School Science Lessons
Please send comments to:

Animal Kingdom

Please send comments to:

Table of contents

1.0.0 Animal kingdom (animals)

See: Animals, (Commercial)

2.0 Animals (Primary)

1.0.1 Kingdom Protista (protists)

2.0 Phylum Protozoa (protozoans)

3.0 Phylum Porifera (sponges)

5.0 Phylum Coelenterata

6.0 Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms)

7.0 Phylum Nematoda (nematodes)

8.0 Phylum Annelida (segmented worms), annelids

9.0.0 Phylum Arthropoda (crustaceans, insects, spiders, mites)

15.0 Phylum Mollusca (molluscs)

17.0 Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms)

18.0 Phylum Chordata (chordates)

19.0 Phylum Hemichordata (hemichordates)

20.0 Subphylum Urochordata (sea squirts, tunicates)

21.0 Subphylum Vertebrata (vertebrates)

24.0 Class Agnatha, Petromyzontida, jawless fish, lampreys

25.0 Class Chondrichthes, cartilaginous fish, elasmobranchs (sharks, dogfish, rays, stingrays)

See: Sharks, (Commercial)

26.0 Class Osteichthyes (Class Actinopterygii, ray-finned fish) (bony fish, "fish")

28.0 Class Sarcopterygii (Crossopterygii) (lobe-finned fish) (coelacanths)

30.0 Subclass Dipnoi (lungfishes)

32.0 Class Amphibia (amphibians) (frogs, toads, newts, salamanders

34.0 Class Reptilia (reptiles) (snakes, lizards, crocodiles, alligators, turtles, tortoises, tuataras)

36.0 Class Aves (birds)

39.0 Class Mammalia (mammals)

1.0.0 Animal kingdom
See: Animals, cells, cages, (Commercial)
2.0.0 Animal classification, Kingdom Animalia
2.0.1 Animals

2.0 Phylum Protozoa
See: Protozoa, (Commercial)
See diagram 9.3.35: Protozoa
9.1.1 Chlamydomonas, Sphaerella, (Haematococcus), green algae
2.1.0 Classification of protozoa
9.1.5 Closterium, desmid (Family Desmidiaceae)
9.0.16 Phylum Amoebozoa (Phylum Rhizopoda), Amoeba, Entamoeba
9.0.8 Phylum Ciliophora, ciliates (have cilia), Paramecium
9.0.9 Phylum Euglenozoa, Euglena
9.37.4 Protozoan diseases
9.35 Succession in a pond community, hay infusion cultures, Amoeba, Chlamydomonas, Paramecium

5.0 Phylum Coelenterata (Phylum Ctenophora, comb jellies, Phylum Cnidaria, jellyfish, sea anemones)
See: Coral, (Commercial)
See: Jellyfish, (Commercial)
5.1.0 Classification of Coelenterata

6.0 Phylum Platyhelminthes, flatworms, flukes and tapeworms
See: Worms, platyhelminth, tapeworm, (Commercial)
6.0 Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms), (classification)
6.1.0 Classification of Platyhelminthes
9.36 Flatworms, Dugesia, Planaria
9.37.2 Fluke / trematode diseases, Class Trematoda
9.37.5 Tapeworm diseases, Class Cestoda

7.0 Phylum Nematoda (nematodes, roundworms, pinworms, threadworms, hookworms)
See: Worms, nematode, (Commercial)
See: Nematodes, (Commercial)
See diagram 9.37.9: Rhabditis mature female
9.37.3 Nematode diseases
13.1 Banana root nematode, Radopholus similis

8.0 Phylum Annelida (segmented worms), annelids
See: Worms, earthworm, (Commercial)
8.0 Phylum Annelida (segmented worms, ringed worms) (classification)
8.1 Annelids
9.33 Earthworm behaviour, Lumbricus
9.14.7 Worm farms

9.0.0 Phylum Arthropoda (crustaceans, insects, spiders)
See: Arthropods, (Commercial)
See: Butterflies, (Commercial)
See: Insects, (Commercial)
9.0 Phylum Arthropoda (classification)
9.1.12 Class Arachnida (arachnids, spiders, scorpions)
9.1 Subphylum Crustacea (crustaceans), (classification)
9.9.0 Daphnia, water flea
9.1.13 Class Insecta (insects)
12.0 Subphylum Myriapoda, myriapods, (millipedes, centipedes) (classification)

15.0 Phylum Mollusca (molluscs)
See: Molluscs, (Commercial)
See: Octopus, (Commercial)
15.0 Phylum Mollusca (molluscs) (classification)

17.0 Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms)
See: Echinoderms, (Commercial)
17.0 Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms), (classification)

26.0 Class Osteichthyes (Class Actinopterygii, ray-finned fish) (bony fish, "fish")
See: Fish, (Commercial)
9.217 Blood flow in a fish

32.0 Class Amphibia (amphibians)
See: Frogs, (Commercial)
32.0 Amphibia (amphibians) (classification)
9.218 Blood flow in a frog (Experiments)
9.10 Frog life cycle

34.0 Class Reptilia (reptiles)
See: Reptiles, (Commercial)
See: Dinosaurs, (Commercial)
See: Snakes, (Commercial)
34.0 Reptilia (reptiles) (classification)
4.06 Snake bite

36.0 Class Aves (birds)
See: Birds, (Commercial)
36.0 Aves (birds) (classification)
9.1 Bird beaks
9.2 Bird feet
9.5 Bird houses
9.4 Bird nests
9.7 Birds in your garden
9.3 Casts of bird footprints
6.03 Chicken life cycle (Primary)
Chicken project (Agriculture)
Duck project (Agriculture)
9.6 Feeders to attract birds

39.0 Class Mammalia (mammals)
See: Mammals, (Commercial)
39.0 Class Mammalia (mammals) (classification)
3.06 Care for cats
3.1.0 Care for goats
4.25 Care for dogs
Goat Project
Pig Project
9.11.0 Human body
9.55 Human cheek cells
9.24.0 Human genetics
10.9.8 Human Immunodeficiency virus
4.3.21 Human, Micro-organisms
9.0.0 Human physiology
9.29 Human population growth
10.6.0 Human relationships
10.0 Human reproduction
23.1.7 Rats (pest of cocoa)
13.5.10 Rats (pest of coconut)

2.0.1 Animals
9.31 Animal cages
2.1.9 Animal tissue culture, Safety in school science
9.30 Animal traps
2.0 Animals (Primary)
9.32 Food and water for animals

9.1.12 Class Arachnida (arachnids, spiders, scorpions)
See: Spider, Arthropods, Spider, (Commercial)
14.0 Subphylum Chelicerata, Class Arachnida, (arachnids, spiders, scorpions)
16.8.16 Acaricides

9.1.13 Insects, Class Insecta
See: Insects, (Commercial)
13.0 Subphylum Hexapoda, Class Insecta, (insects) (classification)
Insects, insect pests (websites)
9.8.0 Ants
9.1.6 Bees, honeybee
9.35.1 Drosophila melanogaster, cultures of fruit flies
9.35.2 Drosophila experiments, Mendel's laws, Cultures of fruit fly,
9.27 Insect behaviour diary
9.9.0 Insect body, cockroach or grasshopper
9.25 Insect cage
9.19 Insect collecting
9.29 Insect collecting
9.20 Insect collecting nets, air net, sweep net
9.23 Insect collecting, mounting boxes
9.24 Insect collecting, mounting block guide
13.0 Insect pests (banana)
13.2 Banana weevil borer, banana root borer, "banana beetle", Cosmopolites sordidus
13.3 Banana scab moth, Nacoleia octasema
16.8.14 Insecticides
16.2.0 Insecticides
4.9 KAA, insect fixing fluid
4.10 Kahle's fluid, insect fixing fluid
4.12 Lacto-alcohol, insect fixing fluid
4.11 Oudeman's fluid, insect fixing fluid
4.13 Pampl's fluid, insect fixing fluid
4.14 Sugaring mixture, insect fixing fluid
9.21 Insect-killing container
9.22 Insect stretching board (setting board)
9.26 Insectarium
9.28 Night insects

9.1.6 Bees, honeybee
See: Bees honeybee, beeswax (Commercial)
See: Bees, honeybee, (Agriculture)
Beeswax (Chemistry)
13.3 Classification, Bees, Order Hymenoptera
9.1.6 Honeybee life cycle, Apis mellifera
9.1.7 Honeybee body structure, Apis mellifera
9.1.8 Honeybee, Notes on Australian native bees
Neonicotinoid insecticides
9.171.1 Osmosis with honey on bread

