School Science Lessons
Food gardens 6e - Herbs
2019-06-06
Please send comments to: j.elfick@uq.edu.au

Herbs Information and Websites
Table of contents
3.6.0 Plant families, RhamnaceaeOleaceae to Violaceae (dicotyledons).

Family Rhamnaceae, Buckthorn family
Buckthorns, Rhamnus species, Rhamnaceae.
Purging buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica), has black berries, folk medicine | cascarosides + Emodin | herbal medicine, very powerful
purgative, England, Rhamnaceae.
Alder buckthorn (Rhamnus frangula, Frangula alnus), deoxy sugar rhamnose, Emodin, herbal medicine, frangula bark, former laxative,
charcoal was used in gunpowder, invasive in North America, England, Rhamnaceae.
Dried herb sold as bark pieces.
Rhamnus petiolaris, berries contain rhamnazin and other flavonol glycosides, Sri Lanka, Rhamnaceae.
Cascara (Rhamnus purshiana, Frangula purshiana), ("Cascara Sagrada"), cascara buckthorn, cascaroside glycosides + Emodin,
herbal medicine, cascara bark stimulating laxative, widely used cathartic, eastern USA, Rhamnaceae.
Dried herb sold as bark.
New Jersey tea, Ceanothus americanus, formerly leaves used to make a popular tea, perennial shrub, up to 1 m, multiple green-yellow
stems, deep roots, no caffeine but used as tea substitute, prairie plant, fixes nitrogen, anti-microbial, root decoction affects blood
coagulation, New Jersey, Rhamnaceae
See diagram: New Jersey tea,

Family Rosaceae, Rose family
Rosaceae, Rose family, e.g. apple, bitter almond, apple, apricot, cherry, hawthorn, nectarine, peach, pear, quince
Seeds of this family usually contain amygdalin, especially apricot kernels, bitter almonds.
Cabbage rose, Provence rose, rose de Mal (Rosa centifolia), Rosaceae.
Rose hips (Rosa canina), dog rose, wild rose species, high in antioxidants, vitamin c, used to make syrup, tea, marmalade, rose hip syrup,
herbal medicine, treat viral infections, South Africa, Europe, China, Rosaceae
Dried herb sold as berries, berries granules and as fruit powder.
Rose products, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Rose buds (Rosa x centifolia), Provence rose, cabbage rose, rose de Mai, hybrid, fragrant, production of rose oil, perfumes, astringent
root, herbal remedy, petal syrup used to treat infant constipation, Iran, Pakistan, Egypt, Rosaceae
Dried herbsold as rose flower buds - red, and as rose petals.
Rose petals (Rosa x centifolia), Egypt, Rosaceae
Dried herb sold as rose petals, rose petal pink powder and rose petal red powder.
Damask rose, rose of Castile (Rosa x damascena), edible fragrant flowers, rose oil, dried or rose water extract, culinary used in Middle
East as garnishes, sausages, herbal tea, preserved in sugar sweets, Geraniol terpene, essential oil used in emotional healing, may
crystallize and thicken in cold temperature, Rosaceae.

Agrimony, Rosaceae.
Agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria), cocklebur, sticklewort, church steeples, hardy plant, on hedge banks, sides of fields, waste places,
upright brown spike covered with soft, silky hairs, many small yellow flowers at the top, alternate hairy leaves, pinnate divided with
toothed leaflets, burr-like fruit, with hooked bristles, crushed leaves and flowers have lemon-like scent, used to produce yellow dye,
used as border ornamental, atracts bees culinary uses, tea has apricot-like flavour, agrimophol, herbal medicine, eye wash, back rub
from leaves infused in baby oil, Rosaceae.
Agrimony, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as aerials.

Alchemilla, Rosaceae.
Garden lady's mantle, (Alchemilla mollis) (lady's mantle of Virgin Mary) (dew collected by alchemists for experiments), garden herb,
herbal remedy, astringent, ornamental, Rosaceae.
Lady's mantle (Alchemilla vulgaris), common lady's mantle, bear's foot, perennial, up to 40 cm, attractive plant with beautiful light
green leaves, yellow-green flowers, astringent, flavonoids, culinary uses, few young leaves in salads, folk medicine, gynaecological
and skin disorders, Turkey, Rosaceae.
Lady's mantle, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Dried herb sold as aerials.

Fragaria species, strawberry, Rosaceae.
Fragaria varieties, Daley's Fruit Trees
Beach strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis), large berries, Chile, Rosaceae.
See diagram Fragaria chiloensis
Wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca), woodland strawberry, alpine strawberry, herbacious perennial, light shade, up to 25 cm, yellow flowers,
small red fruits, if cultivated grown from plants, fruit used as cultivated strawberries, leaves with cooked meat and in herbal teas, used to
treat intestinal and urinary problems, Europe, Rosaceae.
There are other species of "wild strawberries" in different regions of the world.
See diagram Fragaria vesca
Virginia strawberry (Fragaria virginiana), common strawberry, "wild strawberry", North America, Rosaceae.
See diagram Fragaria virginiana.
Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cultivar), garden strawberry, widely grown, herbal medicine, runners are buds, horizontal stems, Rosaceae.
See diagram Fragaria ananassa.

