School Science Lessons
Food gardens 6d - Herbs
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Herbs Information and Websites
Table of contents
3.6.0 Plant families, Oleaceae to Resedaceae (dicotyledons).

Family Oleaceae, Olive family, e.g. olive, ash tree, privet, lilac.
White fringe tree (Chionanthus virginicus), greybeard, poison ash, snowdrop, dangling white flowers, North America, Oleaceae.
Forsythia species, Oleaceae
Forsythia species: | Carotene epoxide | Lactose | Mutatochrome | Neoxanthin | Verbascoside | Oleaceae
Korean goldenbell tree (Forsythia koreana), gaenari | Suspensaside | Oleaceae
Weeping forsythia (Forsythia suspensa), golden bell, lian qiao, large weeping shrub, yellow bell-shaped flowers, ornamental, Chinese
| Forsythiaside | Sinapyl alcohol | Suspensaside | herbal medicine, China, Oleaceae.

Jasmine, Jasmium species, Oleaceae.
Jasmium species: | Cantleyine | Indole | Oleaceae.
Indian jasmine (Jasminum auriculatum), needle flower jasmine, jui, essential oils in flowers, folk medicine, cultivated commercially, India,
Southeast Asia, Oleaceae.
Jasminum didymum subsp. lineare, scrambling vine | Jasminine | Southeast Asia, Pacific Islands, Australia, Oleaceae.
Jasmium gracile | Jasminine | Oleaceae.
Spanish jasmine (Jasminum grandiflorum), Catalonian jasmine, royal jasmine, Italian jasmine, perennial, hardy plant, 60 cm, white
aromatic flowers | Benzyl acetate | Benzyl alcohol | Indole | Jasmone | | Linalool | Linalyl acetate | Terpineol | herbal medicine, widely
widely planted, used in perfumery industry, Oleaceae.
Star jasmine (Jasminum multiflorum), skin diseases, flowers produce essential oils, Oleaceae.
Starry jasmine (Jasminum multipartitum), starry wild jasmine, African jasmine, Africa, Oleaceae.
Jasmine (Jasmium officinale), common jasmine, white jasmine, poet's jessamine, deciduous climber, divided leaves, loose spray of
fragrant white flowers, evergreen, | Jasmone | Stachyose | Himalayas, China, Oleaceae.
Dried herb sold as whole flower buds.
Pink jasmine (Jasminum polyanthum), pink bud, climber, dies out at base and produces growth at the top (houseplant), Oleaceae.
Arabian jasmine (Jasminum sambac), jasmine sambac (cvs. Grand Duke, Maid of Orleans), perennial, 70 cm, the jasmine of perfumes
and Chinese teas, herbal medicine, aromatic dried white flowers for refreshing fragrant tea to aid digestion, bathe infected eyes, "blood
purifier", perfume hair, | Dodecatrien-1-ol, C12H20O | herbal medicine, treat tapeworm, national flower of Philippines sampagutta),
Bhutan, Oleaceae.
Arabian jasmine, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Jasminum sambac 'Grand Duke of Tuscany'), See text below images.

Ligustrum species, Oleaceae.
Japanese privet (Ligustrum japonicum), wax-leaf privet, leaves and berries poisonous, Oleaceae.
Broad-leaf privet (Ligustrum lucidum), Chinese privet, wax-leaf privet, glossy privet, nu zhen zi, herbal medicine, Oleaceae.
Garden privet (Ligustrum ovalifolium), Korean privet, California privet, widely cultivated garden hedge, Oleaceae.
Privet (Ligustrum vulgare), common privet, wild privet, European privet, common hedge plant, leaf upper and lower surface covered by
epidermis and cuticle | Cinchonidine | berries poisonous, invasive, Oleaceae.