9.8.0 Ants
See: Insects, Ants Farm, (Commercial)
13.3 Ant classification, Order Hymenoptera
3.01 Ants life cycle (Primary)
9.34.0 Ant study
9.29 Ant sucker, insect collector
9.34.1 Flying ants and termites

9.9.0 Daphnia, water flea
9.34.1 Daphnia, Stain living Daphnia
9.34 Community of aquatic organisms (See 5.)
16.7.29 Toxic effect of drugs on water fleas

2.1.0 Classification of protozoa
The following is a simple classification of protozoa.
The more modern classification is shown beneath numbers 1 to 4.
However, to date (October, 2010), there is no universally agreed classification of all species formerly classified under Phylum protozoa.
Protozoa are single-celled (unicellular) but may be colonial if no division of functions.
Gas exchange and excretion is by diffusion.
Osmoregulation in freshwater forms is by a contractile vacuole.
Asexual reproduction is by binary fission and sometimes sexual reproduction by conjugation occurs.
1. Class Rhizopoda, move by pseudopodia, feed by phagocytosis
9.0.16 Phylum Amoebozoa (Phylum Rhizopoda), e.g. Amoeba
9.0.12 Phylum Foraminifera
9.0.11 Phylum Actinopoda, radiolarians
2. Class Mastigophora, move by flagella and feed by direct absorption
9.0.9 Phylum Euglenozoa, e.g. Euglena
3. Class Ciliophora, move by cilia and feed by phagocytosis through a "mouth" part of the cell
9.0.8 Phylum Ciliophora, ciliate, Paramecium
4. Class Sporozoa, parasitic so no obvious method of locomotion, feed by direct absorption from the host
9.0.7 Phylum Apicomplexa, sporozoans, e.g. Plasmodium

4.06 Snake bite
If you are bitten by a snake, tie a bandage about the wound and get somebody to take you to hospital without delay.
Note the following rules:
1. Keep still, otherwise the snake venom will spread quicker through your body.
2. Apply a tight pressure bandage to the area bitten, with the same tension as a bandage for a sprain.
3. Telephone triple 0, or the local hospital or doctor.
4. Keep still and wait for help.
Do not go anywhere to get help.
5. Do not try to kill the snake for identification
6. Do not wash the wound caused by the snake bite because doctors may want to analyse the snake poison before giving you the
antivenom (antivenin, antivenene).
7. Do not use a tourniquet because it can cause more damage.
8. Do not cut or suck the wound made by the snake bite because this may introduce venom into the bloodstream.
9. Do not drink, eat or take any medicine, even if you are in pain.

5.1.0 Classification of Coelenterata
See: Coral, (Commercial)
(Modern taxonomists use the following phyla instead of Coelenterata: Phylum Ctenophora, comb jellies, Phylum Cnidaria, jellyfish
sea anemones)
Phylum Coelenterata (Greek koilos hollow, énteron, intestine).
are mostly marine colonial organisms, with two cell layers, ectoderm and endoderm, separated by jelly-like mesogloea, have radial
symmetry, hollow cup-like body (enteron cavity), with only one entrance, tentacles around the mouth, independent stinging cells not
connected to the network nervous system.
Coelenterata have two body forms.
The hydroid form is a sedentary polyp.
The medusa form is a plankton jellyfish-like organism.
1. Class Hydrozoa, have polyp and medusa forms in the life cycle
Order Hydrida
e.g. Hydra, is one of the few freshwater species
See diagram 9.37.4: Hydra
Obelia forms a colony of hollow tubes attached to seaweed with polyp heads, hydranths, specialized either for feeding or for
reproducing by medusa buds.
See diagram 9.37.7:Obelia
Order Siphonophora, marine pelagic with apical float, pneumatophore
e.g. Physalia, "Portuguese man-of-war, "bluebottle"
See diagram 9.37.6: Physalia
2. Class Scyphozoa, jellyfish, medusa form is the main stage in the life cycle, e.g. Aurelia
See diagram 9.37.5: Aurelia jellyfish
3. Class Anthozoa (Actinozoa), only the polyp stage in the life cycle
Order Alcyonaria, corals,
e.g. Red coral, Corallium rubrum
Order Zoantharia
e.g. sea anemone, Actinia equina.

6.1.0 Classification of Platyhelminthes
Many Platyhelminthes are parasites of humans and other animals.
To control these parasites their life cycle can be broken by killing the hosts or the parasites in the host, thoroughly cooking food that
may contain parasites, and sanitary disposal of human and animal wastes.
Make sure that children wash their hands thoroughly after handling cats and dogs.
Platyhelminthes have a dorsiventrally-flattened body (flattened from above), bilateral symmetry (head, tail, left and right sides), three
cell layers but no body cavity (triploblastic, three cell layers, ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm).
Both sex organs are present in the one organism (hermaphrodite).
They have a primitive brain and paired ventral nerve cords.

The three classes of platyhelminthes are as follows:
1. Class Turbellaria, planarians, are free-living flatworms with simple anterior eyes and can replace lost body parts (regeneration).
They move with cilia and rhythmical muscle contraction to scavenge detritus.

2. Class Trematoda, flukes, have a complex attaching devices of suckers and sometimes hooks.
They attach themselves to the interior of the host and suck in blood and mucus with a muscular pharynx.
Cat liver fluke (Opisthorchiasis felineus)
Chinese liver fluke (Clonorchis sinensis)
Lung fluke (Paragonimus westermani)
Schistosoma fluke (Schistosoma mansoni, S. japonicum), bilharzia, schistosomiasis disease, infection by skin penetration, parasite
in freshwater snails
Sheep liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica)
See diagram 9.37.1: Fasciola hepatica
3. Class Cestoda, tapeworms, attach to the gut wall of host by an attaching device (scolex) with hooks and suckers.
The body is divided into segments (proglottids) that are continually produced behind the scolex.
The remain attached to the interior of the hosts digestive system and absorb the pre digested food.
Pork tapeworm (Taenia solium), infection from eating undercooked pork
See diagram 9.37.2: Tapeworm
Hydatid tapeworm (Echinococcus granulosis), infection from faeces in dog fur
See diagram 9.37.3: Life cycle of Echinococcus granulosis
Cat tapeworm (Dipylidium caninum), infection from ingestion of cat flea.

8.1 Annelids
Soft cylindrical bodies, segmented, bilaterally symmetrical, blood vessels, bristles (chaetae), the main body cavity (coelom) surrounded
by mesoderm with ducts to exterior to carry wastes (filtered by nephridia) and gametes, paired ventral nerve cords
1. Class Polychaeta, mostly marine, move by undulations and parapodia bearing many chaetae, separate sexes, free-swimming larva,
distinct head.

2. Class Oligochaeta, terrestrial burrowing, digest garden detritus including cellulose, move by peristalsis ripples, few chaetae,
hermaphrodite, eggs laid in cocoons, no larva
See diagram 9.37.8: T.S. Earthworm, Common earthworm, (Lumbricus terrestris)
9.33 Earthworm behaviour.

3. Class Hirudinea, leeches, suck blood and use anticoagulant, segments divided into rings, no chaetae or parapodia, hermaphrodite,
eggs laid in cocoons, no larva.