Avens (Geum canadense)
Geum species are commonly called "avens", Rosaceae.
White avens, Native American love medicine, Canada, North America, Mexico, Rosaceae.
See diagram White avens
Wood avens (Geum urbanum), herb Bennet, colewort, St. Benedict's herb, perennial, shade, yellow flowers, herbal medicine, many
traditional "cures" for digestive system, evil spirits, Rosaceae.
Wood avens, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Crataegus species (some species may be called a "hawthorn", the fruit is called a "haw", prickly hawthorn used to make hedgerows.)
Fireberry hawthorn (Crataegus chrysocarpa), goldenberry hawthorn, perennial, hardy plant, up to 2-4 metres, red berries and leaves,
valued herbal medicine, heart palpitations, high blood pressure but need medical supervision, North America and Canada, Rosaceae.
Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), common hawthorn, single-seeded hawthorn, English hawthorn, maythorn, mayblossom, small tree
dominant in hedgerows, herbal medicine, oval dark red fruit is a pome called a "haw", younger stems have sharp thorns, hedge plant
but invasive weed, Europe, Rosaceae.
Dried herb sold as berries.
White hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha), Aesculin, Europe, Rosaceae
Shrubby cinquefoil (Diasphora fruticosa, Potentilla fruticosa), five-fingered grass, silver weed, tormentil, tannin, herbal medicine, hardy
shrub, tolerates drought, flooding, cold, transplants easily, Rosaceae.
Filipendula species, Rosaceae.
Meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria), bridewort, meadwort, queen of the meadow, up to 45 cm, full sun, feathery cream flower heads,
very fragrant so called "meadowsweet", tall stems, formerly a strewing herb to cover the floor, culinary uses, soup, flavouring mead
and wines, herbal medicine, meadowsweet tea drunk traditionally to make the heart merry and joyful, temporary relief pain, headaches,
fevers, reducing nausea, anti-inflammatory but may induce symptoms of asthma in asthmatics, active ingredient Salicin,
so do not take if need to avoid aspirin, acetyl salicylic acid was named "aspirin" after former name for meadowsweet "Spirea ulmaria",
Rosaceae.
Dried herb sold as aerials.
Dropwort (Filipendula vulgaris), fern-leaf dropwort, crushed leaves smell of oil of wintergreen, methyl salicylate, herbal medicine,
Rosaceae.
Dogrose (Rosa canina), wild rose, wild briar, Provence rose, French rose, rose de mal, hundred-leaved rose, climber, pink-white flowers,
red-orange fruit called a rose hip is rich in vitamin C and antioxidants, herbal medicine, Europe, Rosaceae.
Tormentil (Potentilla erecta), common tormentil, septfoil, erect cinquefoil, hardy plant, more than 8 cm, herbal medicine, tonic, astringent,
inflammation, Poland, Rosaceae.
Tormentil, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Dried herb sold as rhizome.
Cinquefoil (Potentilla reptans), creeping cinquefoil, European cinquefoil, perennial, up to 40 cm, dainty yellow flowers, in love potions
and in baits to catch fish, herbal medicine, temporary relief offevers, healing sores, Rosaceae.
Prunus species, Rosaceae.
Almond: 16.3.6.17
Bitter almond: 16.3.6.18
Quillaia (Quillaja saponaria), quillaia extract from soap bark tree, China bark tree, Murillo bark extract (bark has sapogenin content 10 %,
harmful, irritant) (E999)
Quillaia extract), saponins, flavour enhancer, foaming agent for beer, treat cuts and abrasions
Quillaic acid, C30H46O5, poisonous, crystalline, triterpenoid sapogenin, prepared by hydrolysis of saponin in soap bark.
Rose (Rosa species), Rosaceae.
Rose 'Cécile Brünner', Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images. (Rosa multiflora X tea rose), Rosaceae.
Rose Duchess de Brabant, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images. (Rosa chinensis 'Duchess de Brabant'), Rosaceae.
Rubus species, berry fruits, woody stems, prickles, fruit may be called a bramble is collection of drupelets.
Salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), garden burnet, small burnet, burnet, culinary uses, salads, summer fruit drinks, dressings, herbal
medicine, tea for diarrhoea, very popular herb, Europe and Asia, Rosaceae.
Salad burnet, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Great burnet (Sanguisorba officinalis), up to 30 cm, hardy plant, herbal medicine, digestive, culinary uses, attractive leaves rich in
calcium, refreshing cucumber-like flavour, salads, sandwiches, garnish, Chinese herbal medicine, Rosaceae.

