School Science Lessons
2019-02-04
Please send comments to: j.elfick@uq.edu.au

Table of contents
3.1.0 Family names, all plant families
6.6.5 Grain crops
6.6.4 Herbs Information
6.6.8 Leafy crops
6.6.12.0 Olives
6.6.13 Pesticides
9.2.1 Plant classification, by scientific names
6.6.10 Pumpkin family, cucurbits (Cucurbitaceae)
6.6.11.1 Pasture legumes
6.6.8.1 Sprouts and microgreens
6.6.7 Tap root crops and bulb crops
Onions Tap root crops and bulb crops
6.6.9 Tomato family (Solanaceae)
6.6.11 Tropical grasses

6.6.4 Herbs Information
3.7.0 Chinese five spice powder
3.0.0 Common names of herbs, A to Z
3.2.0 Herb families, dicotyledons and monocotyledons
3.3.0 "Herb Gardens", with Annette McFarlane
3.4.0 Herb growing basic tips, Queensland Herb Society
3.5.0 Herbal sprinkles
3.8.0 Herbal tinctures

6.6.13 Pesticides
6.13.0 Pesticides
6.13.1 Pesticide procedures:
6.13.2 Insect repellents
6.13.3 Withholding period
6.13.4 Active constituent
6.13.5 Resistance to pesticides
6.13.6 Persistence
6.13.7 Surface-acting agents
6.13.8 Emulsifying agents
6.13.9.1 Granules
6.13.9.2 Fumigants
6.13.9.3 Synergists
6.13.9.4 W / V, W / W
6.13.10 Pesticide safety
6.13.11 Pesticide safety, FIRST AID
6.13.12 Insecticide types, contact, ingestion, systemic

