to flavour meat and cabbage,
juniper: Dutch; genever, gives name to gin for its flavour, berries contain myrcene | sabinene, herbal medicine, stimulates elimination
of uric acid and other toxins, relief from pain and stiffness, Cupressaceae.
Jupiter communis, Juniper berries, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images
Dried herb sold as berries.
Juniper, Male plant (Juniperus communis), common juniper, Cupressaceae.
Juniper - Self Pollinating, Cupressaceae.
Juniperus asbei (J. mexicana), mountain cedar, rock cedar, Mexican cedar, Mexican juniper, Cupressaceae
Juniperus ashei, Texas cedar wood, Cupressaceae
Juniperus cedrus, Canary islands juniper, Cupressaceae
Juniperus chinensis, Chinese juniper tree (a cypress with berries), up to 25 m, dimorphous needle-like leaves, and scale-like leaves,
herbal medicine, China, east Asia, Cupressaceae, conifer
Juniperus chinensis var. aurea, Golden Chinese juniper, Cupressaceae
Juniperus chinensis var. columnaris, Columnar Chinese juniper, Cupressaceae
Juniperus communis, juniper tree (a cypress with berries), Cupressaceae, conifer
Juniperus communis (var. communis, var. erecta), common juniper, religious purification, urinary antiseptic herbal medicine, shrub
or small tree, widespread in North America, Cupressaceae
Juniperus communis var. depressa, Canadian juniper, Cupressaceae
Juniperus conferta, Shore juniper, Cupressaceae
Juniperus horizontalis, Creeping juniper, Cupressaceae
Juniperus oxycedrus, prickly juniper, cade juniper, juniper tar, cade oil, prickly cedar, medlar tree, Cupressaceae
Juniperus phoenicea, Phoenician juniper, Phoenician savin oil, Cupressaceae
Juniperus procumbens c.v. Nana, Dwarf Japanese juniper, Cupressaceae
Juniperus sabina (Sabina cacumina), juniper tree, savin juniper, coffin juniper, Hollywood juniper, slow growing, long-lived, crushed
needle-like leaves, emit strong smell, savin oil, used to flavour gin, Cupressaceae
Juniperus smerka, Yugoslavian juniper, Cupressaceae
Juniperus squamata (J. recurva var. squamata), single seed juniper, scaly-leaved, Nepal juniper, Cupressaceae
Juniperus squamata 'Meyeri', Meyer's juniper tree (a cypress with berries), Cupressaceae
Juniperus virginiana, eastern red cedar, red cedar, southern red cedar, Bedford cedar wood, Virginian cedar wood, cedar wood oil,
Juniperus virginiana eastern red cedar, blue berries on female trees, slightly toxic, North America, Cupressaceae
Leyland cypress (Cupressocyparis leylandii), (Cupressus macrocarpa, Monterey cypress X Chamaecyparis nootkatensis,
Green, the "spite tree or hate tree" used to block neighbour's views, also used as Christmas trees, Cupressaceae.
Neocallitropsis pancheri (N. araucarioldes, Callitropsis araucarioides), pancher neocallitropsis, araucaria oil, Cupressaceae
Libocedrus plumosa, kawaka, New Zealand, Cupressaceae

Thuja species, arborvitaes, Cupressaceae, conifers
White cedar (Thuja occidentalis), eastern arborvitae, American arborvitae, herbal medicine, essential oil, cedar leaf oil for hands
and arms, North America, Romania, Cupressaceae
White cedar, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Dried herb sold as aerials.
Western red cedar (Thuja plicata), giant cedar, giant arborvitae, western arborvitae, Washington cedar, shinglewood, Cupressaceae
Chinese thuja (Platycladus orientalis, formerly Thuja orientalis), Chinese Arborvitae, oriental thuja, biota, , small slow-growing tree
8-20 m, scale-like toxic leaves, allergenic, herbal medicine, ornamental, East Asia, Cupressaceae
Japanese thuja (Thuja standishii), Japan (a cypress), Cupressaceae.
Thujopsis dolobrata, hiba (a cypress), Cupressaceae.
Thujopsis dolobrata var.dolobrata, azuriaro, Cupressaceae
Thujopsis dolobrata, var.hondae, hinoki-asunaro, Cupressaceae.