Family Rubiaceae, Madder family
Coffee (Caffea arabica)
Coffee, Daley's Fruit Trees
Caffea arabica is a slender perennial tree, up to 2 metres but pruned for easy berry picking, needs shade, glossy leaves, white flowers,
green unripe berries turn red when ripe, sweet pulp around ripe berries eaten, seed is roasted for coffee | Caffeine | Cafestol |
L - Aspartic acid | rawbean seed chewed to neutralize toxins in body, Rubiaceae.
Ipecacuanha (Carapichea ipecacuanha), herbal medicine, syrup of ipecac, amoebicide, Emetine, formerly very popular herbal medicine,
Rubiaceae.
Jesuit's bark (Cinthona officinalis) (named after countess of Chinchon), Peruvian bark, quinine bark, herbal medicine, bark is the original
source of quinine used to treat malaria, contains other alkaloids, South America, Rubiaceae.
Galium species, may be called "bedstraws", have small leaves in whorls, whorls of feathery tiny flowers
Cleavers (Galium aparine), goosegrass, velcro weed, grip grass, catchweed, crosswort, lady bedstraw, annual, weed, woodruff,
glycosides and alkaloids, folk medicine, poultice, diuretic, may cause dermatitis, Rubiaceae.
Dried herb sold as aerials
Cleavers, MudbrickCottage
Dried herb sold as aerials.
Hedge bedstraw (Galium mollugo), false baby's breath, up to 100 cm, small white flowers, widely distributed in Europe,
noxious weed, Rubiaceae.
Sweet woodruff (Galium odoratum), woodruff, herb walter, kiss-me-quick, herbaceous perennial, up to 30 cm, attractive
vanilla- scented leaves, formerly used as strewing herb and in herb pillows
culinary uses, droied leaves added to sweet wine for May bowl punch, Coumarin, herbal medicine, benefits lymphatic system, Rubiaceae.
Lady's bedstraw (Galium verum), pettimugget, maid's hair, herbaceous, perennial, sprawling plant but up to 90 cm, shiny dark green leaves,
hairy underneath, clustered Coumarin-scented , yellow flowers, | Asperloside |culinary uses, in cheese-making to make milk curdle, add flowers to yellow
cheese, may be noxious weed, Europe, North America, Central Asia, Rubiaceae.
Lady's bedstraw, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Gardenia (Gardenia jasminoldes), Cape jasmine gardinia, showy evergreen, needs acidic soil, scented, ivory-coloured flowers, bridal bouquets,
yellow dye from fruit, Chinese herbal medicine (houseplant), Rubiaceae.
Madder (Rubia tinctorum), dyer's madder, different coloured dyes, herbal medicine, colours urine red, garden herb, Rubiaceae.
Madder, Mudbrick Cottage
Rubus species, blackberry, raspberry, dewberry, Rubiaceae.
Squaw vine (Mitchella repens), partridge berry, herbal medicine, USA, Rubiaceae.
Dried herb sold as aerials.
Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa), una de gato, vilcacora, tryptophan, seratonin, carboxystrictosidine, herbal medicine, South America,
Rubiaceae.
Dried herbsold as stem bark.

Family Salicaceae, Willow family
Salix species
White willow (Salix alba), willows, sallows, osiers, (female catkins called "pussies", hence song: "little pussy willow"), (Gilbert and Sullivan
song from "The Mikado", "Willow, titwillow, titwillow"), anti-inflammatory, herbal medicine, willow bark tablets and capsules used to treat
backache, neck pain, hangover headache, can cause stomach irritation so do not take with alcohol or aspirin, England, Yugoslavia, Salicaceae.
Dried herb sold as bark and bark powder.

Family Santalaceae, Sandalwood family
Mistletoe (Viscum album), European mistletoe, hemiparasite on different host trees, worshipped by druids who though it was the
"ethereal tree" that increased the species by preventing sterility, traditional ancient herbal medicine, Europe, Santalaceae.
Dried herb sold as aerials.

Family Sapindaceae, Soapberry family
Acer species, maples, Sapindaceae.

Aesculus species, Sapindaceae.
Aesculus flava, yellow buckeye, Sapindaceae.
Aesculus chinensis, horse chestnut, herbal medicine, Escin or aescin, C55H86O24: 16.3.5.1a Sapindaceae.
Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), buckeye, deciduous, large palmate leaves, panicles of white to red flowers, seasonal
differences in twig growth, buds, lenticels, seeds bitter and inedible, hard dark brown seed case containing Aescin in a prickly fruit,
herbal medicine, treat varicose veins, may irritate gastrointestinal tract and interfere with action of drugs, e.g. blood thinners - warfarin,
widely-planted ornamental, North America, temperate Europe and Asia (naturalized), Sapindaceae.
A "conker" is horse chestnut seed on a string, used in a children's game where each child tries to break the other's conker.
Dried herb sold as seeds.
See diagram: Aesculus indica (Kew Gardens)
Aesculus indica, Indian horse chestnut, Sapindaceae.
Aesculus pavia, red buckeye, red blossoms, North America, Sapindaceae.
Aesculus X carnea, red horse chestnut, Sapindaceae.

Guarana (Paullinia cupana), Sapindaceae.
Soapberry usually refers to Sapindus species which contain saponin.
Wingleaf soapberry (Sapindus saponaria), Hawaiian soapberry, soapnut, "Indian soap tree", in clumps up to 6 m, inflorescence dense
panicles small white flowers, Americus, India, Sapindaceae.
Dried herb sold as seed hulls.