Olive (Olea europaea), olive, (Greek elaion, oil), medium tree or shrub, hardy, evergreen, slow growing, requires cold winter, silvery
green leaves, seed called pit, rock or stone, fruit also called olive, green olives picked before the ripening, black olives picked at full
maturity, fresh olives must be cured and fermented to remove bitter phenolic compound oleuropein, | Acetoxypinoresinol | Cinchonidine |
Oleuropein | herbal medicine, leaves antioxidant-rich, fruit small, green or black, used oily preserved, oil, propagation from seeds, cuttings,
grafting, used fruit pickled, oil content, leaves as tea, ferrous sulfate used for canned black olives, Asia, Turkey, Oleaceae.
Olive oil
Dried herb sold as leaves, and leaf powder.

Olive trees, Daley's Fruit Trees

Coolana Olives, Olive Oils, Preserved Olives

Native olive (Olea paniculata) | Jasminine | Pakistan, China, tropical Asia, Australia, Oleaceae.

Family Onagraceae, Evening primrose family
Evening primrose (Oenothera biennis), sundrops (not a true primrose, primula), perennial, 50 cm, biennial, yellow flowers open in the
evening until following noon, culinary uses, young leaves and flowers in salads, herbal medicine, seeds and essential oil contain
Gamma-Linoleic acid (GLA), which helps the body produce prostaglandin (Evening primrose oil (EPO), γ-linoleic acid, extracted from
seeds, has been used to treat hormone-related disorders, skin disorders, bruising and haemorrhoids, but it may have been over-promoted
as a "cure-all", is not an anti-cancer agent and is not recommended if taking blood pressure medication, garden ornamental, night
fragrance, North America, Onagraceae.
Evening Primrose, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.

Small-flowered willow herb (Epilobium parviflorum), hoary willow herb, perennial, hardy plant, groundcover, up to 30 cm, culinary uses,
leaves in salads and tea, | Pentagalloyl glucose, C41H32O26 | herbal medicine, helps maintain normal kidney function, aid to male urological
conditions, treat bed wetting,
Small-flowered willow herb, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Dried herbsold as aerials.
Great willow herb (Epilobium hirsutum), hairy willow herb, poisonous, herbal medicine, perennial herb, Onagraceae.
Arctic willow herb (Epilobium latifolium), Onagraceae.

Family Orobanchaceae, Broom rape family
Eyebright, Euphrasia species
Eyebright (Euphrasia officinalis), augentrostkraut (eyebright from Greek euphrosyne gladness), sub-alpine, short-lived herb, annual,
self-seeding, semi-parasitic on grass roots, full sun, up to 30 cm, leaves have jagged toothy edges, flowers white-pink, red or
yellow with yellow spot in the throat, terminal zygomorphic flowers, lower petal-like lip, semi-parasitic, historic folk medicine,
treat common cold, catarrh, folk medicine (but not now recommended), to treat eye infections, improve eye-sight, heal eye diseases,
conjunctivitis, red-eye, styes, itchy eyes, stinging eyes, also eyebright tea compress for tired eyes but tea must not get into eyes, eyebright
contains iridoid glycosides | Aucubin | and its aglycone, aucubigenin | flavonoids | Quercetin |, Apigenin | tannins | but their therapeutic
action is not known. Orobanchaceae
Dried herb sold as whole plant.

Family Oxalidaceae, Wood sorrel family
Bilimbi (Averrhoa bilimbi), cucumber tree, wood sorrel, belimbing besi, small village tree, evergreen, simple leaves crowded towards ends
of branches, drooping leaflets, small yellow-green to red flowers in hairy panicles, along woody branches and trunk, slow growing, hundreds
of fruits per year, exotic sour fruit yellow-green when ripe, pickle-like greenish yellow, very acid fruit, used for chutney, pickles, preserves,
jam and acid jellies, fruit contains high levels of oxalates so concentrated juice may cause renal failure, herbal medicine, propagation from
seeds, folk medicine used to treat many disorders itch, coughs, boils rheumatism, may be anti-diabetic and may prevent high cholesterol,
widely spread, Malayan region, Moluccas, Oxalidaceae.
Bilimbi, Daley's Fruit Trees
Carambola (Averrhoa carambola), star fruit, five corners, five fingers, belimbing manis, medium handsome tree, fruit star-shaped in cross-
section, leaflets simple, compound, arranged spirally around twigs, flowers small and lilac colour, large, yellow-orange, 5-ribbed used as,
fresh, jelly, juice, preserves, tree fruit salads and fruit drinks, fruit contains high levels of oxalates so concentrated juice may cause renal
failure, herbal medicine, to increase urine flow, stop bleeding, expel intestinal worms, prevent vomiting, treat many disorders, propagation
from grafting, seeds, South India, Indonesia, Malayan region, Oxalidaceae.
Carambola, Daley's Fruit Trees