3.1.0 Family names, plant families
Acanthaceae, Acanthus family
Achatocarpaceae, Achatocarpus family
Acoraceae, Calamus family
Actinidiaceae, Chinese gooseberry family
Adoxaceae, Moschatel family
Agavaceae, Agave family, now (Agavoideae)
Alstroemeriaceae, Alstroemeria family
Amaranthaceae, Amaranth family
Amaryllidaceae, Amaryllis family, monocotyledon
Anacardiaceae, Sumac family
Annonaceae, Custard apple family
Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), Carrot family
Apocynaceae, Dogbane family
Aponogetonaceae, Cape-pondweed family
Aquifoliaceae, Holly family
Araceae, Arum family, monocotyledon
Arecaceae, Palm family (Palmae), monocotyledon
Araliaceae, Ivy family
Araucariaceae, araucarian family, conifers
Aristolochiaceae, Birthwort family
Asclepiadaceae, Milkweed family
Asparagaceae, Asparagus family
Asphodelaceae (Xanthorrhoeaceae)
Asteraceae (Compositae), Daisy family
Aizoaceae, Fig marigold family
Balanophoraceae, Balanophora family
Bataceae, Salt wort family
Balsaminaceae, Touch-me-not family
Basellaceae, Basella family
Begoniaceae, Begonia family
Berberidaceae, Barberry family
Betulaceae, Birch family
Bignoniaceae, Trumpet creeper family
Bixaceae, Lipstick tree family
Bombacaceae, Chapter family
Boraginaceae, Borage family
Brassicaceae (Cruciferae), Mustard family
Bromeliaceae, bromeliad family, Pineapple family, monocotyledon
Brunelliaceae, Brunellia family
Buddlejaceae, Butterfly bush family
Burmanniaceae, Burmannia family
Burseraceae, Frankincense family
Butomaceae, Flowering rush family, monocotyledon
Buxaceae, Boxwood family
Cabombaceae, Water shield family
Cactaceae, Cactus family
Callitrichaceae, Water starwort family
Calycanthaceae, Strawberry shrub family
Calyceraceae, Calycera family
Campanulaceae, Bellflower family
Canellaceae, Canella family
Cannabaceae, Hemp family
Cannaceae, Canna family, monocotyledon
Capparaceae, Caper family
Caricaceae, Papaya family
Cecropiaceae, Cecropia family
Celastraceae, Bittersweet family
Caprifoliaceae, Honeysuckle family
Caricaceae, Papaya family
Caryocaraceae, Souari family
Caryophyllaceae, Pink family (carnations)
Casuarinaceae, Sheoak family
Ceratophyllaceae, Hornwort family
Cercidiphyllaceae, Katsura tree family
Chenopodiaceae, Beetroot family (Goosefoot family)
Chloranthaceae, Chloranthus family
Chrysobalanaceae, Cocoa plum family
Cistaceae, Rock rose family
Clethraceae, Clethra family
Clusiaceae, Mangosteen family (Guttiferae)
Colchicaceae, Flame lily family
Combretaceae, Indian almond family
Connaraceae, Cannarus family
Convolvulaceae, Morning glory family
Cornaceae, Dogwood family
Corynocarpaceae, Karaka family
Crassulaceae, Stone crop family
Crossosomataceae, Crossosoma family
Cucurbitaceae, Cucumber family
Cupressaceae, Cyprus family, conifers
Cunoniaceae, Cunonia family, conifers
Cuscutaceae, Dodder family
Cymodoceaceae, Manatee grass family
Diapensiaceae, Diapensia family
Didiereaceae, Jade family
Dilleniaceae, Dillenia family
Dioncophyllaceae, Triphophyllum peltatum
Dioscoreaceae, Yam family
Dipsacaceae, Teasel family
Dipterocarpaceae, Meranti family
Droseraceae, Sundew family
Ebenaceae, ebony family
Elaeagnaceae, Oleaster family
Elaeocarpaceae, Elaeocarpus family
Elatinaceae, Waterwort family
Empetraceae, Crowberry family
Epacridaceae, Epacris family
Ephedraceae, Ephedra family
Eremolepidaceae, Catkin mistletoe family
Ericaceae, Heath family
Eriocaulaceae, Pipewort family, monocotyledon
Erythroxylaceae, Coca family
Euphorbiaceae, Spurge family
Fabaceae (Leguminosae), Pea family
Subfamily Faboideae, e.g. Lupinus
Subfamily Caesalpinioideae, e.g. Cassia
Subfamily Mimosoideae, e.g. Acacia
Fagaceae, Beech family
Flacourtiaceae, Flacourtia family
Flagellariaceae, Flagellaria family
Fouquieriaceae, Ocotillo family
Frankeniaceae, Frankenia family
Fumariaceae, Fumitory family
Garryaceae, Silk tassel family
Gentianaceae, Gentian family
Gesneriaceae, Gesneriad family
Geraniaceae, Geranium family
Ginkgoaceae, Ginkgo family
Goodeniaceae, Goodenia family
Greyiaceae, Greyia family
Grossulariaceae, Currant family
Gunneraceae, Gunnera family
Haemodoraceae, Bloodwort family, monocotyledon
Haloragaceae, Water milfoil family
Hamamelidaceae, Witch hazel family
Hernandiaceae, Hernandia family
Hippocastanaceae, Horse chestnut family
Hippocrateaceae, Hippocratea family
Hippuridaceae, Mare's tail family
Hydrangeaceae, Hydrangea family
Hydrocharitaceae, Tape grass family, monocotyledon
Hydrophyllaceae, Waterleaf family
Hypericaceae, St. John's wort family
Icacinaceae, Icacina family
Illiciaceae, Star anise family
Iridaceae, Iris family, monocotyledon
Joinvilleaceae, Joinvillea family
Juglandiaceae, Walnut family
Juncaceae, Rush family, monocotyledon
Juncaginaceae, Arrow grass family
Krameriaceae, Krameria family
Lardizabalaceae, Lardizabala family
Lamiaceae (Labiateae), Mint family
Lauraceae, Laurel family
Lecythidaceae, Brazil nut family
Leitneriaceae, Cork wood family
Lemnaceae, Duckweed family, monocotyledon
Lennoaceae, Lennoa family
Lentibulariaceae, Bladderwort family
Lecythidaceae, Brazil nut family
Liliaceae, Lily family, monocotyledon
Limnanthaceae, Meadow Foam family, monocotyledon
Linaceae, Flax family
Loasaceae, Loasa family
Loganiaceae, Logania family
Loranthaceae, Showy mistletoe family
Lythraceae, Loosestrife family, Pomegranate family
Magnoliaceae, Magnolia family
Malpighiaceae, Barbados cherry family
Malvaceae Mallow family
Marantaceae, Arrowroot family, Prayer plant family
Marcgraviaceae, Shingle plant family
Mayacaceae, Mayaca family
Meliaceae, Mahogany family
Melastomataceae, Melastome family
Melianthaceae, Melianthus family
Menispermaceae, Moonseed family
Menyanthaceae, Buckbean family
Molluginaceae, Carpet weed family
Monimiaceae, Monimia family
Monotropaceae, Indian pipe family
Moraceae, Mulberry family
Moringaceae, Horseradish tree family
Musaceae, Banana family, monocotyledon
Myoporaceae, Myoporum family
Myricaceae, Bayberry family
Myristicaceae, Nutmeg family
Myrsinaceae, Myrsine family
Myrtaceae, Myrtle family
Najadaceae, Water nymph family
Nelumbonaceae, Lotus lily family
Nepenthaceae, East Indian pitcher plant family
Nyctaginaceae, Four o'clock family
Nymphaeaceae, Water lily family
Ochnaceae, Ochna family
Olacaceae, Olax family
Oleaceae, Olive family
Onagraceae, Evening primrose family
Orchidaceae, Orchid family, monocotyledon
Orobanchaceae, Broom rape family
Oxalidaceae, Wood sorrel family
Paeoniaceae, Peony family
Palmaceae: See Arecaceae
Pandanaceae, Screw-pine family, monocotyledon
Papaveraceae, Poppy family
Passifloraceae, Passion-flower family
Pedaliaceae, Sesame family
Philydraceae, Philydraceae family
Phytolaccaceae, Pokeweed family
Pinaceae, pine family, conifers
Piperaceae, Pepper family
Pittosporaceae, Pittosporum family
Plantaginaceae, Plantain family
Platanaceae, Plane tree family
Plumbaginaceae, Leadwort family
Poaceae, Grass family (Gramineae), bamboo (Bambuseae), monocotyledon
Podocarpaceae, podocarpus family, conifers
Podostemaceae, River weed family
Polemoniaceae, Phlox family
Polygalaceae, Milkwort family
Polygonaceae, Buckwheat family
Portulacaceae, Purslane family
Posidoniaceae, Posidonia family
Potamogetonaceae, Pondweed family
Primulaceae, Primrose family
Proteaceae, Protea family
Punicaceae
Pyrolaceae, Shin leaf family
Rafflesiaceae, Rafflesia family
Ranunculaceae, Buttercup family
Resedaceae, Mignonette family
Rhamnaceae, Buckthorn family
Rhizophoraceae, Red mangrove family
Rosaceae, Rose family
Rubiaceae, Madder family
Ruppiaceae, Ditch grass family
Rutaceae, Rue family
Sabiaceae, Sabia family
Salicaceae, Willow family, willows, sallows, osiers
Santalaceae, Sandalwood family
Sapindaceae, Soapberry family
Sapotaceae, Sapodilla family
Sarraceniaceae, Pitcher plant family
Saxifragaceae, Saxifrage family
Saururaceae, Lizard's tail family
Scheuchzeriaceae, Scheuchzeria family
Schisandraceae, Schisandra family
Scrophulariaceae, Figwort family
Smilacaceae, Catbrier family, monocotyledon
Simaroubaceae, Quassia family
Simmondsiaceae, Jojoba family
Solanaceae, Potato family
Sonneratiaceae, Sonneratia family
Sparganiaceae, Bur reed family
Sphenocleaceae, Spenoclea family
Stackhousiaceae, Stackhousia family
Staphyleaceae, Bladdernut family
Stemonaceae, Stemona family
Sterculiaceae, Cacao family
Styracaceae, Styrax family
Surianaceae, Suriana family
Symplocaceae, Sweet leaf family
Talinaceae, Talinum family
Tamaricaceae, Tamarix family
Taxaceae, yew family, conifers
Theaceae, Tea family
Theophrastaceae, Theophrasta family
Thymelaeaceae, Mezereum family
Tiliaceae, Linden family
Trapacea, Water Chestnut family
Triuridaceae, Triurus family
Tropaeolaceae, Nasturtium family
Turneraceae, Turnera family
Ulmaceae, Elm family
Urticaceae, Nettle family
Valerianaceae, Valerian family
Verbenaceae, Verbena family
Violaceae, Violet family
Viscaceae, Christmas mistletoe family
Vitaceae, Grape family
Winteraceae, Wintera family
Xyridaceae, Yellow eyed grass family
Zannichelliaceae, Horned
Zingiberaceae, Ginger family, monocotyledon
Zosteraceae, Eel grass family
Zygophyllaceae, Creosote bush family