Family Sapotaceae, Sapondilla family
Miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum), "miraculous berry", perennial, evergreen, small tree, up to 1.5 metres, hardy plant but needs
cold protection, evergreen, shade tree, small, oval purplish fruit is one-seeded fleshy berry, often cultivated, culinary uses, fresh, fruit,
makes sour things taste sweet caused by miraculin glycoprotein which affects sour taste buds so acidic substances taste sweet, high
nutritional value, seed grown, Africa, Sapotaceae.
Miracle fruit, Daley's Fruit Trees

Family Saururaceae, Lizard's tail family
Fish mint (Houttuynia cordata), fishwort, vap ca, variegated toningkok, lizard tail, chameleon plant, heartleaf, bishop's weed, small
perennial herb, poison blocking plant, fishy smell plant, herbaceous perennial, hardy plant, up to 40 cm, deciduous, in wet soils, ancient
Chinese herb with unusual fish aroma, leaves used raw and cooked to flavour meat dishes, soups, Vietnam and Thai cuisine, valued in
Japan as tonic tea, invasive rhizomes, attractive markings on leaves can be of green, pink, cream, same uses as green leaf, Polyphenols,
herbal medicine, anti-inflammatory, used to treat allergies and asthma, Japan, Saururaceae.

Family Schisandraceae, Schizandra family
Star anise (Illicium verum), Chinese anise, shikimi, Japanese anise, evergreen tree, fused star-shaped carpels contain Anethole, used
for braising Chinese stews, China, Schisandraceae.
Five-flavour berry (Schisandra chinensis), Chinese mock-barberry, Chinese we wei zi, woody vine, may be single sex or both sexes,
juices, wines, sweets, Chinese herbal medicine, relaxing tonic, sexualfunction, immune responses, China, Schisandraceae.
Dried herb sold as berries.

Family Scrophulariaceae, Figwort family, Ivy-leaved toadflax (Cymbalaria muralis), Kenilworth ivy,
Hedge-hyssop (Gratiola officinalis, formerly Gratia dei), common hedge hyssop, herb of grace, bitter nauseous taste, gratiolin and
gratiiosolin glucosides, herbal medicine, cathartic, emetic, diuretic, treat liver disorders, Europe, Scrophulariaceae.
Bractless hedge hyssop (Gratiola ebracteata), low-growing marsh plant, grows in mud, inflorescence with hair-like glands, North
America, Scrophulariaceae.

Purple toadflax (Linaria purpurea), purple flowers, perennial, up to 70 cm, ornamental, herbal medicine, Italy, Scrophulariaceae.
Toadflax (Linaria vulgaris), common toadflax, yellow toadflax, butter-and-eggs, flaxweed, common weed, ornamental, snapdragon
type of flower which children can make "talk" by squeezing corolla base, herbal medicine, Scrophulariaceae.

Figwort (Scrophularia nodosa), brownwort, common figwort, kernalwort, throatwort, perennial, on waste ground, square succulent
stems, herbal medicine but cardio-active substances, supposed to cure scrofula because of throat-shaped flowers!, Northern
Hemisphere, Scrophulariaceae.
Figwort, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.

Mullein black (Verbascum nigrum), dark mullein, perennial, more than 1 metre, yellow flowers, seed stalks, attractive dried flower
arrangement, culinary uses, flowers in salads, herbal medicine, temporary relief of bronchial coughs, catarrh, mucous congestion,
Scrophulariaceae.
Mullein (Verbascum thapsus), common mullein, great mullein, white mullein, velvet plant, perennial, more than 1 metre, biennial,
grey furry leaves, yellow flowers, seed stalks attractive dried flower arrangement, culinary uses, flowers in salads, herbal medicine,
"mullein leaf" provides temporary relief for bronchial coughs, catarrh, mucous congestion, used as a divining rod, Scrophulariaceae.
Mullein, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as aerials.

Family Solanaceae.
Potato family (nightshades), e.g. Chinese lantern, duboisia, henbane, Indian ginseng, kantikari, shoofly plant.
6.6.9 Tomato family (Solanaceae).

Deadly nightshade, (Atropa belladonna), belladonna, dwale, fair lady, European mandrake, leaves and fruit poisonous, perennial,
herbaceous plant, herbal medicine, | Scopolamine Hyoscamine | used to produce Atropine, formerly used for
poisoned arrows, used to dilate pupil of eyes for female allurement (bella donna, Italian, beautiful lady), Europe, Asia, North America,
Solanaceae.

Angel's trumpet (Brugsmansia suaveolens), downy thorn apple, horn of plenty, angel's tears, annual herb, up to 2m, green stem, oval
leaves, large, fragrant, white, yellow or purple trumpet-shaped flowers hang down, seeds in hard spiny capsule which splits lengthwise
into four parts when ripe, poisonous leaves and fruit | Atropine | Hyoscine | Hyoscyamine | herbal medicine, analgenic, religious practices,
Brazil, Solanaceae.
See diagram Brugsmansia suaveolens.