Oxalis species, sorrels, bright coloured flowers, clover-like leaves, sour-tasting stalks (Greek oxis sour), oxalic acid (COOH)2, only
dicotyledon genus to form corms
Oxalis species: | Oxalic acid | Oxalidaceae.
Wood sorrel (Oxalis acetosella), common wood sorrel, cuckoo bread, stabwort, reproduction by contractile tuberous roots, lamina
divided into leaflets, | Turgorin | Oxalidaceae.
Creeping wood sorrel (Oxalis corniculata), oxalis, yellow wood sorrel, oxalic acid, vegetative reproduction by contractile tuberous
roots, lamina divided into leaflets joined at common point, herbal medicine, invasive weed, Oxalidaceae.
Scurvy-grass sorrel (Oxalis enneaphylla), "wild thyme", up to 7 cm, hairy blue-grey leaves, bitter taste, oxalic acid, source of vitamin
C to avoid scurvy, Patagonia, Falkland Islands, rockery gardens, Oxalidaceae.
Sourgrass (Oxalis pes-caprae), goat's foot, Bermuda buttercup, herbal medicine, high content of oxalic acid, invasive weed, may cause
stock losses, Oxalidaceae.
Oxalis (Oxalis purpurata) | Rapanone | arden border flower in England, South Africa, Oxalidaceae.
Yellow woodsorrel (Oxalis stricta), 3 heart-shaped leaflets curl up only at night, explosive seed capsules, culinary uses, whole plant in
salads, herbal tea, orange dye, herbal medicine, poultice, North America, Oxalidaceae.
Lucky clover (Oxalis deppe), iron cross, four-leaf clover (it is not a clover, Trifolium), four green leaflets blotched pink-brown at
base, red, funnel-shaped flowers (houseplant), Oxalidaceae.
Oca (Oxalis tuberosa), New Zealand "yam", small, red, waxy, crinkled tuber, tangy, acid nutty flavour, wilts at over 28oCelsius, edible
leaves and tubers, accumulates copper from soils, culinary uses, leaves and pink tubers eaten, fried, boiled, roasted, soups, herbal
medicine, high source of carbohydrate and energy, beta carotene, potassium, vitamin B6, anthocyanins, Andes mountains, Oxalidaceae.
Sold as bare root tubers.
See diagram: Oca