9.1.6 Honeybee life cycle, Apis mellifera
A colony of honeybees contains a female queen bee, 30, 000 to 40, 000 female worker bees, and up to 100 male drones.
The fertilized queen bee, the largest bee, can lay more than 1000 eggs per day, and while laying eggs she is fed and cleaned by worker
She has only one mating period when she leaves the hive more than once over a period of three days during seven mating flights to
mate with 7 to 10 drones, often from other colonies, then she can used the stored sperm to lay fertilized eggs.
The queen bee can live for two to four years, but beekeepers usually replace her after one year because she produces most of the eggs
in the first year.
Worker bees, undeveloped females that do not normally lay eggs, are 13 -17 mm long and live for about 6 weeks.
As a hive nurse, they feed other bees, i.e. drones, queen and brood, clean and cap cells, pack pollen, receive nectar into the hive, clean
the hive and build honeycomb to store honey.
As hive guards, they protect the hive from other insects.
As foragers, they collect nectar from plants and in doing so becomes dusted with pollen, carrying the pollen to other plants where the
pollen fertilizes the ovules of plants to allow cross-pollination.
Drones are male bees, do not have a sting, are shorter than the queen and twice the weight of the worker bees.
They have larger eyes and antennae than the workers to help them find the queen for mating.
They die after mating because they have no other function or they may be evicted from the hive by the beginning of winter.
The artificial beehive contains up to 40, 000 bees.
The honey super contains eight frames on which the bees build honeycomb and which can be removed to obtain the honey.
The brood chamber, where the queen usually lives and lays eggs, also contains honeycomb but the cells are not as deep as in the super
because they are used for egg laying and brood rearing.
The comb is white when new, becomes yellow as it absorbs pollen during food storage, and becomes darker if used for generations.
The temperature in the hive is maintained at 34oC, because during cooler weather the bees eat more honey to provide energy for
warmth, and during hotter weather the bring in water on their honey stomachs, deposit the water on the honeycomb then use their wings
to fan the moisture as a form of evaporative cooling.
Older worker guard the entrance to the hive to deter intruders, including hungry bees from other hives.
The queen lays eggs, but only the worker eggs are fertilized, which then hatch after about three days as larvae (grubs), and are fed royal
jelly produced by the hypopharyngeal glands of the worker bees, but the feeding soon stops except for the larva that will develop as
a new queen.
The larvae develop as pupae then undergo metamorphosis to become queens after sixteen days or workers after twenty one days or
drones after twenty four days.
However, before a new queen is hatched, the old queen flies off with about half the worker bees and drones, swarming, after they have
have ingested about half the stored honey, to find a new home located by scout bees.
Bees store honey to provide food during periods of no flowers and to produce a swarm.
Swarming is prevented by opening the hives each week and destroying the queen cells.
Bees communicate by dances, vibrations and body chemicals.
Scout bees first locate flowers with nectar and pollen, return to the hive and communicate the position of the flowers with buzzing
noises, round dance and figure eight wiggle dance using the position of the sun as a prime source of direction.
Bees don't just make honey, they are vital to life on earth, every year pollinating 90% of plants and crops and helping to generate an
estimated $40 billion value and over one third of the food supply in many countries.
Without immediate action to save bees, many of our favourite fruits, vegetables, and nuts could vanish from our shelves.

9.1.7 Honeybee body structure, Apis mellifera
See diagram 9.7.1 Make a paper frame to study honeybees
1. Examine the hairs on the legs
Cut a piece of paper the size of a coverslip from a sheet of writing paper and fold to form a two layered triangle.
Cut from this triangle the area so that only a strip 2 mm wide remains.
Unfold to give a small paper frame.
Holding it with forceps, preferably at one corner, put a very thin layer of all purpose glue on both sides and attach it to a slide.
Examine a bee.
It can be seen with the naked eye, and even better with a magnifying glass, that the body of the bee is almost completely covered with
Pluck a clump of hairs from a well covered site with forceps.
Put it inside the fixed paper frame on the slide and press a coverslip over the upper side of the frame, which is already coated with glue.
The hairs are now firmly enclosed between the slide and the coverslip.
Such a specimen keeps for a long time and is called a permanent preparation.
Permanent preparations can also be prepared with other specimens by this method.
However, they must be absolutely dry as, for example, the scales of butterfly wings.
If the specimens are moist, they go mouldy in the enclosed space between the slide and the coverslip.
Inspect the preparation with a microscope, magnification 50 X the hairs.
When collecting pollen, bees often roll over in the flowers, thus covering their whole body with pollen.
The hairs are adapted to the activity of pollen gathering.
Microscope slide insect anatomy: Apis (bee), wings, three legs, spiracles

2. Examine the antennas
Count the number of parts making up a single antenna and note their relative arrangement.
Examine the antennas with a magnifying glass.
The segment attached to the head is called the scape.
A flagellum consisting of individual joints projects from one corner.
Count the joints in the female worker and the drones.
Between the shaft and flagellum is a small, ring shaped connecting piece called a turning joint.
Transfer a drop of glycerine to the middle of a slide with a glass rod to examine the dark coloured sections of a bee.
Use forceps to remove both antennas from a bee at the point where they are attached to the head.
Put them in the drop of glycerine on the slide and place a coverslip on top.
Avoid trapping air bubbles by holding the sides of the coverslip with thumb and index finger and mount it at an angle.
Then draw it into the glycerine drop and let it settle gently into place without applying pressure.
First examine the preparation under a microscope, magnification 50 X.
The structure of the antennas can be seen more clearly than with a magnifying glass.
Round pores are visible on their surface.
Where and how are they distributed?
How large are they?
The pores can be seen in more detail using a higher powered objective, 40 X.
The large pores are the openings of the olfactory pits, and very fine probing setae emerge from the smaller ones.
Prepare a drawing showing the component parts of a bee antennas.
What purpose do the antennas of the bee serve?

3. Examine the wings
The three main sections of the body of a bee are head, thorax and abdomen.
The wings are attached to the middle section, the thorax.
There are two pairs of wings, one pair each of forewings and hindwings.
Discover how the wings of the bee are constructed.
The forewings and hindwings on each side are linked by hooks and grooves so that they move together in flight and fold away neatly
when in the hive.
Choose a bee that has all its wings, undamaged and not twisted.
Hold the bee between the thumb and index finger of the left hand so that its back faces upwards and its head points forward.
Using forceps, grasp the outermost tip of the right forewing and bend it backwards over the surface of the hindwing.
Then draw it slowly forward again.
The trailing edge of the forewing should graze over the surface of the hindwing.
What can you see?
Repeat the process again, if necessary several times until something attracts your attention.
Next, examine the wings with a magnifying glass.
Are they all the same size?
How are they constructed?
Using pointed scissors cut off both wings on one side as close as possible to the body.
Transfer a drop of glycerine to a slide using a glass rod and introduce the wings into it and place a coverslip over them.
Examine the preparation under a microscope, magnification 50 X.
What can you see on the wings?
How are they constructed?
Very examine the middle part of the front edge of the hindwing.
What do you find there?
There is a brown strip in this middle section.
It is wider than the "veins" of the wing, runs close to the edge and stands out clearly.
At this point the skin of the front wing wraps over, making a fold.
Together with the little hook, hamuli, on the hindwing it forms the coupling apparatus and is essential for flight.
What is the function of the coupling apparatus of the bee?
Remember what happens when the front wing is drawn forwards over the surface of the rear wing.

4. Examine the legs
The bee has three pairs of legs.
Like the wings, they are attached to the middle section of the body, the thorax.
Examine the legs of the bee to discover how they are constructed.
With the lancet form dissecting needle tease off all the legs of the bee flush with the body.
Be sure that the legs are completely detached and that nothing remains hanging from the body.
First examine them under a magnifying glass.
It can be clearly seen that each leg consists of several different sections.
The uppermost portion attached directly to the body is the coxa.
Then follows the trochanter, the femur, the tibia and the tarsus, which consists of five tarsomeres or tarsal joints.
The first, uppermost, tarsal joint is much larger than the other four.
The claws are attached to the last, lowest, tarsomere.
How many claws are there?
See whether all the legs of the bee are constructed in this way.
What is the hair pattern?
The hind legs of the bee are collecting legs.
Examine them closely to see why they are called this.
On the inner side of the first tarsal joint are transverse rows of stiff hairs like bristles.
They can be clearly seen with the magnifying glass.
They form the pollen brushes with which the bee brushes off the flower dust, or pollen, from its body.
Count the rows of bristles.
On the outer surface of the tibia there is a smooth hairless area, which is slightly concave.
This depression is called the corbicula, or pollen basket, .
It is used for storing pollen.
Hairs surround the edge of the basket.
What is their shape?
And how are they arranged?
In what direction do they point?
What does the slight concavity surrounded by hairs do?
Using a glass rod place a drop of glycerine in the middle of a microscope slide, place a collecting leg in the glycerine and place a
coverslip over it.
Examine the specimen under the microscope, magnification 50 X.
The enlarged image shows the pollen press situated at the junction of the first tarsal joint and the tibia.
The pollen press packs the pollen into small clumps, which are then deposited in the corbicula.
This is how bees "breeches" are formed.
What does the pollen press look like?
Prepare a foreleg from a bee in the same way, and also examine it at magnification 50 X.
The fore legs are the cleaning legs of the bee.
At the upper end of the first tarsomere is a semicircular depression, or notch, fitted with fine setae like a comb.
This is called an antenna cleaner.
At the lower end of the tibia there is a lateral jointed spur, the fibula.
When the bee bends the first tarsomere towards the tibia, the fibula closes the cleaning notch.
The bee then draws its antennas through the comb to remove any adhering pollen grains.
Note which legs of the bee are used for cleaning and which are used for collecting.
Note the position of the brushes and the corbicula on the collecting legs.
The bee clean its antennas with the antennas cleaner.
The underside of the body is covered in soft hairs.
Pollen sticks to these soft hairs when the worker bee enters a flower.
The hairs on the forelegs and middle legs act like combs to sweep it together to be put into the pollen basket.