3.2.0 Herb families, dicotyledons and monocotyledons
3.4.0 Dicotyledons, Acanthaceae to Asteraceae
3.5.0 Dicotyledons, Balsaminaceae to Gerianaceae
3.6.0 Dicotyledons, Hamamelidaceae to Nyctaginaceae
3.7.0 Monocotyledons, Acoraceae to Zingiberaceae

3.3.0 "Herb gardens" with Annette McFarlane
1.0 Herbs are easy to grow and are a great option for beginner gardeners.
They are ideal for people with limited space as they adapt well to pots and can be grown in small garden beds.
There is a huge range to choose from.
Most herbs are plants that does not develop a true, woody trunk, and are herbaceous or soft.
Some herbs, e.g. rosemary and lavender, do develop hard stems, but not really a trunk, so these plants do not respond well when you
prune them back into their tougher stems.
The bay tree can grow to become a very big tree.
Herbs are often aromatic and usually have a traditional culinary or medicinal use.

2.0 Potting mix
Use 5 parts potting mix and 1 part coir peat plus organic fertilizers based on blood and bone.
Always check the soil pH with a simple soil test kit.
Add sulfur to lower pH.
Add lime to increase pH.
Make your own potting mix using 7 parts compost, 3 parts coir peat and 2 parts washed river sand + an organic fertilizer product, but
follow the application rate recommended on the pack.

3.0 Pots
A planter troughs containing 5-6 litres of potting mix is the minimum size for most herbs.
However, the more vigorous growing herbs, e.g. lemon grass, lemon verbena, pineapple sage, forms of rosemary ("Tuscan Blue"), and
true trees, e.g. bay tree, will require much larger pots containing at least 9 litres of potting mix.

4.0 Plant Selection
Group your herbs according to:
4.1 Life cycle: Annual, biennial /short lived, long lived / perennial.
4.2 Needs: wet, dry, full sun, semi-shade, acid soil, alkaline soil.

5.0 Examples of good combinations:
5.1 Garden mint, spearmint, apple mint, Vietnamese mint, all other mint types.
These plants are perennial, aggressive growers.
They require neutral to slightly acid soil and lots of water.
5.2 Coriander, dill, fennel.
These plants are relatively short lived, like cooler conditions, all hate root disturbance, sow seed direct, and require slightly acidic to
slightly alkaline pH.
Sow seeds of these plants directly into the pot and cover lightly with coir peat, as with other herbs or vegetables.
Apply liquid fertilizer when the seeds germinate.
Later you can harvest entire plants (roots, stems and leaves), just the way you buy them from the shop.
5.3 Italian parsley, triple-curled parsley, sweet basil, rocket, purple basil, lemon balm.
They are relatively short lived, tender plants, and require a slightly acidic to slightly alkaline pH.
5.4 Thyme, oregano, marjoram, sage, rosemary, lavender (the "Mediterranean herbs"), onion chives, garlic chives, stevia, perennial
coriander, golden oregano are all perennial, like hot, full sun, neutral to slightly alkaline soil, and can cope with some dryness once
established.
Include flowering plants with herb combinations to create a more attractive feature, e.g. nasturtiums, salvia, marigolds, calendula and
viola.
The flowering plants are edible.

6.0 Maintenance of a herb garden
6.1 Check the herbs every day so put them where you will notice them.
Water the herbs as required and at least every second day if there is no rain.
6.2 Add mulch to the pots to reduce evaporation and keep the roots cool.
Add stones or pebbles to prevent potting mix splashing out when you add water to the pots.
6.3 Apply liquid organic fertilizer every fortnight and dry fertilizer at the beginning of every season.
Fertilize the soil, rather than the foliage.
Rinse herbs after harvest to get rid of any fertilizer residue.
6.4 Allow herbs to become established before you begin to harvest them with kitchen scissors.
6.5 Herbs, including perennial herbs, do not live forever, especially if you grow them in pots.
Potting mix eventually breaks down and turns to dust.
Pots will become filled with roots.
6.6 Days of rain and high humidity suit mint but not the Mediterranean herbs.
Sprinkle of garden lime over the foliage of "grey foliage" or "hairy" herbs, e.g. rosemary, lavender and sage, to help overcome the effects
of excess humidity during the summer.

3.4.0 Herb growing basic tips, Queensland Herb Society
Position: Most herbs are hardy and will grow well throughout the garden, or in a separate garden of their own.
Grow herbs amongst your vegetables, they make great companions and they can improve growth and flavour of vegetables and repel pests.
Choose a spot close to the house for easy access, if planting throughout the garden, what you to use the most, close to the house.
The first step is to decide which herbs you would like to grow and how much room you will need.
Make some notes on how they grow, how tall, how wide, do they like lots of sun or do they prefer shade.
Sun: Generally, herbs need full sun, but some will survive on as little as 2 hours of good sun (after 9am) a day.
The herbs flavour and scent is stronger when they have adequate sun.
Herbs with grey leaves like lavender and rosemary require more sun, whilst parsley, mints and lemon balm will take less.
Soil: Most herbs need good drainage and grow best in a light crumbly soil.
Clay soils will need compost and manure dug through, building up the garden to ensure good drainage.
Sandy soils also need compost and manure added to give nutrients and help retain moisture.
Most herbs like a slightly alkaline soil you can add dolomite to increase pH.
Fertilize: Fertilise with a complete fertilizer or organic liquid fertilizer.
Also, use mushroom compost, worm castings and homemade compost containing chook or cow poo.
Planting: When planting out your herbs, soak the roots / tube for a minute in a solution of seaweed, this will help to prevent transplant shock.
Trim off any yellow or damaged leaves.
Water: When herbs are first planted water them in well.
Water regularly for the first week or so.
Once plants have settled in, rather than giving frequent light sprinkling, water deeply less often to encourage plant roots to grow deeper.

3.5.0 Herbal sprinkles
You need a salt shaker for herbal sprinkles and finely powdered dried herbs
Home powdering is not sufficient for most spices, because home blenders are not powerful enough, so use commercially prepared spices.
However, leafy green herbs, e.g. basil, peppermint, parsley and chives powder up well in a home blender.
Some seeds, e.g. coriander can be made fine enough to come through the holes in the shaker.
If shakers have open holes, the herbs are constantly exposed to oxygen, but they still last for six months
To prepare herbal sprinkles:
1. Purchase or home powder dried herbs or spices.
2. Mix herbs together well in a bowl then put them into shaker.
3. Sprinkle them on your food.
Garden meat rub recipe:
1/4 cup sea salt
3 tablespoons powdered rosemary
3 tablespoons powdered orange peel
2 tablespoons powdered thyme
1 tablespoon powdered sage
1 tablespoon powdered black pepper
1 teaspoon powdered horseradish.