Family Papaveraceae, Poppy family, e.g. poppy, greater celandin
Papaver species: | Alpinine | Amurensine | Magnoflorine | Pronuciferine | Reticuline | Rhoeadine | Salutaridine | Papaveraceae
Alpine poppy, (Papaver alpinum), dwarf poppy, | Alpinine | Amurensine | Papaveraceae
Papaver aurantiacum (Papaver alpinum L. subsp. rhaeticum), Papaveraceae
Iranian poppy (Papaver bracteatum), Persian poppy | Bracteoline | Neopine | Salutaridine | Thebane | Papaveraceae
Papaver caucasicum | Armepavine | Papaveraceae
Longheaded poppy (Papaver dubium), blindeyes | Mecambrine | Papaveraceae
Bride rose poppy (Papaver fugax) Armepavine | Mecambrine | Thebane | Narcotine | Rhoeadine | Turkey, Papaveraceae
Iceland poppy (Papaver nudicaule), short-lived perennial, self-seeding, hairy stems, delicate bowl-shaped flowers, | Dhurrin | toxic,
northern Europe and Asia, Papaveraceae.
Iceland poppy variety (Papaver nudicale var. amurense) | Amurensine | Amurine | Papaveraceae
Oriental poppy (Papaver orientale), vivid coloured perennial, favoured garden plant, Turkey, Papaveraceae.
Arctic poppy (Papaver radicatum), rooted poppy, yellow poppy, alpine arctic regions, one of most northern species, Papaveraceae.
Poppy (Papaver rhoeas), Common poppy, (Latin pappa food or milk, Greek rhoeas), corn poppy, red poppy, Flanders poppy, (symbol of
World War I dead soldiers, "Poppy Day"), annual herb, up to 60 cm, white latex, slender roots.
Leaves are pinnately lobed, cut or toothed, stiffly hairy, basal leaves stalked, upper leaves sessile, young leaves can be eaten raw.
Showy scarlet flowers on long hairy stalks, two free sepals, four rounded overlapping red petals, fruit a smooth hairless capsule
Small seeds through pores at top of capsule, can lie dormant in soil for over 80 years, one plant can produce up to 60,000 seeds, have
nutty taste, used to flavour cakes and bread, poppy seed oil, or cooked used to flavour soups and salads.
Folk medicine, expectorant, sedative, treat mild pain, earache, toothache, neuralgia, petal infusion to treat coughs, insomnia and poor
digestion, red dye from petals used in medicines and wines, dried petals used to colour pot-pourris, symbol of remembrance, "Poppy Day",
eastern Mediterranean region, Papaveraceae
Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), Greek opion, poppy juice), breadseed poppy, white poppy, wild poppy, red poppy | Caffeic acid |
Codeine | Laudanidine | Laudanosine | Morphine | Narcotine | Narcotoline | Neopine | Papaverine | Protopine | Reticuline | Salutaridine |
Sanguinarine | Thebane | dangerous herbal medicine, Papaveraceae.
Poppy seed (Papaver somniferum subsp. horternse), herbal medicine (poppy seed on bread and cakes, edible oil), Papaveraceae.
In 2019, Brisbane workers reported that they had been tested positive for morphine after eating poppyseed bread.
As little as one teaspoon of culinary poppy seeds can return positive readings for opiates from drug test urine samples, depending on the
yield of the poppy seed.

Yuan Hu Suo (Corydalis ambigua), Chinese herbal medicine, Papaveraceae
Fumewort (Corydalis solida), Papaveraceae.

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis), redroot, pauson, to 50 cm, white petals, yellow stamens, one large lobed leaf, red rhizome, orange sap,
| Sanguinarine | red juice is poisonous, possible cancer treatment, ornamental, North America, Papaveraceae.
Dried herb sold as root powder.

Eschscholzia species, Papaveraceae.
Eschscholzia species: | Allocryptopine | Magnofluorine | Papaveraceae.
Californian poppy (Eschscholzia californica), night cap | Antheraxanthin | Californidine | Dihydrosanguinarine | Eschescholtzidine |
Eschescholtxanthin | Violxanthin | strong herbal medicine for sleeplessness so do not drive car after taking it, Papaveraceae.
Dried herb as aerials and aerials powder
Californian poppy, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Eschscholzia douglasii | Macarpine | Papaveraceae.

Chelidonium species, Papaveraceae
Chelidonium species: | Allocryptopine | Berberine | Magnoflorine | Papaveraceae
Greater celandine, (Chelidonium majus), celandine, swallowwort, 1 metre +, white flowers, orange sap from stem, root shaped like ginger,
culinary uses, | Chelerythrine chloride | Chelidonic acid | Nonacosan-10-ol | Sanguinarine | herbal medicine, eyes, blood and liver tonic,
may cause liver toxicity, poisonous, purgative, used to cure warts, Papaveraceae.
Dried herb sold as aerials.
Greater celandine, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.