Redwoods, Subfamily Sequoiideae, Cupressaceae, conifers
Dawn redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides), large tree, spongy red bark, previously known only as fossil, China, Cupressaceae
Coast redwood, Sequoia sempervirens, California redwood, California, Cupressaceae
Giant redwood (Sequoiadendron giganteum), giant sequoia, only species, California, Cupressaceae

Family Pinaceae, conifers
Abies alba (A. pectinata), European silver fir, silver fir, white fir, silver spruce, white spruce, conifer, conifer, Pinaceae
Abies balsamea (Pinus balsamea), balsam fir, natural turpentine, balsam tree, American silver fir, balm of gilead fir, mounting medium,
2.4 Canada balsam mounting medium
Abies cephalonica, Grecian fir, conifer, Pinaceae
Abies excelsa Burgandy pine, resin, conifer, Pinaceae
Abies grandis, grand fir, conifer, Pinaceae
Abies koreana, Korean fir, conifer, Pinaceae
Abies magnifica, red fir, conifer, Pinaceae
Abies mayriana, Mayr Sakhalin fir, Japanese fir needle oil, conifer, Pinaceae
Abies nordmanniana, aucasian fir, conifer, Pinaceae
Abies pinsapo, Spanish fir, conifer, Pinaceae
Abies prosera, noble fir, conifer, Pinaceae
Abies sachalinensis, Sachalin fir, Japanese fir needle oil, conifer, Pinaceae
Abies sibirica, Siberian fir, Siberian pine oil, conifer, Pinaceae

Cedrus species, conifers, Pinaceae
Cedrus atlantica, Atlantic cedar, Atlas cedar, African cedar, Moroccan cedar wood oil, libanol oil, conifer, Pinaceae
Cedrus atlantica f. glauca, blue atlas cedar, conifer, Pinaceae
Cedrus deodara (C. deodorata), deodar cedar tree, Himalayan cedar, conifer, Pinaceae
Cedrus libani (C. atlantica), cedar of Lebanon, majestic tree, conifer, mountains of Lebanon, in Bible 1 Kings 5:6-10, Pinaceae
Cedrus libani, var. (brevifolia), cedar of Cyprus, conifer, Pinaceae

Larix species, larches, deciduous conifers (E636 Maltol), Pinaceae
Larix decidua, European larch, Chinese larch, strong timber, bark used for tanning and dyes, Pinaceae
Larix kaempferi, Japanese larch, karamatsu, Pinaceae
Larix occidentalis, western larch tree, Venice turpentine, native American herbal medicine, Pinaceae
Larix olgensis, Olga Bay larch, Olgan larch, deciduous mountain forest tree, vulnerable species, Japan, conifer, Pinaceae
Larix x eurolepis, Dunkeld larch, conifer, Pinaceae
Nothotsuga, conifer, Pinaceae

Picea species, conifers, Pinaceae
Picea abies (P. excelsa), Norway spruce, common spruce, spruce pine, useful wood, Christmas tree, spruce fir, herbal medicine,
not a "true fir", so individual trees knocked over by strong winds, conifer, Pinaceae
Picea amorika, Serbian spruce, conifer, Pinaceae
Picea ayacahuite, Mexican white pine, turpentine oil, conifer, Pinaceae
Picea breweriana, brewer spruce, conifer, Pinaceae
Picea glauca (P. alba, P. canadensis), White spruce, Canadian spruce, conifer, Pinaceae
Picea jezoensis, Yeddo spruce, Yezo spruce, conifer, Pinaceae
Picea mariana (P. nigra), Black spruce, Canadian black pine, conifer, Pinaceae
Picea orientalis, oriental spruce, conifer, Pinaceae
Picea pungens f. glauca, blue Colorado spruce, conifer, Pinaceae
Picea sitchensis, sitka spruce, conifer, Pinaceae
Picea smithiana, morinda spruce, conifer, Pinaceae