5. Examine the sting apparatus
The ovipositor through which the queen bee lays eggs is modified in the workers to form a sting.
The bee's "sting" consisting of a barb and attached venom sac located on posterior.
A wasp may sting repeatedly.
The sting causes local pain with swelling later and perhaps an allergic reaction.
Remove a bee sting as soon as possible.
It does not matter whether you pull it out vertically or flick it off sideways or scrape it off by sliding it out with a fingernail.
The longer you wait the bigger the weal!
Some people have died from bee stings caused by a rare anaphylatic reaction when the immune system overreacts.
Then wipe the sting area clean and apply ice.
Seek urgent medical attention, especially if sting is around face or neck.
A wasp may sting repeatedly.
Apply ice and seek medical attention.
Only female bees, both workers and queens, possess a sting apparatus, which is situated in the end segment of the abdomen.
It is used as a weapon.
Examine the structure of the sting apparatus of the bee.
Transfer a drop of water from a beaker to a slide with a glass rod.
Put a bee on its back on a ground glass screen and hold it firmly at the front end of the abdomen with either forceps or your fingers.
Place a pointed dissecting needle on the centre of the abdomen and stroke it backwards, pressing gently.
The sting will be pressed out of the abdomen, usually with the first stroke.
Take hold of it with the pointed forceps, draw it out from the abdomen together with all the adhering organs and place the whole in the
drop of water of the slide.
Mount a coverslip over it and examine the specimen under a microscope, magnification 50 X.
The sting is clearly visible.
What shape is it?
And what colour?
If it has been arranged in a useful position barbs can be seen at the tip of the sting on both sides.
In which direction do the tips of these barbs point?
At the upper end of the sting is a swollen sac-like structure from the other end of which hangs a long thin thread.
If removed undamaged from the abdomen this thread will be seen to be divided into two short branches.
These two threads are the venom, or "acid", glands.
The venom released from them then passes, for storage, into the swelling, called the venom sac.
On either side of the sting lie various plates and muscles, which are used when the bee injects the sting into the body of its victim.
All these parts collectively form the sting apparatus of the bee.
Observe the constituent parts and their relative arrangement of the sting apparatus.

6. The mouthparts consist of a "tongue" (labium) that can be enclosed near the head by the labial palls and maxillae.
Nectar can be drawn up the grooved surface of the labium by capillary action and the pumping action of muscles in the head.
These elongated mouthparts can be folded back under the head when not in use leaving the short stout mandibles free to chew pollen,
handle wax and repel enemies.

9.1.8 Notes on Australian native Bees, by Mandy, Nimbin Natural Beekeepers
1. Australia has 2000 known bee species and about 1000 more species are yet to be described
(1997, Bulletin of the Australia Native Bee Research Centre).
There are 10 social species and 1000s of solitary species of native bees in Australia.
(2001 - Russell and Janine Zable).
Australia's bees range from very primitive types, similar to wasps, to advanced types with complex nesting behaviour.
Some of them look like wasps, with thin-waisted, nearly bare bodies, while others look like they are wearing thick furry overcoats.
Some species are tiny, like mosquitoes, while others are big and fat like bumble bees.
Some species are completely black, while others have beautiful coloured markings or even have shining metallic coloured bodies.
To sort these myriad different forms into recognizable types, get them to poke out their tongue.
The most primitive bees have short tongues and can only feed on shallow flowers.
More advanced bees have long tapering tongues.

2. The two families of short-tongue bees in Australia are the Colletidae, a solitary bee with short blunt tongue, and the Halictidae, a
solitary or semi-social bee with a short pointy tongue.
All the other families of Australian bees have long pointy tongues, the Megachilidae solitary or semi-social bee, the Anthophoridae
solitary or semi-social bee, and the Apidae social stingless bee.

3. Another feature that distinguishes Australian native bees is the way they carry pollen and carry it in a special stomach called the crop.
The Megachilidae carry their pollen in a thick brush of bristles underneath the abdomen or tail part of their bodies.
The Apidae carry pollen packed on the pollen basket a special curved surface on the hind leg, just like honey bees.
Trigona carbonaria, a stingless little black bee, just 4 mm long, has thick white fur on its face and sides.
It lives in a large social nest with hundreds of workers plus drones and queens inside hollow trees.

4. All bees have 4 wings, which are hard to see because they are joined with little hooks, only seen under a magnifying glass.
All flies have 2 wings, but bees and wasps are harder to distinguish accurately.
Bees collect pollen as a protein food to feed their young, using a few branched hairs on their bodies.
Pollen grains are easily trapped in the junctions of the branched hairs, pretty feathery hairs.
Wasps are carnivorous.
They catch other insects or spiders for their young.
Wasp hairs are smooth and straight, like bristles.

5. There are now over 20 described species of Blue Banded Bees in Australia, but none in Tasmania.
The name of the Blue Banded Bee refers to the spectacular stripes of iridescent or metallic blue fur, which it has across its black
abdomen or tail section.
However, some Blue Banded Bees actually have green, reddish or even white stripes.
These beautiful colours are caused by microscopic diagonal stripes engraved on the surface of each hair.
These lines diffract (or break up) the light producing colours resembling an exquisite opal.
They often have a thick fleece of red-brown on their thoraxes or midsections and have bright lemon, cream or white markings on their
They take 7 weeks to hatch, an adult lives about 40 days, 3 generations of bees hatch during summer, some spend all winter in a
"prepupa" not yet, form a "pupa", and wait for spring.

6. Cuckoo Bee species are rare in Australia.
There are 10 Australian species of cuckoo bees.
They are cunning and stalk the nests of blue-banded and teddy bear bees.
The Neon Cuckoo Bee has blue fur on his back each band consists of 4 markings glittering metallic blue spots arranged in bands.
The common species are Thyreus bees, Neon Cuckoo bee, Chequered Cuckoo bee, Domino Cuckoo bee (whitespots).

9.1 Bird beaks
| See diagram Bird beaks and feet
| See diagram 9.1.2: Different birds 1
| See diagram 9.1.3: Different birds 2
Study beak types and observe the feeding behaviour of birds with a particular type of beak.
Investigate different beak uses.

9.2 Bird feet
See diagram Bird beaks and feet
Study feet types and observe the behaviour of birds with particular feet type, e.g. wading, walking, swimming, perching, hunting, and
carrying objects.
Many birds use their feet in perching or grasping, e.g. the woodpecker.
Other birds use their feet primarily for walking, e.g. quail.
Water fowl have webbed feet for wading and swimming, e.g. ducks, pelicans.
Hunting birds have large talons, e.g. hawks, owls.

9.3 Casts of bird footprints
See diagram Casts of bird footprints
3.67 Tests for strength of plaster of Paris bricks
Make casts of foot imprints found in soft soil or mud.
Use cardboard, paper clips, plaster of Paris and a spoon.
Form a cylinder with cardboard and a paper clip.
Put the cylinder around a track.
Pour a plaster of Paris into the cylinder.
When the plaster hardens, a raised or negative print of the track forms.
Use the negative print to make a positive print.
Organize casts into categories based upon use or function.

Plaster of Paris is partially dehydrated calcium sulfate crystals, CaSO4.H2O, made by heating gypsum.
When mixed into a paste with water it sets quickly and expands.
It is used as a fine casting material.
Put 4 mL of water into a beaker.
Add the powdered plaster of Paris slowly with a spatula.
Continue adding the plaster until it just appears above the surface of the water.
The plaster absorbs the water and you should finish with a very thin layer of water, about 1 mm, above the plaster.
Stir the mixture well.
When it begins to thicken, pour it into the paper box.
Smooth the surface of the cement in the mould and leave to set for 1 day.
Test the surface and strength of these bricks.
Plaster of Paris is not often used as a construction material, but calcium sulfate as gypsum, CaSO4.2H2O, is used to prepare
Portland cement.

9.4 Bird nests
See diagram 9.1.4: Parrots
Observe the activities of birds in nests but do not disturb the nesting behaviour of the birds.
Observe nest building, bird habits and the materials used.
Abandoned nests reveal detail of construction and small organisms that live in the nesting materials.
After hatching, observe the feeding and care of young.
Note how defence of its territory by a bird is an important behaviour in limiting the bird population in a given area.
Note aggressive bird behaviour in nesting and feeding areas.
Be careful! Nesting birds may attack children.