3.7.0 Chinese five spice powder
Ingredients: | Black pepper | Szechuan pepper | Star anise | Fennel | Chinese cinnamon | Cloves |

3.8.0 Herbal tinctures
17.0 Herbal tincture defined
17.1 Herbal extracts
17.2 Make a dried herb tincture by maceration
17.3 Fresh Plant Tinctures (FTPs)
17.4 Examples of fresh plant tinctures easily made at home:
17.5 Recipe for a fresh plant tincture based on equivalent dry weight.
17.6 Ratios when purchasing pre-made ethanol extracts
5.04 Solutions for herbal remedies

6.6.5 Grain crops
1. Grain family (Poaceae) grass family, cereals
Maize or corn, sweet corn, popcorn (Zea mays)
Produce many fruit (grains) in rows on a cob.
Sorghum, millet (Sorghum)
Produces a head of grain. Likes a dry climate. Mainly for animal food.
Sugar Cane (Saccharum) Sucrose sugar stored in stems.
There are local canes that are grown for the edible flowers, e.g. pit pit grass (Miscanthus floridulus)
2. Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae)
Sunflower (Helianthus) produces grain in a big flower. It is in the same family as pyrethrum and lettuce.

6.6.7 Tap root crops and bulb crops
These are small plants with the tap roots or leaf bases swollen mainly with stored sugars.
1. Apiaceae (Carrot family)
Carrot (Daucus) has a single swollen tap root that is rich in vitamin A, but hard to grow.
Parsnip (Pastinaca) has a long white root like a carrot, but hard to grow.
2. Cruciferae (Cabbage family)
Radish (Raphanus) has a long or round tap root with a hot taste and is easy and quick to grow.
3. Alliaceae (Onion family)
Onions
3.1 Sweet onions have the least amount of the sulfur compounds that give onions their strong flavor, but with all of the sugars.
A thick slice can be used in hamburgers or for onion rings.
Not used to create a base flavor for stews because they do not have a strong enough flavour.
They are the most expensive bulb onions.
3.2 Red onions are less strong then yellow and white onions with a bit of sweetness, but still strong then sweet onions.
Can be used raw in hamburgers, salads, salsa, lightly sautéed dishes and slow cooking dishes.
They are cheaper them sweet onions, but more expensive then white or yellow onions.
3.3 White onions are the best general purpose onion, so can be used in salsa, salads and slow-cooked dishes.
Use raw, sliced thin or chopped fine and in onion rings.
3.4 Yellow onions are best used for cooking and are the cheapest bulb onion.
3.5 Scallions or spring onions are young onions that have yet to develop a bulb.
Bothe the green and white varieries are used mostly to flavor dishes with a lighter flavor than from bulb onions.
Use raw if sliced thin, and added at the very end of a short cooking.
Spring onion (Allium sp.) is a thin plant with small bulbs that grow quickly and produce daughter bulbs.
It has a strong taste and is used in stews or eaten raw.
3.6 Garlic (Allium sp.) has a large bulb with very hot taste, and daughter bulbs that separate easily.
4. Chenopodiaceae (Beet family)
Beetroot (Beta) has a large red tap root, and is cooked in stews.
The leafy crops spinach and silver beet are in the same family.

6.6.8 Leafy crops
1. Malvaceae (Hibiscus family)
Aibika, Pacific cabbage, Abelmoschus manihot, is a perennial bush producing edible leaves, that are an excellent vegetable with a
high protein content.
Okra or gumbo, Hibiscus esculentus, is really a fruiting vegetable.
It green fruits should be cooked in stews because of their sticky feel.
2. Cabbage family (Cruciferae)
Cabbage, Brassica oleracea, has very large terminal buds but grows slowly and has little food value.
Similar to cabbage are kohlrabi, broccoli, also turnip and radish, Raphanus, tap root crops.
Chinese cabbage, Brassica Chinensis, has a large terminal bud and is easy and quick to grow.
The variety Pak Choi looks like spinach.
The variety Wong Bok looks like a tall cabbage.
Watercress, Nasturtium, is a perennial herb growing in running freshwater streams.
Its leafy stems are eaten raw or in soup.
Plant the cuttings.
3. Lettuce family (Compositae)
Lettuce, Lactuca, has a large terminal bud.
It is picked fresh for salad or quickly boiled or stir fried.
Sunflower, a grain, and Pyrethrum, that yields insecticide, are in the same family.
Silver beet and spinach have large edible leaves.
They are members of the beetroot family.
4. Parsley, Petroselinum crispum, is a perennial herb used to flavour soups.
It is a rich source of vitamin C.
5. Comfrey family, Boraginaceae, includes comfrey, e.g. Russian comfrey, Symphytum.
The leaves are cooked as vegetables and the dried leaves cooked in biscuits.
6. Melon family, pumpkin family, Cucurbitaceae
Cucurbitaceae have shoot tips used as a green vegetables.
The Cucurbitaceae includes the following: Cucurbita, marrow, squash, melon, Cucumis, choko, Sechium, snake gourd,
Trichosanthes, bitter cucumber, Momordica, and watermelon, Citrullus.

6.6.8.1 Sprouts and microgreens
Sprouting and microgreens
For sprouting, use seeds purchased from a reputable seed specialist.
Wash the seeds, then initiate germination by soaking the seeds in warm water overnight.
Rinse the soaked seeds thoroughly to remove any discolouration.
Place the seeds in a jar and use a rubber band to attach a piece of fly screen to the top of the jar.
Invert the jar 45o and place the inverted jar in a dish on a windowsill.
Rinse the seeds three times each day.
Microgreens are an exciting, colourful, gourmet alternative to sprouts.
They are half way in size between sprouts and salad mix, and are usually grown in seedling trays.
Microgreens differ from sprouts in that they are grown in sunlight and harvested with scissors when there are 2 or more true leaves,
whereas sprouts are eaten much smaller.
Use the following for sprout or microgreens:
Adzuki bean, Alfalfa, Amaranth, Basil (Greek), Basil (purple), Basil (sweet), Basil (Thai), Broccoli, Buckwheat (hulled), Cabbage (red),
Carrot, Celery, Chard (red), Chervil, Chickpea, Chive, Coriander, Dandelion, Dill, Kohlrabi, Lemon balm, Lentil, Mung bean,
Mache (Lamb's lettuce), Mint, Mustard cress, Onion, Pea tendrils, Quinoa, Red garnet, Rockmelon, Mizuna (green), Mizuna (red),
Mustard (red), Parsley (continental), Parsley (curly), Radish (green), Radish (red), Rockmelon, Rocket, Salad burnet, Shiso (green),
Shiso (red), Sorrell (red vein), Rocket, Sunflower, Tatsoi, Watercress, Wheatgrass.