Pinus species, conifers
Pinus aristata, rocky mountain bristlecone (very long-lived pine), conifer, Pinaceae
Pinus brutia, Anzac pine, grown in Brisbane City Botanic Gardens from seed collected at Lone Pine region, Gallipolli, Turkey, Pinaceae
Pinus caribaea, yellow pine, caribaea pine, timber tree, Australia, Pinaceae
Pinus contorta ssp. contorta, shore pine, turpentine oil, conifer, Pinaceae
Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia, lodgepole pine, turpentine oil, conifer, Pinaceae
Pinus echinata, shortleaf pine, bark with square scales, North America, conifer, Pinaceae
Pinus elliotti (P. caribaea), slash pine, Cuban pine, conifer, Pinaceae
Pinus jeffreyi, Jeffrey pine, almost pure n-heptane not turpentine, North America
Pinus halepensis, Aleppo pine, Jerusalem pine, turpentine oil, conifer, Pinaceae
Pinus halepensis, var. brutia, Gallipoli Lone Pine, conifer, Pinaceae
Pinus heldrichi, Bosnian pine, conifer, Pinaceae
Pinus insignis, planted conifer, Pinaceae
Pinus insularis (P. khasya, P. kestyal, P. khasyana, P. langbianensis), khasi pine, benguet pine, Indian turpentine oil herbal
medicine, conifer, Pinaceae
Pinus keysiya, benguet pine, conifer, Pinaceae
Pinus koraiensis, Korean pine, conifer, Pinaceae
Pinus longaeva, bristle cone pine, conifer, Pinaceae (said to live for up to 5000 years),turpentine oil, conifer, Pinaceae
Pinus merkusii (P. latteri), Merkus pine, Tenasserim pine, turpentine oil, conifer, Pinaceae
Pinus mugo (P. montana), mountain pine. Swiss mountain pine, conifer, Pinaceae
Pinus mugo var. mughus (P. mughus), mugho pine, conifer, Pinaceae
Pinus mugo var. pumilio (P. pumilio), dwarf pine, pine needle oil, conifer, Pinaceae
Pinus nigra, Austrian pine, black pine, conifer, Pinaceae
Pinus nigra ssp. larica, Corsican pine, conifer, Pinaceae
Pinus nigra ssp. nigra, Austrian pine, conifer, Pinaceae
Pinus palustris, longleaf pine, longleaf yellow pine, southern yellow pine, pitch pine, terebrinthina, long flexible needles, syrup of tar,
turpentine oil, North America, conifer, Pinaceae
Pinus pinaster, maritime pine, sea pine, turpentine oil, conifer, Pinaceae
"Pine nuts" (Pinus pinea), stone pine, parasol nuts, pignolias, Roman pine, umbrella pine, Southern Europe, flattened crown straight
reddish trunk, seeds eaten and called "pine nuts", truffle host, conifer, Pinaceae
Pine nuts, Daley's Fruit Trees
Pinus ponderosa, Ponderosa pine, western yellow pine, turpentine oil, conifer, Pinaceae
Pinus radiata, Monterey pine, New Zealand turpentine oil, conifer, Pinaceae
Pinus roxburgbii, Chir pine Indian turpentine oil, conifer, in Brisbane City Botanic Gardens, Pinaceae
Pinus strobus, Weymouth pine, white pine, Canadian white pine, North America, conifer, Pinaceae
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), turpentine oil, main source of essential oil called pine oil, lubricant, alternative medicine, mainly
alpha-Terpineol, Scotland, conifer, Pinaceae
Pinus tabulaeformis, Chinese pine, conifer, Pinaceae
Pinus taeda, loblolly pine,turpentine oil, USA, conifer, Pinaceae
Pinus wallichiana, Bhutan pine, conifer, Pinaceae
Pinus yunnanensis, Yunnan pine, Chinese pine, conifer, Pinaceae