9.5 Bird houses
See diagram 9.1.5: Bird houses
Make a bird house that will help their nest building behaviour.
The internal size must be suitable for the nest of the bird.
The entry hole must be of appropriate size.
Leave the interior unpainted.
Put the house where the bird will use it and at the proper height above the ground.
Small houses with tiny openings lure small birds.
For example, a house for wrens should be 10 cm by 10 cm by 12 cm, with an opening hole 2.5 cm diameter.
Some birds will nest in an open structure, e.g. the robin.
Some birds need a house that resembles a tree trunk and has an opening 10 cm across, e.g. screech owls.

9.6 Feeders to attract birds
See diagram 9.1.5: Bird feeders
Be careful! Use safety glasses and thick gloves when building these feeders.
Handle metal netting, wire and tin with care.
Always cut away from the body.
Mixed seeds and suet (sheep kidney fat), attract many bird types at all seasons of the year.
Bird feeders attract not only birds but also small mammals, e.g. mice and squirrels.
Observe food preferences, times of feeding activity, and other behaviours.
1. Make a cubical suet cage from metal netting and nail it to a tree or post.
When cutting the metal netting, leave wire lengths protruding to be bent over adjoining squares to hold the sides together.
Leave the front panel free at the top so that it may be opened to replace the suet.
Fasten the closed cage with wire loops.
2. Make an open bird feeder from wood or metal scrap with a roof to keep snow and rain off the seeds.
Construct sides to the feeder to prevent birds from kicking out the seed mixture while searching for their favourite types of seed.
3. Make another metal bird feeder by cutting out both ends of a coffee tin, and attaching a cake pan under it with stiff wire.
Make a plastic lid to fit over the top and hang from a branch with wire.

9.7 Birds in your garden
Populations of many small bird species are declining because of loss off places for them to live and raise their families in both rural
farmlands and built up areas.
You can help these birds to survive by helping them to live in your garden.
However, some birds are nuisance birds.
The Common Indian Myna (Acridotheres tristis) reduces biodiversity by competing for nesting hollows with Australian native birds
and stopping them from breeding.
Other nuisance birds chase away other birds and spoil gardens, e.g. ibis, brush turkeys and miners.
However, these birds are protected so you cannot kill them.
In your garden, plant dense shrubs close together below a tree layer to form protective thickets.
Avoid using insecticides.
Place bird baths close to plants where birds can perch, in shade and out of the reach of cats.
Feed birds with native seed mix rather than bread or sunflower seeds.
Do not feed meat to birds because they may become aggressive to other birds and humans.
Keep you cat or dog away from the part of your garden where you want the birds to visit
Backyard birds of Brisbane
Australian Brush turkey, Australian White Ibis, Australian Magpie, Black-faced Cuckoo-shrike, Blue-faced Honeyeater, Brown
Honeyeater, Bush Stone-curlew, Common (Indian) Myna, Common Koel, Crested Pidgeon, Figbird, Grey Butcherbird, Laughing
Kookaburra, Magpie-lark (Pee-wee), Noisy Miner, Pale-headed Rosella, Pied Butcherbird, Rainbow Lorikeet, Red-backed
Fairy-wren, Silvereye, Striated Pardalote, sulfur-crested Cockatoo, Superb Fairy-wren, Welcome Swallow, Willie Wagtail
Common names: butcher bird, cockatoo, cuckoo shrike, curlew, fig bird, , honey eater, ibis, koel, kookaburra, lorikeet, magpie,
miner, myna, pardalote, pidgeon, rosella, silvereye, swallow, turkey, willie wagtail, wren.

9.9.0 Insect body, cockroach or grasshopper
See diagram 9.9.0: Insect general body plan, vertical section | See diagram 9.9.1: Cockroach | See diagram 9.9.2: Grasshopper
The exoskeleton is made mainly of chitin.
It is hard, strong and impermeable to liquids and gases.
Spiracles (holes), are laterally situated on some of the body segments and lead into the tracheal system of tubes inside the body to
allow transfer of respiratory gases.

1. Observe the following structure of insects
The body is divided into three regions
9.9.1 Head,
9.9.2 Thorax,
9.9.3 Abdomen
2. Examine the body structure of the cockroach with a magnifying glass.
Hold a female cockroach with forceps, by one of its legs so that it can be turned right round and inspected.
Repeat the examination with a male cockroach.
Note the differences between the male and the female cockroaches from both dorsal and ventral views.
Note where the legs are attached to the abdomen.
Note whether the three pairs of legs all have the same design.
Note the wings attached to the abdomen, the antennas and the two large eyes on the head.
3. Observe the head, antennas, compound eyes, mouthparts, three pairs of jointed legs, thorax, pairs of wings, abdomen, openings
along the side of the abdomen for breathing, wing veins that support the wings and keep the wings rigid when flying.

9.9.1 Insect head, the neck is flexible in predators, e.g. praying mantis
See diagram 9.9.3: mouthparts
Insects have one pair of jointed antennae, organs of touch and smell.
Mobile filaments made up of segments linked by membranous joints.
Long where sense of touch is important, e.g. cockroach.
Short where sight more important, e.g. dragonfly.
End of filament modified as flattened leafy plates, e.g. scarab beetle, club at end, butterfly, elbowed shape, e.g. ants, feathery
branched, e.g. emperor moth.
The insect eye is a compound eye made of separate units, called ommatidia, to provide "mosaic" vision.
Each ommatidium has an outer lens, seen as a facet and light sensitive organ.
Number of facets per eye: house fly 4 000 facets, butterfly 20 000, dragonfly 25 000. Insect eye can detect movement but cannot focus.
Most insects cannot distinguish separate colours but how colours reflect ultraviolet light.
Most insects are attracted to ultraviolet light, so UV light electric "insect zappers" are found in food shops.
In the head of some insects are three ocelli, structures to determine light intensity.
The mouthparts have 3 pairs of jaws:
1. Mandibles for biting and chewing, with flap above (labium) as an upper lip.
2. Maxillae can hold food and have sensory palls.
3. Labium acts as a lower lip but may be modified to form long feeding tubes, e.g. sucking bugs (Diptera) mosquito.
The mayfly has no mouthparts, so it cannot feed.

Examine prepared slides showing various parts of the head of cockroach or find the mouthparts folded under the head and pointing
Using a fume cupboard, fume hood, detach the head and boil it in 5% potassium hydroxide solution.
Detach the mouthparts with forceps and dehydrate with methylated spirit in a watch glass, then add some xylol.
Make a circle with a polystyrene mounting medium on a microscope slide.
Arrange the mouthparts within the circle then put on a coverslip.
Note how the mouthparts are modified for biting and crushing.
Identify the upper lip hinged to the lower portion of the face, a pair of mandibles (first pair of jaws) at the sides of the mouth, a
second pair of jaws behind the first pair, and the lower lip.

9.9.2 Insect thorax
See diagram 9.9.4: Wings
1. The insect thorax has 3 segments fused to each other, prothorax pair of legs, mesothorax pair of legs, pair of forewings, metathorax
pair of legs, pair of hindwings
2. Three pairs of jointed walking legs that end in claws, one pair on each thoracic segment.
Legs modified for digging, e.g. mole cricket, swimming, e.g. water boatman, seizing prey, e.g. praying mantis, jumping, e.g. cricket.
3. Two pairs of wings, if present, are on the second, or second and third, thoracic segments.
The different arrangements of wings include the following:
1. Wings membranous flap supported by network of "veins" with arrangement characteristic of different insects.
2. All 4 wings are used in flight to beat independently, e.g. dragon fly or pairs of wings joined to beat as one wing, e.g. bee, butterfly,
3. Forewings are thickened and hindwings can be folded under them, e.g. locust, grasshopper or modified to form protective shield not
used in flight, called elytra, e.g. beetle.
4. House flies have hindwings modified as knobs, called halteres.
5. Flightless insects have no wings, e.g. fleas, lice, some sucking bugs.

9.9.3 Insect abdomen
The insect abdomen has 11 segments or less or fused, joined by thin membrane, no appendages for locomotion on the abdomen.
1. At apex, male genitalia including claspers.
2. At end, female egg laying organ (ovipositor) or modified to form a sting, e.g. bee, ant, wasp.
3. Anus at end with segmented cerci on each side like small antennae, but they can be modified to form forceps, e.g. earwig.
4. No appendages for locomotion on the abdomen or anus.