6.6.9 Tomato family (Solanaceae)
Tomatidine, C50H83NO21, glycoalkaloid, in tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum
13.6.4 Tomato sauce, ketchup, catsup
9.58 Tomato, Parenchyma cells of tomato
1. Tomato (Lycopersicon) produces a large amount of fruit if looked after well.
It needs occasional watering for deep root growth, need staking and side dressings.
Four kinds of wilt affect tomatoes:
1.1 Verticillium wilt fungus and fusarium wilt fungus are persistent infections from the soil.
They cause withering from the base upwards and stems that are black or red brown inside.
1.2 Bacterial wilt causes rapid wilting and death of the plant.
1.3 Spotted wilt virus causes brown leaf spots and rings.
Control these diseases with choice of resistant varieties, crop rotation and burning of infected plants.
2. Chilli, cayenne pepper, red pepper, green pepper, capsicum.
(Capsicum) are grown as a perennial cash crop.
Red pepper, green pepper or capsicum are grown as annuals and have large hollow fruit.
All these fruits contain a lot of vitamin C.
3. Eggplant or aubergine (Solanum) produce many large purple fruits that must be cooked.
A close relative is the European or Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum).
Other plants of the same family grown in the tropics are Tree tomato (Cyphomandra), and Tobacco (Nicotiana).

6.6.10 Pumpkin family, cucurbits (Cucurbitaceae)
3.28 Stems and roots (Primary)
Soft rots occur mainly in the hearts of leafy vegetables and can be controlled by watering only in the mornings, and by not planting too
closely besides using copper oxychloride.
Leaf tip burn in leafy vegetables can be caused by soil with very low pH, which can be controlled by adding lime to the soil.
Other leaf burns can be caused by using pesticides or weedicides that are too concentrated.
1. Pumpkin, squash, marrow (Cucurbita) Both bushy and running varieties grown for large fruit, tips of shoots and young leaves.
2. Cucumber, rock melon (Cucumis) watermelon (Citrullus) Smaller and faster growing than most pumpkins.
Melons are too easy to steal. Bushy and running varieties.
Choko, choyote (Sechium) produces large number of green fruit and edible young shoots and leaves, strong climber.
3. Snake gourd (Trichosanthes).
It is sometimes called a "snake bean" or "New Guinea bean", but it is not a legume.
It produces many white fruits 10.20 cm long, which can be cooked in soups.
It is strong climber but needs strong support for such big fruit.
Other cucurbits, which grow in the tropics but are not well known are as follows:
4. Bitter cucumber or bitter gourd (Momordica) is like a climbing cucumber with a knobbly skin.
5. Vegetable sponge or loofah (Luffa) is a fruit that is dried and used to wash yourself.
6. Gourd (Lagenaria) is like a round pumpkin with a very hard shell used to make cups and dishes.

6.611 Tropical grasses
The contents below are for information only and do not constitute advice on how any particular grass or legume should be used in any
school garden.
Before purchasing grass or legume the supervisor should obtain advice from a Field Officer of the Department of Agriculture, and
should obtain permission from the school principal.
The information below may be incorrect in some countries.
Grasses
1. Batiki Blue grass (Smut grass) Ischaemum indicum, long narrow seed heads, tufts hairs from flowers, grows well in shade.
2. Bermuda Couch grass, Cynodon dactylon, restricted growth in dry seasons, widely used for lawn establishment.
3. Birdwood grass, Cenchrus setigerus, used in short season environment, used as erosion control species.
4. Buffel grass, Cultivar Biloela, Cenchrus ciliaris, drought resistant, cultivars adapted to wide range of conditions.
5. Centrosema, Common, Belato Centrosema pubescens.
6. Columbus grass, Crooble, Sorghum almum, good pioneer species, drought and salt tolerant, short lived.
7. Green panic, Petrie, Panicum maximum, var, Trichoglume, palatable, shade tolerant, combines well with Siratro and Greenleaf
Desmodium, Bambatsi panic (Panicum coloratum).
8. Guinea grass (Hamil grass), Panicum maximum, well adapted to high rainfall tropical lowlands, robust, erect.
9. Kikuyu grass (Elephant grass), Pennisetum clandestinum, palatable, good autumn growth, erosion control.
10. Koronivia grass, Brachiaria humidicola, strong growing, forms thick mat on soil, grows well on coral soils.
11. Molasses grass, Melinis minutiflora, Pioneer grass in high rainfall areas, Carries fire.
12. Para grass, Brachiaria mutica, grows in waterlogged soil, high production on coastal lowlands, but not stand heavy feeding.
13. Paspalum grass (Paspalum).
14. Pangola grass (Digitaria eriantha subsp, decumbens).
15. Plicatulum, Rodd's Bay, Paspalum plicatulum, good legume compatibility, for coastal areas, very palatable.
16.Rhodes grass, Cultivar Callide, Chloris gayana, widely used in scrub lands, easy to establish, gives quick cover.
17. Sabi grass, Nixon, Urochloa mosambicensis, combines well with Townsville Stylo.
18. Setaria grass, Nandi, Setaria anceps, for coastal areas, aggressive, early spring growth.
Pit pit (Setaria palmifolia), fan-leafed pit pit, palm grass, Poaceae.
Pitpit
19. Signal grass, Cultivar Basilisk (Brachiaria decumbens), good ground cover, prefer to Pangola and Guinea in high rainfall areas.
20. Humidicola (Brachiaria humidicola).