Tree tomato (Cyphomandra betacea), tamarillo, small tree or shrub, evergreen, fast growing, short-lived plant, susceptible to nematodes,
fruit, medium, tomato-like, used fresh, cooked, propagation from seeds, Peru, Solanaceae.
See diagram Tree tomato.
Tamarillo, Daley's Fruit Trees

Chilli (Capsicum species)
Chilli pepper varieties | Capsaicin | Canthaxanthin | Solasodine | Solanaceae.
Pimento (Capsicum annuum), cherry pepper, bell pepper, chilli pepper, pepper, Christmas pepper (houseplant), herbal medicine, sold as
ground pimento, South America, Solanaceae.
3.4.0 Capsicum, chilli
Chilli Project
Tabasco chilli (Capsicum frutescens), perennial, varieties, up to 30 cm, culinary uses, meat, curries, herbal medicine, fed to hens to keep
them healthy and laying well, Solanaceae.
Chilli Aji Amarillo, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Chilli Aji Limon, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Chilli Aji Omnicolour (Chilli baccatuum), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Chilli Aji Panca, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Bird's eye chilli (Capsicum annuum variety), Thai chilli, red, yellow, purple or black fruit, pungent, hot and spicy fruity flavour, flowers
green-white or yellow-white, up to 2 m, can grow in pots, Vietnamese and Thai cuisine, soups, stir fries and salads, Mexico.
See diagram: Bird's eye Chilli
Chilli Black (Chilli annuum), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Chilli Bali Cabe (chabey) variety (Capsicum annum), bush plant, decorative with fruit of many colours starting green and white before
orange/red when fully ripe, mid heat flavour, good flavour, Indonesia.
Bishop's crown pepper (Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum), Christmas bell, joker's hat, Pimiento campanilla, perennial, attractive
bell-shaped, medium heat, used for for pickling
See diagram: Bishop's crown pepper
Chilli Cayenne (Chilli frutescens), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Chilli yellow habanero variety (Capsicum chinense), long capsicum-like fruit, green-yellow ripens to red, mild sweet taste, used in Asian
dishes, pickling.
See diagram: Chilli yellow habanero
Chilli Ghost Pepper (Capsicum chinense), 'Bhut jolokia', bonnet pepper, "hottest chilli in 2007", India.
Chilli Jalapeno, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Chilli Naga, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Chilli Peruvian Aji Amarillo, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Chilli Rainbow, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Chilli Rocoto (Capsicum pubescens), Rocoto tree chilli, "Hotlips", perennial, hairy leaves, black seeds, fruits abundantly, matures
from green to red, medium hot - very hot, used dry roasted.
See diagram: Chilli rocoto
Chilli Rocoto, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Capsicum pubescens)
Chilli Rocoto, Daley's Fruit Trees
Chilli Serrano (Capsicum annum), green fruit ripens to red, brown, orange, yellow, very hot, no need to be steamed or peeled so in salsas
See diagram: Chilli Serrano
Chilli Serrano, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Chilli Tabasco (Chilli frutescens), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Chilli Tepin (Chilli annuum var. Aviculare), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Chilli Thai (Chilli annuum 'Thai'), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.

Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana), Inca berry, golden berries, Chinese lantern, winter cherry, ground cherry (amour en cage French
love in a cage), perennial, branched shrub up to 1.6 m, heart-shaped leaves, bell-shaped drooping yellow-brown flowers, calyx expands
to form a beige husk enclosing the fruit, a round, smooth berry, like a small yellow tomato, inedible calyx forms a protective husk
around the growing fruit, Peru, Solanaceae.
Cryptoxanthin, in petals
Dried herb sold as fruit.

Cup of gold vine (Solandra maxima), Hawaiian lily, golden chalice vine, showy chalice vine, perennial, up to 2 metres, vigorous hardy plant,
stunning variegated, glossy new leaves purple and cream, valued for floral art work, large cup-like golden flowers, aroma of coconut,
Mexico, Central America, Solanaceae.

Solanum species, Solanaceae.

Night-blooming jasmine (Cestrum nocturum), night-scented jasmine, night-blooming jessamine, perennial, up to 1-2 metres +,
honey / musk / almond scented flowers give off their aroma in evenings, Solanaceae.
Night-Scented Jessamine (Cestrum nocturum), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.

Datura species, Solanaceae
Datura species: Daturas, angel's trumpets | Anisodamine | Convolvine | Cuscohygrine | Valeroidine | entire plant poisonous, especially
seeds and berries, in some countries selling Datura plants is illegal because deaths from misuse have been recorded, Solanaceae
Long spined thorn-apple (Datura ferox), angel's trumpets, fierce thorn apple | Anisodamine | Meteloidine | Solanaceae.
Pricklebur (Datura innoxia), recurved thorn-apple, lovache | Hyoscine | Tigloidine | Solanaceae.
Datura knightii | Caffeol glucose | Solanaceae.
Devil's trumpet (Datura metel), metel | Hexanoic acid | Hyoscine | Solanaceae.
Datura meteloides | Apohyoscine | Meteloidine | Solanaceae.
Datura sanguinea | Littorine | Solanaceae.
Jimson weed (Datura stromonium), thorn apple, devil's snare, devil's apple, poisonous, analgesic, | Atropine | Caffeol glucose | Hyoscamine |
Scopolamine alkaloids, herbal medicine, capsule fruit, Solanaceae.
Sacred datura (Datura wrightii) | Calystegin B | hallucinogen, Solanaceae.