9.10 Life cycle of a frog
See diagram 9.310: Frog life cycle
Teach the children to explain the different stages in the life cycle of a .
Look for frogs' eggs and tadpoles then bring them to school.
1. Show pictures of frogs.
Ask them: How are s different from lizards and snakes? [s have no scales, have a soft skin and lay their eggs in the water.]
2. Explain the life cycle: A male frog mates with a female frog by sitting on her back.
When the female frog lays eggs, the male frog puts sperm on them, in the water.
Most of the eggs are fertilized because the sperm and eggs are laid very close to each other.
The eggs are covered in a clear jelly.
The fertilized eggs grow into tadpoles.
The tadpoles have tails that help them to swim.
After several weeks the tadpoles are eaten by fish so although a female frog lays hundreds of eggs only a few will grow into adult s.
Draw the frogs's life cycle.
Toads have a venom gland on each shoulder that secretes a white fluid.
Other venom glands may distributed over the back.
Contact with a child's eyes, mouth, nostrils causes severe pain and irritation.
Treat by washing fluid from the body.
If venom is in the eyes, irrigate with water for 20 minutes.
If venom is ingested, induce vomiting and seek medical aid.
Wash your hands thoroughly after giving treatment.
Frogs may exude a toxic chemical from the skin.
Treat touching s as for touching toads.
Some fairy stories tell of girls kissing s or toads which then turn into a prince by magic.
Do not let children imitate such a practice!]

Do not keep toads because some are poisonous.
For example the cane toad, Bufo marinus, is native to South America, but was introduced to Pacific Islands and Australia to control
agricultural pests.
However, it is now a pest itself because it has poisonous glands behind the eyes and across the back.
Tadpoles have many shapes and colours, swim individually and you can usually see through their lower abdomen skin to see their
Tadpoles are black with pointed snouts, very small and travel in groups.
Some s can look like toads but generally toads sit very upright, grow bigger than s, have a rough skin, have glands behind the
eyes, ridges like eyebrows above their eyes, downwards turning mouths, move in very short hops and cannot climb trees.
Put a clump of frog spawn the size of a fist into an aquarium.
At least half the water in the aquarium should come from the place where the frog spawn was found.
The water must be kept clean throughout the period of observation.
s like leaf litter, clumps of grass and a few dead branches of trees to serve as cool hiding places.
Do not spray insecticides near s.
Feed tadpoles by adding boiled lettuce or boiled papaya leaves to the water every three days.
However, when the water becomes cloudy, replace a part so that it is always clear.
Algae will develop on the inside of the glass providing nutrients for the young frog larvae.
Give as much fish food as the frog larvae, tadpoles, can eat in half an hour.
Remove any food uneaten at the end of this time with the sludge extractor to prevent it decomposing and clouding the water.
Observe the development of the frog larvae and tadpoles daily.
When the tadpoles have legs, put a small floating piece of cork or foam plastic on the surface of the water in the aquarium, or small
branches of trees, so that they can leave the water when necessary.
Release the fully developed young s when the observations have been completed.
In some fairy stories, a princess kisses a frog and a handsome young man appears, however never kiss frogs!
Note the following:
1. 's egg in the gelatinous capsule
2. Young larva in the capsule
3. Larva with a tail, a young tadpole, that has emerged from the capsule
4. Large tadpole without legs
5. Tadpole with hind legs
6. Tadpole with hind legs and forelegs
7. Small young frog with the remains of a tail
8. Fully-developed young.

9.19 Insect collecting
Collecting from animals, parasitic insects
Collecting from bark
Collecting from birds' nests
Collecting from carcasses
Collecting from dung
Collecting from emergence boxes
Collecting from flight, only adult insects, use a butterfly net, use a light trap
Collecting from flowers, shake flowers over an umbrella, also some small insects inside flower buds
Collecting from foliage, hold an umbrella under foliage and beat the foliage to dislodge the insects, collect eggs
Collecting from fruit, keep fruit in a container to allow adult insects to emerge
Collecting from fungus
Collecting from galls
Collecting from leaf litter
Collecting from leaves, larvae of leaf miners leave snake-like markings on the leaves, pick leaf and keep fresh for adult to appear
Collecting from roots
Collecting from soil
Collecting from stones and rocks
Collecting from water, aquatic insects
Collecting from wood, dead wood.

9.20 Insect collecting nets, air net, sweep net
Net (butterfly), "Serrata" (Commercial)
See diagram 9.3.14: Air net
To make an insect air net, use a broomstick, heavy wire and mosquito netting.
Bend a heavy piece of wire into a circle 45 cm in diameter, and twist the ends together to form a straight section 15 cm in length.
Fasten this to the end of a broom handle with a wire.
Cut a piece of mosquito netting to form a net 75 cm deep and fasten to the circular wire frame with stitches.
Be careful! Use safety glasses and thick gloves when handling heavy pieces of wire.
Sweep net
Make a sweep net with muslin and very heavy wire that will not bend when the net is swept through grass.
Sweep by working back and forth over a measured area.
Count the net contents to estimate the number of insects between the soil surface and the grass tops.
To find the relative numbers of insects, sample the school grounds, a farm field, an abandoned field, forest floor or other natural areas.
Before the sweeping of vegetation, make small cages for crickets or grasshoppers with metal insect netting.
Be careful! Use safety glasses and thick gloves when handling metal netting.
Put grass, water and a small dish of moist sand in each cage.
Females may lay eggs in the sand.

9.21 Insect killing container
Obtain a wide mouth glass container with a screw top or one that closes very tightly.
Put a cotton wad in the bottom of the container and cover it with a round piece of cardboard or absorbent paper that has several holes
punched through it.
When the container is used, saturate the cotton wad with an insecticide.
Put the piece of cardboard over the cotton wad and then put the insect in the jar.
Close the container tightly and leave until the insect is dead.
Use a large container if collecting moths or butterflies to avoid damaging the wings.

9.22 Insect stretching board (setting board)
See diagram 9.3.15: Insect stretching board (setting board)
Use an insect stretching board to prepare insects for mounting.
Make the stretching board from flat cork sheets or soft wood split into two equal parts with a space 1 cm wide between them.
Fit the cork sheets into a flat cardboard or wooden box.
Put the body of the insect in the space and pin the wings on the top with strips of paper held by pins pushed into the cork, but not
through the wings.

9.23 Mounting boxes for insect collections
See diagram 9.3.15: Insect stretching board (setting board)
Use wood boxes for keeping insect collections.
After removing the insect from the stretching board, push a pin or long entomological pin through the body, and pressed into the
bottom of the box to hold the insect.
This is called a mounted specimen.
Arrange the pins in orderly fashion.
Attach small cardboard cards containing information about the insects, e.g. name, where caught, date of capture.
For displays in a school museum remove the lid and cover with glass or cellophane taped to the box to make a permanent mounting.
Store soft-bodied larvae and pupae in tubes containing methylated spirit or other special preservatives for insects.

9.24 Mounting block guide
See diagram 9.3.15: Insect stretching board (setting board)
A uniformly mounted collection is more attractive and makes it easy to compare specimens.
Make a wooden mounting block that looks like three steps.
Each step has a hole drilled through its centre.
Use the top step to line up all insects at the same height by impaling the insect and pressing the pin through the top hole.
The other steps provide uniform levels for labels containing information about the specimens.

9.25 Simple insect cage
See diagram 9.3.14: Insect cages
Make a 15 cm cubical frame from ice cream bar sticks.
Pull a ladies' stocking over the frame and close the open end by tying a loose knot.
The open end provides access to the cage interior.

9.26 Insectarium
Put 3 cm of moist, not wet, soil in an aquarium.
Add rocks and a small log.
Transplant small plants from the garden.
Catch insects and put them in the aquarium.
Cover the aquarium with wire or plastic mesh.
Use only 3 or 4 beetles.
Remove any leftover food after 3 days then add fresh food.
Sprinkle the soil with water when it becomes dry.
Give lettuce or cabbage leaves to grasshoppers.
Give pieces of apple, plums, and bananas to bugs and flies.
Give bread or fruit to ants and cockroaches.
Give grain to beetles.

9.27 Insect behaviour diary
Note when are the insects are more active, when and how they feed, how they get on with each another, when they sleep or rest at
night or during the day.

9.28 Night insects
Study night flying insects by setting up a light trap.
It is a white sheet stretched out between small trees at an angle of 30o from the vertical.
Put a bright light source under the sheet.

9.29 Insect collector
See diagram 9.29: Insect collector or "ant sucker"
Make an insect collector.
Use a 30 cm length of plastic or glass tubing, 3 cm in diameter, a small piece of fine wire mesh, and a length of flexible tubing.
Cut a circular piece of wire mesh slightly larger than the inside diameter of the glass or plastic tubing.
Force the screen half way through the tubing by pushing it with a rod.