6.6.11.1 Pasture legumes
1. Axillaris, Archer, Macrotyloma axillare, combines well with many grasses and legumes
2. Calopo, Calopogonium mucunoides, pioneer, vigorous growth for weed control.
3. Centrosema, Common, Belato Centrosema pubescens
4. Crotalaria, rattlebox, sunnhemp, Crotalaria, juncea, suited to tropical lowland environments, slow growth, hard seeds take long
time to germinate
5. Cowpea, hairypod cowpea, Vigna luteola
6. Desmodium, silverleaf, Desmodium uncinatum, more persistent than Greenleaf under hardier conditions
7. Hetero, Johnstone, Desmodium heterophyllum, for wet tropical coast, combines well with Pangola and Signal grass
8. Lablab, Rongai, Highworth, Lablab purpurens, cover crop, green manure, good for hay or silage
9. 4.26 Leucaena leucocephala
10. Lotononis, Miles, Lotononis bainesii, well adapted to acid soils, good palatability
11. Phasey bean, Murray, Macroptilium lathyroides, self-regenerating, annual, well adapted to waterlogging
12. Puero, Pueraria phaseoloides, pioneer species, palatable and productive, grows well in shade, large rounded leaves, adapted
to coastal areas, aggressive, early spring growth
13. Siratro, bush bean, Macroptilium atropurpureum, easy to establish, prolific grower, persistent, makes thick mat
14 Stylo (Schofield), Stylosanthes guyanensis, adapted to humid tropics, even poor soils
15. Stylo (Townsville Stylo, Common, Patterson), Stylosanthes humilis, easy establishment, good reseeder
16.Stylo (Pencil flower, cheesytoes. Carribean, Veran), Stylosanthes hamata, perennial under grazing
17. Stylo (Shrubby Stylo, Seca), Stylosonthes scabra, adapted to seasonally dry tropics.

6.6.12 Olives
Olive. Olea europaea, olive (Greek elaion oil), Oleaceae
7.8.1.0 Colloids and crystalloids, sols, emulsions, gels, aerosols, foams
19.2.11 Composition of edible oils. (Table)
19.1.17 Cooking fats
7.8.3.0 Emulsions
19.2.1.0 Fats in food
16.2.8.2 Garlic
9.3.5.0 Monoecious, dioecious and hermaphrodite plants
19.2.1.13 Oleic acid
9.5.8 Popcorn, pericarp of maize
16.7.12 Salad dressing and mayonnaise emulsions
Soap
7.7.3 Solubility rules (See: 4.)
7.8.1.1 Tyndall effect
Use olive oil to clean pearls and lacquered metal, treat constipation, coughing + honey, dry skin, ear wax, earache, frostbite, hair
shedding, scalded throat, stings, improve pot plants.

6.130 Pesticides
1. Do not attempt to teach lessons on this until you have carefully read the following section on Resource Material on pesticides.
2. Do not teach this lesson until you have shown students how to use the spray using water only.
These notes will show you how to teach lessons on insecticides if you want to spray your hibiscus cabbage (aibika or bele or pele)
plants because they are badly attacked by leaf miners.
3. The main aim of these lessons is to teach students how to use carbaryl (1-naphthyl methylcarbamate), insecticide safely.
You will need insecticide concentrate, a sprayer, a plastic bowl and mixing stick, a 5 g measure and 4 L of clean water.

Caution before using pesticides
1.0 Pesticides are chemicals that can kill pests.
1.1 Insecticide kills insects, fungicide kills fungus and sometimes bacteria.
1.2 Miticide or acaricide kills mites and spiders.
1.3 Nematicide kills nematode worms.
1.4 Molluscicide kills slugs and snails.
1.5 Rodenticide kills mice and rats.
1.6 Herbicide or weedicide kills weeds.

2.0 Do not use any pesticides not mentioned in this chapter.
All pesticides are dangerous to humans, especially children, so they must be used and stored with great care if they are used in school
food gardens.
Use pesticides only if there is no other way of saving your crop.
If you want to use pesticides always tell the headmaster what you intend to do.

3.0 The rules for using pesticides are as follows:
3.1 Read the directions on the container before opening.
Make sure that you have the right pesticide for the particular pest.
Make sure that you understand how much pesticide to use.
Make sure that your sprayer and tank is clean and working.
Try it out with water first.
3.2 Do not breathe in pesticide or spill it on your skin don't smoke or eat when using pesticides.
If you spill pesticide on your skin wash it off with plenty of soap and water straight away.
3.3 Wear special protective clothing and wash yourself after spraying.
Always handle concentrates with rubber gloves used only for that purpose.
Wear a work shirt, buttoned down to the wrists, long trousers and boots.
3.4 Spray on a calm day.
3.5 After spraying dig a hole in the bush and pour down it any makeup spray left in the tank.
Wash out the sprayer and pump and pour the washing water down the hole.
3.6 Store the unused pesticides in a safe place where children cannot enter.
Always use the old container, do not store in a new container, e.g. a drink bottle.
Do not store pesticides near food.

4.0 The pesticide you will buy will often be in a concentrated form so you must follow a proper mixing procedure.
Always use a plastic measuring cylinder or the special measure some pesticide factories make so you do not guess amounts of pesticide.
Dusts are blown or sprinkled onto plants without using water.

5.0 Mixing procedure for a liquid pesticide:
5.1 Fill sprayer tank half way with water.
5.2 Add measured amount of chemical to sprayer.
5.3 Fill sprayer tank with water.
5.4 Shake the sprayer.
6.0 Mixing procedure for a powder pesticide:
6.1 Put small quantity of water in bucket.
6.2 Put measured quantity of pesticide powder on top of water, leave until it is thoroughly wetted and then mix into a paste.
6.3 Add water, then add to half filled knapsack as per instructions for liquid pesticides.
If this is not done, some wettable powder will go lumpy and give mixing problems.

6.13.1 Pesticide procedures:
1. Show students the damage done by the leaf miners to aibika or bele.
Tell the students that you do not like to use pesticides, but in this case you must use a pesticide because it is the only way to save your
aibika or bele crop.
2. Show the students the tin of concentrate.
Let them read the label.
Note the name of the company that makes the insecticide, the trade name of the chemical, the common chemical name, the weight of
the contents.
3. Now let the students read from the label: "for the control of caterpillars, plant bugs, leaf-eating beetles and earwigs".
Ask them whether this is the right insecticide for the job.
4. Read out to the students from the label.
"This concentrate is dangerous if swallowed, breathed in or absorbed through the skin."
Tell them what to do if these accidents happen.
5. Read the instructions: "apply 5 grams in 4 litres of water".
Show the students how you will measure 5 grams of the powder and how you will measure 4 litres of clean water.
6. Read the mixing instructions.
"Mix the required amount of insecticide with a small quantity of water to form a cream and pour into remainder of the water.
7. Measure out 5 grams of the powder into a plastic bowl, use some of the measured 4 litres of water to make a smooth paste.
Pour about 2 litres of water into the spray, pour the insecticide paste from the bowl into the sprayer.
Use some water from your original 4 litres to wash out the plastic bowl and pour that into the sprayer.
Put the rest of the 4 litres of water into the sprayer, close the sprayer tightly and shake it.
8. Tell the students to remember:
1. What to read on the insecticide tin.
2. How to make up the spray.
In the next lesson, you can show them how to use this spray.