Pseudotsuga species, Pinaceae, conifers
Pseudotsuga menziesii, Douglas fir, Oregon balsam, Oregon pine, North America, Mexico, China, largest conifer, timber tree, Pinaceae
Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii, Coast Douglas fir, conifer, Pinaceae
Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca, Rocky Mountain Douglas fir, conifer, Pinaceae

Tsuga species, Pinaceae, conifers, (in US and Canada, Tsuga species are called "hemlocks", but no connection withConium
maculatum, poison hemlock, Apiaceae)
Tsuga canadensis, eastern hemlock, Pinaceae
Tsuga carolinana, Carolina hemlock, Pinaceae
Tsuga heterophylla, Western hemlock, Pinaceae
Tsuga mertensiana, mountain hemlock, Pinaceae

Family Podocarpaceae, Podocarpus family, conifers
Nageia nagi, Nagi, evergreen, up to 20 m, smooth peeling bark, leathery leaves, Podocarpaceae
Podocarpus species, Conifers
Podocarpus: Australian native fruits with potential for development.
Plum pine (Podocarpus elatus), Illawarra plum, mahogany pine, up 36 m, leaves up to 25 cm long, dark blue-purple
berry-like seed cones, with edible fleshy base, used in condiments, timber used in furniture, ornamental tree, street lining,
east coast of Australia, Australian native food, Podocarpaceae
Podocarpus rumphii, Podocarpaceae
Shrubby plum pine (Podocarpus spinulosus), dwarf plum pine, spiny-leaf podocarp, understorey shrub, up to 2 m,
needle-like leaves, berry-like cones, edible purple-black arils, coastal eastern Australia, Podocarpaceae

Family Taxaceae, Yew family, conifers
Yew tree (Taxus baccata), common yew, English yew, churchyard tree, Japanese yew, slow growing, long-lived, needle-like
leaves, used for hedges, long-bows, poisonous leaves (drug taxol), cut stem, use ink to show transpiration stream, taxine alkaloid,
Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia), western yew, taxol, paclitaxel is reputed anticancer drug, North America, Taxaceae
Whiteberry yew (Pseudotaxus chienni), carving wood, ornamental, China, Taxaceae

Cycads, Cycas species, Cycadophyta Division,
Byfield fern (Bowenia serrulata), (cycad, not a fern), Australia, Stangeriaceae
Bowenia spectabilis, yam-like rhizome edible, Australian native food, Stangeriaceae

Cycas, Family Cycadaceae, Cycad family
Sago palm (Cycas pectinata), (not a true monocotyledon palm), fern palm, Australia, Madagascar, Pacific islands, Cycadaceae
Japanese cycad (Cycas revoluta), Japanese fern palm, many chemical compounds, herbal medicine, young leaves to cover wounds,
seeds for tonic to expel phlegm, increase mensurual flow, used to treat rheutism, most cultivated ornamental palm, Cycadaceae
Queen sago palm (Cycas rumphii), palm-like small tree but it is not a palm, upright fronds, orange male cone, Indonesia, Papua New
Guinea, Cycadaceae

Encephalartos, Family Zamiaceae, Sago-palm family
Encephalartos species, Cycads, Phylum Cycadophyta
Bread tree (Encephalartos altensteini), prickly cycad, white-haired cycad, South Africa, slow growing, long palm-like fronds, female
cone like a pineapple, Zamiaceae
Encephalartos ferox, Zamiaceae
Encephalartos hildebrandtii, Zamiaceae
Encephalartos horridus (Zamia horrida), ferocious spiny blue cycad, Zamiaceae
Encephalartos longifolius, Zamiaceae