Dicentra species, Papaveraceae
Dicentra species: | Allocryptopine | Papaveraceae
Squirrel corn (Dicentra canadensis) | Cancentrine | Papaveraceae
Dutchman's breeches (Dicentra cucullaria) | Cularidine | Papaveraceae
Fringed bleeding-heart (Dicentra eximia), turkey-corn | Cularimine | Culerine | Glaucine | strangely shaped flowers, eastern USA,
Horsehoof grass (Dicentra repens), bleeding heart, perennial, hardy plant, groundcover, used in Chinese, medicine leaves tea for fevers,
tonic, Papaveraceae.
Komakusa (Dicentra perigrina} | Sanguinarine | Japan, Papaveraceae
Asian bleeding heart (Lamprocapnos spectabilis, Dicentra spectabilis) | Sanguinarine | Papaveraceae

Family Passifloraceae, Passion-flower family fruit called granadilla.
Passiflora species: | Heterodendrin | Linamarin | Linustatin | Lotoaustralin | Neolinustatin | Volkenin | Passifloraceae.
Passiflora species, Daley's Fruit Trees
Blue passion flower (Passiflora caerulea), may apple, fruit has bland taste, evergreen climbers, Passifloraceae.
Wild sweet calabash (Passiflora coriaceae), bat-leaved passion flower | Deidaclin | Passifloraceae.
Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), passionfruit, purple granadilla, purple passionfruit, black passionfruit, hardy plant, prolific evergreen vine,
fast growing, fruit, medium, purple, subacid, juicy, many seeds, fresh, juice, sherbet, grown from seeds, cuttings, grafting, | Hexadienyl
butyrate | Sorbose | Brazil, Passifloraceae.
Yellow passionfruit (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa), granadilla, medium vine, evergreen, fast growing fruit, medium, juicy, subacid,
yellow, culinary uses, fresh, juice, sherbet, grown from seeds, cuttings, grafting, Brazil, Passifloraceae.
Wild maracuja (Passiflora foetida), strong "foetid" smell from crushed leaves, possibly insectivorous, small fruit with blue-white pulp,
North America, Passifloraceae.
Passion flower (Passiflora incarnata), maypop, purple passionflower, true passionflower, wild passion vine, triple-curled passionflower,
hardy perennial vine, grows wild in North America, | Harmaline | Harman | Harmine | herbal medicine, sedative, nervous diseases,
insomnia, contains flavonoids, use with monamine oxidase inhibitor drugs (MAOI drugs), alcohol, other sedative-hypnotic drugs,
anticoagulants, and non-steroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs, may cause additive effects. North America, Passifloraceae.
Passion Flower, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Dried herb sold as aerials.
Granadilla (Passiflora ligularis), Passifloraceae.
Granadilla, grenadia (also called "passionfruit" or "sweet passionfruit" or "sweet granadilla"), (fruit is called a "granadilla") ("best-tasting
passionfruit in the world"), hard-shelled, orange-yellow fruit contains white aromatic edible pulp around the hard black seeds, pulp
contains vitamins, South America, Passifloraceae.
Sweet calabash (Passiflora maliformis), conch apple, wild purple passionfruit, hardy plant, 50 cm, flowers for many months of year, hard
shell, sweet flavour, shells dry like gourds so valued for craft work, high nutritional value, Brazil, Passifloraceae.
Giant granadilla (Passiflora quadrangularis), Japanese passionfruit, large perennial vine, scented flowers, largest oblong greenish yellow
seeds, embedded in sub-acid pulp juice cooked, fast growing, grown from cuttings, may need hand pollination, | Noradrenaline | tropical
America, Passifloraceae.
Banana passionfruit (Passiflora tarminiana), banana poka, invasive vine, straight floral tube, high climber, invasive, New Zealand,

Family Pedaliaceae, Sesame family
Devil's claw (Harpagophytum procumbrens), grapple plant, | Harpagoside | traditional herbal medicine, anti-inflammatory, may interfere with
warfarin and other drugs, southern Africa, Pedaliaceae.
Dried herb sold as root.