Goji berry (Lycium barbarum var. goji), wolfberry, Solanaceae.
Goji berry, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Dried herbsold as berries
Chinese goji berry (Lycium chinense), wolfberry, goji berry, Chinese boxthorn, Safranal, Chinese folk medicine, respiratory disorders,
Solanaceae.
Chinese goji berry, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Dried goji berries are then cooked, Chinese wines, traditional Chinese medicine, medical value not clear, may interact with other
medications, China, Solanaceae.
African boxthorn (Lycium ferocissium), Queensland declared weed, Solanaceae.
Goji berry Daley's Fruit Trees

Mandrake (Mandrogora officinarum), satan's apple, hand of glory, hallucinogenic and narcotic, tropane alkaloids, Atropine
Hyoscamine | Scopolamine | used in magic practices, herbal medicine, former anaesthetic, in Bible Genesis 30:14-22, Mediterranean
region, Solanaceae.

Nicotiana species, Solanaceae.
Nicotiana species: Entire plant poisonous, Solanaceae.
Nicotiana species: | Anabasine | Miosmine | Nicotine | Solanaceae.
Manyflower tobacco (Nicotiana acuminata) Anabasine | Argentina, Chile Solanaceae.
Night-scented tobacco (Nicotiana alata, N. affinis), winged tobacco, jasmine tobacco, ornamental perfumed plant, South America, Solanaceae.
Native tobacco (Nicotiana debneyi, N. forsteri) | Debneyol | Solanaceae.
Tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca), anabasine, Solanaceae.
Nicotiana glutinosa | Glutinosone | 2-Ketoepimanool | Sclareol | South America, Solanaceae.
Aztec tobacco (Nicotiana rustica), grown for Nicotine production as insecticide, (smoked in some countries), Solanaceae.
Native tobacco (Nicotiana sauveolens, N. glauca), native Australia use, (the only Nicotiana species native to outside Americas), Solanaceae.
Woodland tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris) | Cembatriendiol | Solanaceae.
Nicotiana tabacum, tobacco plant | Acetosyringone | Anatabine | N-Caffeolputrescine | Capsidiol | Carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate |
Cembatriendiol | CYCLIC AMP | Debneyol | 6-Hydroxykainurenic acid | Isovaleric acid | Myosmine | Nicotine | Nicotyrine | Nornicotine |
Nornicotyrine | Rishitin | Rubisco | ScopolamineScopolin | Solavetivone | Spermidine | Tryptamine | used in leaf ontogeny studies, Solanaceae.

Withania (Withania somnifera), Indian ginseng, ashwagandha, poison gooseberry, winter cherry ("somnifera" Latin: "sleep
inducing") ("ashva" Sanskrit: "horse", "gandha" Sanskrit: "smell", root has strong horse-like smell.), perennial, up to 60 cm, small
branching shrub, 1 metre high and 75 cm wide, herbaceous plant, stems green and soft, branches and leaves downy grey fuzz, flowers
small and light green, bright orange-red berry with tiny seeds, esteemed Indian folklore herbal medicine, mild sedative, primary
strengthening tonic, sleeplessness, fatigue, immune system, root called "Ashwagandha", said to calm the brain, lower blood
pressure, reduce pain and inflammation, alter the immune system, anti-stress "adaptogen", tropane alkaloids,
e.g. 3-tropanol, C8H15NO, and steroidallactones, e.g. withaferin A, C28H38O6, used to treat
rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, easing lower
back pain and sciatica, but pregnant and breast feeding women should avoid ingesting any part of the plant,
may cause severe stomach pain, fruit rich in saponins as soap substitute, insect repellent, cultivated in India, Solanaceae.
Withania, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Dried herb sold as ashwagandha root.
Indian rennet (Withania coagulans), panirband, vegetable rennet, Ashutosh booti, Solanaceae.

Family Sterculiaceae, Cacao family
Dombeya burgassiae, blossom bouquet, 1-2 metres, large downy leaves, bees love pink flowers, dried flowers used for crafts, and
spray-painted gold, ornamental tree, Sterculiaceae.
Kola nut (Cola nitida), cola, Sterculiaceae.
Cocoa (Theobroma cacao), Sterculiaceae.

Family Styracaceae, Styrax family
Styrax species, balsamic benzoic resin from bark, these trees do not contain the ketone benzoin, but contain benzoic acid.
Gum benjamin tree (Styrax benzoin), benzoin tree, kemenyan, lioban, oncycha, Sumatra benzoin tree, benzoin incense tree, styrax
incense tree, to 20 m, hairy oval leaves, fleshy green-yellow flowers, benzoin gum resin called "benzoin Sumatra" from tapped bark,
| Benzoic acid | Cinnamic acid | E210 | Vanillin | herbal medicine, in "Friar's Balsam", "pastilles de serail", skin disorders, chest infections,
allergic reactions, incense, ornamental, shade tree, Sumatra, Styracaceae.
Styrax officinalis, produces storax sweet-smelling gum resin, Styracaceae.
Styrax tonkinensis, produces "benzoin Siam" contains benzoic acid, Styracaceae.

Family Talinaceae, Talinum family
Large-leaf fameflower (Talinum calycinum, Phemeranthus calycinus) (calcycinum : persistent calyx), rock pink, perennial, pink
flowers, rocky mountains, North America, Talinaceae.
Waterleaf (Talinum fruticosum), Philippine spinach, sweetheart, perennial, herbaceous succulent, up to 100 cm, pink flowers, herbal
medicine, in Indonesia, tonic properties as "panax ginseng", culinary uses, leaves in salads and cooked dishes, leaf vegetable, oxalic acid,
Mexico, Talinaceae.
Fameflower (Talinum paniculatum), jewels-of-Opar, pink baby's breath, herbaceous, perennial plant, jewel-like fruits, herbal
medicine, anti-inflammatory, common ornamental, North and South America, Talinaceae.