6.13.2 Insect repellents
See diagram 16.13.8: Deet, DMP
Natural insect repellents contained strong smelling oils, e.g. citronella, that repel insects after contact with the repellent.
The most effective insect repellents is deet, NN-diethyl-m-toluamide.
Also, DMP, dimethylphthalate, is an effective mosquito repellent, but it dissolves the plastic in watch glass and spectacles.
Other effective repellents are E-Hex, ethyl hexanediol, and Indalone, butyl 3, 4-dihydro-2, 2-dimethyl-4-oxo-2H-pyran-6-carboxylate!
The best repellent for bush flies and sand flies is di-n-propyl isosinchomeronate with the addition of the pyrethrum synergist
N-octyl bicycloheptenedicarboximide, NN diethyltoluamide, di-N-propyl isocinchomeronate.
An attractant for pantry moth is "biolure" (2, E)-9, 12-tetradien-1-yl acetate.
Java oil contains geraniol and citronellal.

6.13.3 Withholding period
This is the recommended time between spraying the crop and harvesting the crop so that people will not be made sick by eating the
pesticide still on the plants.
Make sure that crops that have been sprayed are not harvested within the withholding period.
A sprayed crop must be washed thoroughly before being eaten.

6.13.4 Active constituent
Pesticides are usually a mixture of chemicals.
The chemical that kills the pest is called the active constituent.
The other chemicals in the pesticide just make it easier to use and are called the inert ingredients.
Some active constituents are inorganic compounds, e.g. copper oxychloride and some are organic compounds, compounds of carbon.
Thus an organic chloride compound contains a carbon compound and chlorine, and an organic phosphate compound contains a carbon
compound and phosphorus.
The name of the active constituent is always written on the label.
Pesticides are made by many different factories in different countries and each factory gives the pesticide its own special name called a
trade name, e.g. Glyphosate weed spray, N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, "Roundup", "Rodeo", "Accord", "Zero", S5 poison.
So it is possible or pesticides with different names to contain the same active constituent and be used to kill the same pests.

6.13.5 Resistance to pesticides
It often happens that pesticides do not kill all the pests.
Some get sick, but remain live.
These pests may produce offspring which will not be affected by the pesticide because they have developed resistance to this pesticide.
So it is not wise to always use the same pesticide.
Instead, the pesticides should be changed from time to time.
So when you use up all of one type of pesticide, try using another type.

6.13.6 Persistence
Some pesticides and weedicides remain active for a long time, even in the soil.
The time they remain active is called "persistence".
Pesticides that persist for a long time may be dangerous because their poisonous properties may affect later insects, animals and crops.

6.13.7 Surface-acting agents
Surface acting agents are chemicals that may already be added to the pesticide or that can be added to the pesticide.
They include detergents, soaps, wetting agents, spreaders and stickers.
These chemicals spread the pesticide over the plants better and may make them stick to the plants.
The label on the pesticide will tell you whether to mix with a surface active agent, a surfactant.
There are many commercial surface active agents or use any washing detergent.

6.13.8 Emulsifying agents
An emulsifying agent is a chemical similar to soap that helps oil and water to mix and form an emulsion.
When two liquids can mix they are called miscible.
Wettable powders (W.P.) are a mixture of an active constituent, e.g. sulfur, an emulsifying agent, and inert materials, e.g. clay.
Water is mixed with the wettable powder to make a spray solution.
Emulsifiable concentrates (E.C.) are a mixture of active constituent, an emulsifying agent, and oil.
Water is mixed with the emulsifiable concentrate (E.C.) to make a spray solution.
Emulsifiable concentrates and wettable powders should never be mixed together.
The label on the pesticide tells you which other pesticides can be mixed with it.

6.13.9.1 Granules
Granules are very small pieces of rock with pesticides stuck to them.
They are usually used when the pesticide has to be put in the soil.

6.13.9.2 Fumigants
Fumigants are poisonous gases used to kill pests in stored crops or soil.
They are very dangerous and should not be used in schools.
Some Departments of Agriculture use the dangerous poison ethylene dibromide on agricultural products that carry disease.

6.13.9.3 Synergists
Synergists are chemicals added to pesticides to make them more poisonous, e.g. piperonyl butoxide makes the insecticide pyrethrum
more poisonous.

6.13.9.4 W / V, W / W
W / V This means weight per volume or the weight of active constituents in a certain volume of pesticide.
So 30% W / V emulsifiable concentrate means 30 grams of active constituent in every 100 mL of the emulsifiable concentrate.
This may also be written as 300 g / L (grams per litre).
W / W means weight per weight or the weight of active constituents in a certain weight of pesticide.
So a 50% W / W wettable powder means 50 grams of active constituent in every 100 grams of wettable powder.
This may also be written as 500 g / kg (grams per kilogram).

6.13.10 Pesticide safety
1. Toxic means poisonous to humans.
2. Safe pesticides: Mancozeb, Maneb, Methoxychlor, Quintozene, sulfur, Zineb.
3. Fairly safe pesticides: Harmful, they may cause sore eyes, nose, throat or skin, but there is not much danger if you are careful not to
touch or breathe the pesticide.
4. Do not allow students to use Carbaryl, Malathion or Trichlorophon.
5. Dangerous pesticides, toxic.
If these pesticides are breathed in or left on the skin for some time you may get sick and die.
Only experienced teachers should use these poisons, e.g. Paraquat, Naled, Rotenone, Nicotine, Dimethoate, Methiocarb.
Some pesticides are dangerous if swallowed, but not dangerous if left on the skin.

6.13.11 Pesticide safety, FIRST AID
If any person gets ill who has been using a pesticide, he should be taken to a doctor or hospital straight away.
Tell the doctor or hospital the name of the pesticide used (active constituent) and show him the container.
The person who is sick from pesticide should be left to rest, clothing should be changed and the whole body washed.
He may need artificial respiration if his breathing stops.
If a person has drunk the pesticide he should be given an emetic.
This will make him vomit.
A good emetic is 2 tablespoons of salt in warm water, then push the handle of the spoon gently on the back of the tongue.
He should be kept head down, face down.
Give the person Ipecac syrup if it is available.
Do not give the person alcohol.
Pesticides on the skin should be washed off with plenty of soap and water, keep washing for a long time.