9.30 Animal traps
You may need permission to keep animals in the school.
Also you may have to report periodically on what animals you keep and why they are necessary for your teaching programme.
Catch small mammals and reptiles for study (not snakes).
Use a large glass container with a wide mouth and a screw-on cap.
Make a one way door by cutting an opening in the lid and attaching a free swinging metal door that opens inward only.
The door swings on a stiff wire.
Transfer animals to cages without direct handling.
Be careful! Wear heavy leather gloves when handling reptiles or mammals.
Even when non-poisonous, bites from such animals may become infected.

9.31 Animal cages
See diagram 9.3.14: Animal cages
Keep animals in cages in the science room for short periods of observation.
Make a cage from a wooden box with a hinged lid that has a window covered with wire netting.
Cut windows in three sides of the box.
Cover the side and back windows with wire netting, and a fit a glass plate in the front window.
Add a drawer fitted under the front glass window and covering the entire bottom of the cage to allow cleaning the cage without
disturbing the animals.

9.32 Food and water for animals
Keep food and water containers above the floor of the cage.
Make a feeding trough for small animals by cutting a section from the side of a tin can, bending over the sharp edges, and then
attaching it to the side of the cage with wires.
Make a watering device for small animals from a bottle fitted with a one-hole rubber stopper through which passes glass tubing.
Invert the bottle and insert the tubing through the screen into the cage.
Change food and water daily and clean cages once a week.

9.33 Earthworm behaviour, Lumbricus
See diagram 9.3.32 Earthworm observation box
Make a wooden observation box 30 cm × 30 cm × 15 cm fitted with a glass front to studying the habits of earthworms.
Fill the box nearly to the top with successive layers of 1. sand, 2. leaf mould, and 3. loam soil.
Push down each layer before adding the next layer.
Put lettuce leaves, dead leaves, and pieces of carrot on the surface of the soil.
Loosen the surface of the soil and gently drop on some earthworms.
Watch them burrow into the loose soil.
Keep the contents of the box damp and study the behaviour of the worms through the glass front of the observation box.

The wonders of worms for campus kindergarten children.
University of Queensland Campus Kindergarten children have made some new animal friends lately thanks to their smart worm farm,
a feat of sustainable engineering and environmental education.
Designed by an UQ software engineering student as part of his final year thesis project, the farm is part of research initiatives,
which explore various ways of using "the Internet of Things" technologies,
(the concept of connecting any device to the internet).
The project involved making a "smart" worm farm that is sustainable as well as functional.
The farm's key features include an automated hydration system, temperature and moisture sensors, an infrared (IR) camera a web app,
and the farm runs on solar power.
The hydration system is connected to a tap via a hose and sprays water into the farm when moisture levels get low to make the farm
more self-sufficient and keeps track of water use.
Data sensors are used for the watering system, and are also useful for ensuring that the farm provides an optimum environment for the
The farm's IR camera snaps photos every hour, allowing the children to keep track of their new friends and learn about what the worms
do down in the soil.
Worms are pretty sustainability savvy because they eat most food waste and process it into nutrient-rich plant food,
and worm castings are excellent for plant health.
The feed the worms food scraps and use the farm compost in their own Campus Kindergarten veggie garden.
These activities give them valuable insight into caring for the environment, recycling and reducing food waste.
The children are also responsible for looking after and harvesting the veggie garden, which will eventually be used for kindergarten cooking
Children are hands on, they love the feel of the worms in their hands, but the question they often ask is how worms see underground
and what they actually do in the soil.
With the camera, the children can observe the worms and have a better understanding of how the worms live under the soil.
All of this helps inform the children's understanding of the environment and the importance of sustainable practice, as well as building
other key life skills.
Their ability to take ownership of the worm farm through feeding the worms, measuring how much the worms have eaten,
(via the app) and observing them through the camera helps them develop their problem-solving, curiosity, imagination and confidence.

9.34.0 Ant study
| See diagram 9.3.33: Ant observation nest
| See diagram 9.34.2: Ant life cycle
| See diagram 9.29: Aspirator bottle, "pooter", "ant sucker", "crawly keeper bug catcher"
Ants (Order Hymenoptera, Family Formicidae)
The life cycle has four stages, egg, larva, pupa, and adult.
A winged female is fertilized by a winged male in flight, then finds a protected place or makes a chamber.
She then bites off her wings and starts to lay eggs.
Fertilized eggs become diploid females.
Unfertilized eggs become haploid males.
The eggs hatch into worm-like larvae that have no eyes or legs.
They eat food collected by the queen or regurgitated by worker ants.
The larvae moult many times as they get bigger.
At full size the larvae spin a cocoon around themselves and become a pupa that will change into the adult form of ant by metamorphosis.
The female worker ants forage for food and take it to the queen or to storage.
The males soon die but the queen and workers can live for many years.
The queen controls the activities of all the workers or soldiers in the ant nest.

Make an ant observation nest with glass sides and a lid.
Cut an entry hole near the top of one side and plug it with cotton wool.
Collect 100 ants with an insect collector (ant sucker) and put them in a bottle.
Fill the observation nest with soil from where the ants were collected to the level of the plugged hole.
To find the queen, dig up the earth and put it on a white sheet.
Break up the earth with the fingers and look for one ant much larger than the others, the queen.
Guide the queen to a second bottle.
To get the ants into the observation nest, fill a large flat tray with water and put an upturned dinner plate in the middle to form an island.
Put the observation nest on the upturned plate and release the ants from the bottle.
When the queen is inside the nest, the other ants will follow her through the entry hole.
Plug the hole then remove the nest to its permanent place.
Put honey inside the entry hole to provide food, and keep the soil moist.
Study the activities inside the nest.
Observe the laying of eggs, the larvae, and how ants communicate by rapping each other on the head with their antennas.
Artificial light does not disturb the ants.
Observe the activity inside the tunnels parallel to the glass.
Experiment by the removal and subsequent return of a few ants, and the introduction of foreign ants.
When the nest is settled and the queen starts laying eggs, remove the cotton wool plug from the hole.
Put the observation nest near an open window and the ants will come and go freely.

9.34.1 Flying ants and termites
Both ants (Order Hymenoptera, Family Formicidae) and termites (Order Isoptera, white ants) can swarm during spring and summer.
Swarming is a natural occurrence that enables the colonies to reproduce and create additional nests.
Flying termites (alates) noticed outdoors should not normally be reason for alarm.
However more than a few swarming termites indoors may be a far more serious problem.
If you notice more than 20 termite alates indoors, i.e. they have not flown in from outdoors, contact a pest controller without delay.
Try to capture and live specimens in a dry jar.
Do not add water or any preservative.
Both flying termites and flying ants have two pairs of wings and their colour is dark grey to black.
1. Have antennae that are almost straight and have a beaded appearance.
2. Wings are virtually twice as long as their body
3. Both wing pairs are the same size.
4. Wing veins are not visible to the naked eye.
5. Have no taper to their body
6. Wings break off easily, with just a touch
1. Have antennae that are elbowed (bent)
2. Wings differ in size.
The outer pair is larger than the second pair.
3. Have narrow tapered waists
4. Wing veins are usually easily seen with the naked eye
5. Have sturdy wings that do not break off easily.

9.35.1 Fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, cultures of fruit flies
Drosophila, (Commercial)
| See diagram 9.3.23: Male and female Drosophila
| See diagram 9.3.30: Graph of population study
| See diagram 9.35: Male and female Drosophila, graph of population study
A foreleg, male with sex comb,
B male and larger female, abdomens with different numbers of segments,
C number of fruit flies in a 250 mL jar,
D number of fruit flies in a 500 mL jar
The common fruit fly, Drosophila, is used in genetic studies.
It is easy to culture and reproduces rapidly, so it is suitable for population studies.
Put ripe fruit, e.g. a banana, in the bottom of a jar and fit a paper funnel with a hole in the end in the mouth of the jar.
Put the jar in the open.
When fruit flies have entered the jar, remove the funnel and plug it loosely with cotton wool.
The fruit flies should be both males and females.
The females are larger, with a broader more pointed abdomen with seven segments.
The males are smaller and have a black-tipped more rounded abdomen with only five segments.
Only males have a fringe of black bristles on the forelegs called the sex comb.
The females will soon lay eggs and larvae will hatch after two days.
Put a piece of absorbent paper in the jar for the larvae to crawl on when they are ready to pupate and change to adult insects.
Put newly-hatched flies in another jar to start a new generation.
Make daily counts of the population in the bottle.
When numbers become very large, stand a piece of graph paper in the jar to count the number of pupae on the grid.
Maintain the bottle as long as the fruit flies survive.
Investigate the relationship between density of fly population, food preferences, temperature, life span and population.