Family Theaceae, Tea family
Camellia species, Australian native food, Theaceae.
Tea, Daley's Fruit Trees
Tea (Camellia sinensis), tea plant, green tea, tannin, Caffeine, Theanine | Catechins but not tannic acid, China, Theaceae.
BOP = cut size of leaves Broken Orange Pekoe.
Black Assam Tea, full-bodied, good strength and good dose antioxidants, India.
Black tea is more oxidised than oolong, regreen and white teas.
Black Ceylon Teas, BOP, contains caffeine, Sri Lanka.
Black Darjeeling Tea, light, special delicate taste, contains caffeine, Darjeeling province, India.
Earl Grey Tea, BOP, blended, citrus bergamot flavour, South India.
English Breakfast Tea, BOP, full-bodied blend, Sri Lanka.
Dried herb sold as leaves.
Green Tea, not affected by oxidation, contains caffeine, sugar not added to drink, dried herb sold as leaves and powder, China.
Green Tea Gunpowder, from Zhejiang province, higher caffeine content than other green teas, cut size: rolled leaf, China.
Green Tea Jasmine, blended with jasmine, China.
Green Tea Sencha, China.
Oolong Tea, cut size: cut leaf and rolled leaf, China.
White tea, Dried herb sold as leaves, China.

Family Tropaeolaceae, Nasturtium family
Nasturtium, Alaskar nasturtium,
[The following "nasturtium", Tropaeolum species, are not related to genus Nasturtium, Brassicaceae, nasturtium, "nose twister"]
Nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus), 'Alaska' garden nasturtium, Indian cress, monk's cress, perennial, up to 40 cm, | Antheraxanthin |
Carotene | Cryptoxanthin | Erucic acid | Glucotropaeolin | herbal medicine,
antifungal, tonic, natural antibiotic leaves and flowers, high in vitamin C, culinary uses, salads, pesto and garnish, as tincture, herbal
medicine, Tropaeolaceae.
Nasturtium, (Tropaeolum majus), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Nasturtium, "Empress of India" (Tropaeolum minus), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, dwarf nasturtium, Tropaeolaceae.

Family Turneraceae, Turnera family
Damiana (Turnera diffusa), perennial, shrub (Acacetin), Southern United States, Mexico, Caribbean
Damiana, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Dried herb sold as aerials.
See diagram: Turnera flower
Damiana leaf (Turnera aphrodisiaca), mild aphrodisiac, Turneraceae.

Family Ulmaceae, Elm family
Elms (Ulmus species), Ulmaceae.
American elm (Ulmus americana), white elm, water elm | Catechin 7-0-xyloside | Ulmaceae.
Wych elm (Ulmus glabra), Scotch elm | Mansonone C | UK, Ulmaceae.
European white elm (Ulmus laevis), Russian elm, England, Ulmaceae.
Field elm (Ulmus minor), England, Ulmaceae.
Common elm, elm (Ulmus minor var.vulgaris), (mostly destroyed by Dutch Elm Disease, caused by fungus Ophiostoma novoulmi
Chinese elm (Ulmus parvifolia, U. chinensis) lacebark elm (commonly used for bonsai cultivation), roots penetrate under walls to
topple them, Ulmaceae.
English elm (Ulmus procera), slippery elm, herbal medicine, Ulmaceae.
Slippery elm (Ulmus rubra), perennial, hardy plant, deciduous, herbal medicine, mucilaginous properties, used to treat disorders of
the throat and digestive tract, USA, Ulmaceae.
Dried herb sold as powder and as bark powder.

Family Urticaceae, Nettle family
False nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica), bog hemp | Cryptopleurine | Americas, Urticaceae.
Ramie (Boehmeria nivea), ramie, white ramie, China grass, green ramie, rhea, perennial, hardy plant, more than 1-2 metres, fine
fibres, bast used for fibre, paper making, herbal medicine, may worsen allergy symptoms, east Asia, Urticaceae.

Pelitory-of-the-wall, (Parietaria judaica), spreading pellitory, sticky-weed, asthma weed because of allergenic pollen, up to 80 cm,
ovate leaves, inconspicuous greenish flowers, grows on walls and rocky places herbal medicine, acne, freckles, temporary, relief from
discomfort of haemorrhoids, noxious weed in Australia, Europe, Urticaceae.

Eastern pellitory-of-the-wall, (Parietaria officinalis), upright pellitory, lichwort, allergenic pollen, herbal medicine, Urticaceae.

Amazon tree-grape, (Pourouma cecropiifolia), small tree, evergreen, fast growing, fruit small, red, thin skin, sweet flesh, seed, used
fresh, jams, propagation from seeds, South America, Urticaceae.
See diagram Pourouma cecropiifolia

Pouzolzia (Pouzolzia zeylanica), perennial, hardy plant, up to 30 cm, herbal medicine, juice of plant is a folk remedy for boils, cuts,
wounds, skin itches, temporary relieves fevers, diarrhoea, urinary conditions, culinary uses, leaves as cooked vegetable, Africa,
Urticaceae.