6.13.12 Insecticide types, contact, ingestion, systemic
1. Most insecticides kill insects by attacking the nervous system.
These chemicals can also harm humans, especially children, so they must be used and stored with great care when used in school food
gardens.
2. Insects can take in insecticides in 3 ways:
3.1 Contact poison
The insecticide touches the body of the insect, which then absorbs it.
3.2 Ingestion or stomach poisons
The insecticide is sprayed onto plants and the insects eat the plants.
3.3 Systemic poison
The insecticide is sprayed onto plants that absorb it into the sap.
Then sap sucking insects suck up insecticide in the sap.
However, most insecticides are taken in by more than one way.
Insecticides may kill the good insects, e.g. bees and ladybirds, as well as the bad insects which eat the crops.
So use insecticides only when the bad insects cannot be controlled in any other way.
If the bad insects are not doing much damage to crops, then do not use insecticides.

17.0 Herbal tincture defined
Tincture, Latin tinctura dying, to dye, in relation to the colouring of the tincture after extraction.
A tincture is typically an ethanolic extract of plant or animal material or solution of such, or of a low volatility substance.
To qualify as an ethanolic tincture, the extract should have an ethanol percentage of at least 25-60% and up to 90%.
In herbal medicine, ethanolic tinctures are made with various ethanol concentrations.
17.1 Herbal extracts
The combination of ethanol and water provides the most stable and efficient solvent system for herbal extracts.
Certain constituents that do not dissolve in water will dissolve in ethanol and vice versa, so every ethanolic tincture contains ethanol and
water.
Water is a good solvent for gums, mucilage, inorganic salts, sugars, bitters, colouring matter, alkaloids, salts, vegetable acids, most
glycosides, proteins, enzymes and tannins.
ethanol effectively dissolves some glycosides, resins, alkaloids and anthraquinones.
Herbal tinctures can be made very simply by maceration of fresh or dried herbs in a large glass jar, but dried herbs is the most common.
The extraction process is basically the same for fresh and dried herbs, but when using fresh herbs the water content of the plant material must be taken into account.
The best guide to recommended ethanol percentages is the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia (BHP) tincture formulae.
17.2 Prepare a dried herb tincture by maceration:
1. Grind the herb to a moderately coarse grind, but not to a powder.
2. Weigh the herb and place it in a large glass jar with a screw lid that has been sterilized in advance.
3. Calculate the volume of solvent needed to make the strength of tincture required.
Establish the proportion of ethanol needed for the most efficient extraction and preservation of the selected herb, and mix the ethanol
and water accordingly.
4. Add prepared solvent to the glass jar and cap it tightly.
5. Use an indelible marker to label the glass jar: date, name of herb, w/v ratio, solvent(s) used and their percentage
6. Shake the jar 1-2 times daily for 14-30 days, and keep it in a warm place, out of direct light.
7. Decant, press or squeeze and filter the liquid, leaving the plant material after extraction, called the marc.
8. Store in dark glass with an airtight lid below 30oC and avoid exposure to light.
Make a fresh plant tincture by maceration
Fress plant tinctures (FPTs), are made from freshly harvested, undried herbs.
17.3 Fresh Plant Tinctures, (FTPs)
FTPs are made from freshly harvested, undried herbs, by maceration
The water in fresh plants will add to the water component of the solvent, so it must be considered when calculating the total volume of
the solvent, and the amount of water and ethanol to use.
Some tips for making FPT'S
Before macerating, mash, grate or pulp the fresh herb using whatever is at your disposal and suitable for the task; a sharp knife, grater,
juicer, blender, food processor.
Non-woody fresh plants can be blended directly with their solvent.
Caution: Blenders and food processors are not recommended for tough roots or woody stems because the blades are not strong enough
and will get damaged.
The plastic bowl of a processor can react to strong concentrations of ethanol and crack, so either use a blender with a glass bowl or
chop/grate the fresh herb using the processor, empty herb into glass jar, then add the ethanol solvent.
Fresh plant tinctures are best consumed within 6 months, but, if refrigerated, will last a year.

17.4 Examples of fresh plant tinctures easily made at home:
Garlic bulb (Allium sativum)
Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale)
Nasturtium leaves (Tropaeolum majus)
Nettle aerial parts (Urtica spp.)
Plantain leaves (Plantago lanceolata and P. major)
Rosemary leaves (Rosmarinus officinalis)
Sage (Salvia species)
Thyme leaves and flowering tops, (Thymus vulgaris)

17.5 Recipe for a fresh plant tincture based on equivalent dry weight.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) fresh plant tincture, 1:10 in 60%o ethanol.
1. Weigh, dry, then re-weigh a 10g sample of the ginger.
2. If the dried sample weighs 2g, moisture content = 80% (10 - 2 = 8/10 x 100 = 80%)
and the dry weight is 20% of the fresh weight (2/10 x 100 = 20%)
3. So 100g fresh ginger has an equivalent dry weight of 20 g and contains 80 mL of water.
4. To make a 1:10 tincture of 100g fresh ginger, use 200 mL of solvent as there is 20 g of dried herb equivalent in 100 g fresh herb.
(20g: 200 mL = 1:10 w:v)
5. To calculate how much solvent to add, subtract moisture content of fresh plant from total volume of solvent required.
(200 mL- 80 mL= 120 mL)
6. The percentage ethanol required for this solvent is 60%.
(60% of 200 mL is 120 mL)
7. Add 120 mL of 95.8 % ethanol to make up the 200 mL of solvent
(80 mL water in plant + l20 mL ethanol = 200 mL of 60% ethanol solvent).
17.6 Ratios when purchasing pre-made ethanol extracts
Most tinctures made by professional manufacturers are called fluid extracts and are usually at a ratio of 1:1 or l:2.
This is extremely difficult to achieve accurately at home.
In Australia, few companies specialise in liquid herbal manufacturing which are available for practitioner dispensing only.
The ratios 1:1, 1:2, 1:5; 1:10 measure dried herb amount: mL.
For example, the ratio 1:l means 1000 mg of dried herb in 1 mL of solvent.
The ratios 1:5 and 1:10 are a lot more dilute and are used for herbs that are potentially toxic and/or very strong.
Reference: Adams, J & Tan, E. 2006.
Herbal Manufacturing: "How to Make Medicines from Plants", Northern Melbourne Institute of TAFE, Preston, Victoria