Ginkgo, Ginkgophyta Division
Family Ginkgoaceae (gymnosperms), Ginkgo family, extinct except for Ginkgo biloba
Ginkgo, Daley's fruit Trees
See diagram: Ginkgo tree
Ginkgo tree (Ginkgo biloba), maidenhair tree, family Ginkgoaceae, perennial, dicotyledon, deciduous, frost tolerant, attractive foliage,
Ginkgo is deciduous, dioecious (male and female trees), reaches 24 m in height, produces a multiciliate sperm.
Ginkgo biloba, ginkgo, maidenhair tree, is only survivor of the order Ginkgoales in Permian period, herbal medicine, edible fruit.
Dried herb sold as leaves.
Ginkgo biloba extract ECb 761, "Tebonin" is sold as a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves, which has antioxidant properties
as a free radical scavenger.
ECb 761 has been available in Europe as a herbal extract since the early 1990s, however, products containing ECb 761 are not
approved for use by the US FDA (as at 3/11/2016).
The psychological and physiological effects of ginkgo are said to be based on its primary action of regulating neurotransmitters and
exerting neuroprotective effects in the brain, protecting against or retarding nerve cell degeneration, and improving blood flow in small
blood vessels.
While to date there is no clear research evidence that Ginkgo retards memory loss in adults over 60, or treats sudden deafness, tinnatus,
or diabetes, research is continuing on these problems.

Gnetophytes, Gnetophyta Division
Family Ephedraceae
Ephedra species
[Ephedra sinica, E. equisentina and E. intermedia contain the alkaloids ephedrine, pseudoephidrine, phenylpropanolamine,
(norephidrine), cathine (norpseudoephidrine).]
Ephedra antisyphyilitica, clapweed, Ephedraceae
Ephedra aspera, rough jointfir, branche shrub, yellow twigs, tiny leaves, male and female plants, Ephedraceae
Ephedra distachya, jointfir, central Europe, ephedrine from dried branches, herbal medicine, treat rheumatism, asthma, Ephedraceae
Ephedra equisetina, ma huang, Asia, Ephedraceae
Ephedra intermedia, zhong ma huang, Asia, Ephedraceae
Ephedra foeminea, synchronizes its activity to the lunar cycle because pollinated by nocturnal dipterans and lepidopterans, so its
pollination coincides with the full moon of July, Ephedraceae
Ephedra funerea, Death valley jointfir, desert areas, Southwest USA, Ephedraceae
Ephedra nevadensis, nevada ephedra, dried stems used to make Mormon tea, perennial shrub, wind -pollinated, native American tea
and herbal medicine, astringent taste, broncho-dilator, sexually-transmitted diseases, native forage plant, contains little or no ephedrine
or any other alkaloids, contains tannins, Southwest USA, Ephedraceae
Ephedra sinica, Chinese ephedra, ma huang, joint fir, almost no leaves, male and female cones, ephedra alkaloid, dangerous dietary
supplement, used for illegal manufacture of methamphetamine, herbal medicine, Mongolia, Russia, northeastern China, Ephedraceae
Ephedra viridis, green Mormon tea, green erect twigs and red-black vestigial leaves, western USA, Family Ephedraceae

Gnetophytes, Gnetophyta Division
Family Gnetaceae
Gnetum is the only genus in Family Gnetaceae
Gnetum cleistostachyum, a liana, p-coumaric acid | resveratrol and many other stilbene derivatives, Gnetaceae
Gnemon tree (Gnetum gnemon), paddy oats, meninjau, needs irrigation during dry weather, fruit contains resveratrol, uses of
fruit and flower buds, deep fried in hot oil and eaten as a snack, growing tips very soft and juicy, Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea,
Indonesia, Gnetaceae, Phylum Gnetophyta
Family Welwitschiaceae