Nettle (Urtica dioica), common nettle, stinging nettle, perennial, hardy plant, up to 1 metre, stinging hairs and strongly toothed ovate
leaves, aerial parts used in liquid tea for healthy plants and spray for aphids leaves in compost, tea as hair conditioner, and dandruff,
| Acetophenone | Formic acid | Histamine | Serotonin | herbal medicine, temporary relief arthritis, hay fever, blood, liver and diuretic kidney
tonic, astringent to dry oily skin, culinary uses, leaves cooked like spinach, stews, blended with fruit juices makes a refreshing smoothie,
as tincture, Bulgaria, Urticaceae.
Nettle, Mudbrick Cottage
Dried herb as leaves or root powder.
Urtica incisa, scrub nettle, "stinging nettle", tall nettle, upright perennial rainforest herb, triangular leaves with stinging hairs, leaves edible
after baking, folk medicine, Australian native food, Urticaceae.
Annual nettle (Urtica urens), dwarf nettle, small nettle dog nettle, burning nettle, herbal medicine, Eurasia, Urticaceae.
See diagram: Utrica urens

Family Verbenaceae, Verbena family
Lemon verbena (Aloysia citrodora, A. triphylla, Verbena triphylla), lemon beebrush, herb louisa, white brush, bee brus, attractive deciduous
perennial, up to 1 metre, leavesin whorls of three, herbal medicine, grow in pots, full sun, free-draining moist soil, not tolerate frost, culinary
uses, fruit salads, punches, summer drinks strong lemon flavour from citral terpenes, cultivated for oil, lemon-scented leaves as herbal tea and
food flavouring, and when dried and added to soup long lasting aroma | Citral,| Linalool | Verbenone | herbal medicine, digestive, South America,
Verbenaceae.
Essential oil may sensitise skin to sunlight, and large doses of its tea may cause gastric irritation.
Lemon Verbena, Lime verbena, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Dried herb sold as aerials.
Lemon Verbena Daley's Fruit Trees
Bushy lippia, (Lippia alba), bushy matgrass | Piperitone | Americas, Verbenaceae
South American lippia (Lippia citriodara) | Citral | Verbenone | Verbenaceae
Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens), rebrush lippia, perennial, high content of essential oil has oregano flavour, Carvacrol, USA,
Mexico, Verbenaceae
See diagram: Mexicano oregano.

Frog fruit (Phyla nodiflora), matchweed, perennial, hardy plant, inflorescence with purple centre surrounded by dainty pink / white flowers,
purple centre and stalk like matches, groundcover, used for lawns and holding banks, herbal medicine, North and South America, Verbenaceae.
Aztec sweet herb (Phyla scaberrima), perennial, up to 30 cm, hardy plant, herbal medicine, culinary uses, sweet tasting leaves used in salads,
drinks, culinary uses, herbal medicine, hernandulcin natural sweetener, Southern Mexico, Verbenaceae.
Aztec sweet herb, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.

Verbena species, Verbenaceae.
Verbena species: | Verbenalin | Verbenaceae.
Garden verbena (Verbena X hybrida) | Delphinidin | Verbenaceae.
Vervain (Verbena officinalis), common vervain, common verbena, herba sacra, divine weed, holy herb, Juno's tears, pigeons' grass,
simpler's joy, | Verbenalin | herbal medicine, perennial, up to 50 cm, herbal medicine, bedtime tea, insomnia, stress, relief, fevers, stimulant, formerly
thought to stop poison action and cure the plague, Australia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Verbenaceae.
Vervain, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Dried herbsold as aerials.
Blue Vervain, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Verbena hastata), Verbenaceae.

Chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus), chasteberry tree, monk's pepper, Abraham's balm (Latin agnus castus chaste lamb), perennial,
up to 1-3 metres, hardy plant, aromatic shrub, deciduous, hemp tree, 1-3 m, attractive fragrant violet-lavender flowers, culinary uses,
aromatic leaves and flowers used in dried flower arrangements, aromatic seeds alternative to peppercorns | Agnuside | Casticin | herbal
medicine, affects pituitary gland, used to treat muscular cramps, premenstrual disorders, menopause problems, do not use if taking
contraceptive pill or hormone replacement therapy, reputed anaphrodisiac for men, so is called the "chaste tree", used in basket weaving,
Southern Europe, Verbenaceae.
Chaste Tree, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Dried herb sold as berries.
Dried herb sold as berry powder.
Rough fingerleaf (Vitex madiensis) | Ajugasterone | Zimbabwe, Verbenaceae.
Chinese vitex (Vitex negundo), five-leaved chaste tree, nirgundi, | Acerosin | Agnuside | herbal medicine, India, Verbenaceae.
Chinese Vitex, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Roundleaf chaste tree (Vitex rotundifolia), beach vitex | Agnuside | herbal medicine, premenstrual syndrome,
Pacific region, Verbenaceae.
Simple leaf chaste tree (Vitex trifolia), herbal medicine, women's health, relieve fevers, coastal east Africa, Verbenaceae.
Purple vitex (Vitex trifoliata purpurea), traditional herbal medicine, ornamental, Verbenaceae.
Viola species, violets, Viola tricolor, Violaceae.