9.35.2 Drosophila experiments, Mendel's laws, Cultures of fruit fly,
See diagram 9.6.1: Drosophila experiments
1. Attract fruit flies by putting overripe fruit in an open container, e.g. a glass jar.
After trapping the fruit flies, transfer them to small containers containing fruit chunks, e.g. banana.
Put a slice of ripe fruit in the bottom of the container and make a paper funnel with a hole in the end to fit the mouth of the container.
Put the container in the open air.
When six or eight fruit flies have entered (including both males and females) remove the funnel and plug it loosely with cotton wool.
The females are larger, with a broader abdomen.
The males are smaller and have a black-tipped abdomen.
Soon eggs will be deposited, and in 2 or 3 days the larvae will hatch.
Put a piece of paper in the container for the larvae to crawl on when they are ready to pupate.
The adult insects will come from the pupae.
Put newly-hatched fruit flies in another container to start a new generation.
To study fruit fly cultures, cut a piece of graph paper and stand it upright in the container so that you can sample a large population in
the bottle by counting the number of pupae on the grid.
Make daily counts of the eggs, larvae, pupae and young adults of the population in a bottle.
Draw a graph to show the increase in population with time.
Maintain the culture for as long as the flies continue to survive.

2. Use conical flasks for breeding.
Prepare the artificial diet the day before.
Add 2 tablespoons beet juice syrup to 1 litre water.
Heat the mixture and stir constantly.
Add semolina until a thick paste forms.
Prevent moulds forming by stirring in 1 spatula tip per litre of nipagin, methyl paraben, CH3(C6H4(OH)COO)
Pour the mixture into clean breeding flasks to a depth of 2 cm.
After cooling, add 5 drops of a viscous suspension of bakers' yeast in tap water.
Close the breeding flasks with cotton wool plugs.
Before the flies are inserted, absorb any liquid collected on the surface of the feeding mixture with strips of filter paper to prevent the
flies sticking to the surface.
Transfer the flies by tapping the breeding flask on the palm of the hand so that the flies fall to the bottom.
Quickly remove the cotton wool plug and place a collecting tube with the same size neck as the breeding glass on top of it.
By lightly tapping and shaking the flask, you can get the flies to enter the collecting tube.
Separate the two flasks and seal with cotton wool plugs.
Apply diethyl ether to the plug of the collecting tube so that the flies are anaesthetized within 20 seconds.
Shake the flies out on a sheet of filter paper and separate the sexes.
Use 8 females and 15 males for each fresh breeding batch.
The males are smaller than the females and the shapes of the abdomens differ.
The abdomen of the female is larger, more pointed and has 4 or 5 black transverse rings.
The abdomen of the male is smaller, more rounded with a black tip and has only two transverse rings.
The male has a row of bristles on the first foot section of each front leg.
To prevent the fruit flies sticking to the feeding mixture, transfer them to the breeding flask in small cones made from filter paper.
Make the cone by twisting a piece of filter paper about 5 cm square around the end of a pencil.
If unfertilized females are required, remove all the fruit flies from a breeding container containing a lot of pupae on the point of hatching,
and after 6 hours, collect the fruit flies that have hatched.
Since the males are unable to copulate until 8 hours after hatching, the females among them cannot be fertilized.
Larvae obtained in the following manner are most suitable for preparing giant chromosomes.
Breeding colonies should not be overpopulated so remove adults from the breeding glass after they have deposited their eggs.
When the larvae are half grown, add more drops of viscous yeast suspension to the container and remove the cultures to a
cool place, 15oC.
Take the fully grown larvae that have crept up the glass wall just before pupation for use as specimens.
3. Drosophila medium is an artificial diet consisting of 20 g of agar, 135 g of sugar, 38 g of yeast,
0.12 g of Nipagin (10 g L- 1 Nipagin in 70% ethanol) made up in 1 L of water and incubated at 20oC.

9.36 Flatworms
See diagram 9.3.22: Flatworms can regenerate parts
Flatworms react to different stimuli and can regenerate lost parts.
1. Find and feed flatworms
Look for flatworms on the underside of submerged logs or stones in a pond or lake.
The best species for study are the brown Dugesia or the larger Planaria.
Trap them by wrapping a raw liver in cloth, tying with string and putting it in a pond.
Check the bait daily, and brush off any flatworms into a small jar of the water where they were living.
In the classroom, use a medicine dropper to transfer them into a flat enamelled pan.
Keep the pan covered with a piece of brown cardboard when not observing them.
Keep the containers covered with a lid when not observing.
Once a week feed the flatworms with finely chopped liver, or hard-boiled egg, or bits of worms.
Remove uneaten food with a medicine dropper after three hours.
2. Note how flatworms respond to various stimuli, e.g. light, sound, food, mild electric shocks and Epsom salts.
Use a magnifying glass to observe the tube-like pharynx with which the flatworm uses to ingest its food.
3. Flatworms can regenerate parts if you put it on a glass microscope slide and cut it with a sharp razor blade.
Cut it in half across the body or down the length of the body.
A cut, part way down the mid line of the body, can produce a worm with two heads or two tails.
After cutting the flatworm, return the parts to the dish and do not feed them until regeneration has occurred.

9.37.0 Parasitic diseases
9.37.1 Arthropod-carried diseases
(Babesia microti (bacteria carried by tick, Ixodes scapularis), Babesiosis,
Borrelia burgdorferi (bacteria carried by tick Ixodes holocyclus in Australia) Lyme disease, Lyme borreliosis
Borrellia recurrentis, relapsing fever
Pediculosis capitis (head louse, does not carry disease)
Pediculus humanus corporis (body louse, may carry typhus (Rickettsia prowazeki)
10.5.10 Phthirus pubis, Pediculosis, lice (pubic louse, "crabs")
Rochalimaea quintana, trench fever
10.5.11 Sarcoptes scabiei, Scabies, ("sandy crabs").

9.37.2 Fluke / trematode diseases, Class Trematoda
Clonorchiasis, Clonorchis sinensis (Chinese liver fluke)
Fascioliasis, Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke)
Fasciolopsiasis (Fasciolopsis buski) (fluke)
Opisthorchiasis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus, (liver fluke)
Paragonimiasis, Paragonimus westermani, lung fluke
Schistosomiasis (bilharzia, bilharziosis, snail fever), Schistosoma.

9.37.3 Nematode diseases
Angiostrongyliasis, Angiostrongylus cantonensis
Ascariasis, Human intestinal roundworm, Ascaris lumbricoides
Dog roundworm (Toxocara canis)
Capillariasis, Capillaria philippinensis (C. hepatica, C. aerophila)
Dracunculiasis, Dracunculus medinensis (Guinea worm)
Enterobiasis, Enterobius vermicularis (human pinworm, thread worm)
Filariasis, Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi or B. timori
Gnathostomiasis (larva migrans profundus), Gnathostoma spinigerum
Hookworm disease, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, A. ceylanicum, A. braziliense
Loiasis (Loa loa, filariasis, Calabar swellings), Loa loa
Strongtryloidiasis, Strongyloides stercoralis
Trichinellosis (Trichiniasis), Trichinella spiralis
Trichuriasis, Trichocephalus trichiura (whip worm).

9.37.4 Protozoan diseases
Amebiasis (Amoebic dysentery, Amoebic dysentery, Intestinal amebiasis), Entamoeba histolytica
Balantidiasis (Balantidiosis), Balantidium coli
Cryptosporidiosis, Cryptosporidium enteritis
Giardiasis, Giardia lamblia (traveller's diarrhoea)
Leishmaniasis (Kala-azar), Leishmania sp. (carried by sand fly)
Toxoplasmosis, Toxoplasma gondii
10.5.13 Trichomoniasis, Trichomonas vaginalis.

9.37.5 Tapeworm diseases, Class Cestoda
Diphyllobothriasis, Diphyllobothrium latum (fish tapeworm)
Echinococcosis (hydatid), Echinococcus multilocularis
Hymenolepiasis, Hymenolepis nana (H. diminuta), dwarf tapeworm, rat tapeworm
Taeniasis, Taenia solium (pork tapeworm), Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm)
Toxocariasis, Toxocara canis (dog parasite), Toxocara cati (cat parasite) (both Toxocara may infect humans).