Sesame (Sesamum indicum), annual, up to 100 cm, lanceolate leaves, yellow tubular flowers with mouth in four lobes, ancient
oilseed, ovate seeds 4 mm x 2 mm, in sesame seed buns, snacks | Agmatine | Citrulline | Gentisic acid | Pedalitin | Sesamin | Sesamol |
Sesamolinol | Sesamose | some infants allergic to it, Pedaliaceae.

Family Phyllanthraceae.
Jamaican gooseberry (Phyllanthus acuminatus) | Justicidin B | Phyllanthostatin A | Phyllanthaceae
Pheasant-berry (Phyllanthus discoides, Margaritaria discoidea), egossa red pear, large tree | Phyllalbine | Securinine | many antibacterial
alkaloids, traditional medicine, Africa, Phyllanthaceae
Amla berry (Phyllanthus emblica, Emblica officinalis), emblic, Indian gooseberry, myrobalan, Malacca tree, fibrous fruit is sour, bitter
and astringent, fruits contain high amounts of ascorbic acid and tannins, bitterness from | Chebulinic acid | Lupeole | Ellagitannins
tannins and polyphenols | Ayurvedic medicine, fruit eaten raw, cooked, inner bark in fish soup, mordant, shampoo, India, Indonesia.
Dried herb sold as berries and as berry powder.
See diagram Amla berry, Phyllanthaceae
Amla, Daley's Fruit Trees
Phyllanthus gasstroemeri | Dhurrin | Phyllanthaceae
Gale of the wind (Phyllanthus niruri), stonebreaker, seed-under-leaf | Phyllanthin | Phyllanthaceae
"Potato" plant (Phyllanthus reticulatus) | Pyrogallol | Phyllanthaceae
Mitzeeri (Bridelia micrantha), coastal golden-leaf | Gallic acid | Phyllanthraceae.
Pop-gun seed (Bridelia tomentosa), kenidai, | Methyl salicylate | Friedelin | herbal medicine, stomach ache, colic, fever, seed used for
children's bamboo pop-guns, Phyllanthraceae.
Sweet leaf (Sauropus androgynus), sweet leaf bush, katuk, star gooseberry, bush or small tree, needs extra water, used in salads,
fries, nutty pea-like flavour, vitamin C, papaverine alkaloid, Phyllanthaceae.
Sweet leaf, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Sweet leaf bush, Daley's Fruit Trees

Family Phytolaccaceae, Pokeweed family
Indian pokeweed (Phytolacca acinosa), | Humilixanthin | China, Phytolaccaceae.
Dried herb as root.
Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana), American pokeweed, American pokeroot, perennial, hardy plant, up to 1 metre, dye plant,
| Betanin | Phytolaccoside | herbal medicine, culinary uses, poisonous but very young leaves boiled as vegetable, North America,
Dried herb sold as root.
Poke weed (Phytolacca decandra) | Prebetanin | Phytolaccaceae.
African soapberry (Phytolacca dodecandra), endod, gopo berry | Bayogenin 3-0-cellobioside | Lemmatoxin | Oleanoglycotoxin-A |
Inkweed (Phytolacca octandra) | Yiamoloside B | Phytolaccaceae.

Piperaceae, Pepper family
Piper species: | Piperine | Piperaceae.
Spiked pepper (Piper aduncum), matico | Dihydroxy-methoxydihydrochalcone | Dillapiole | Dimethyl-8-prenylchromene 6-carbolic acid |
Piper angustifolium | Apiole | Asarone | Piperaceae.
Piper arborescens | Demethoxypiplatine | Piperaceae.
Hoja santa (Piper auritum, Piper sanctum), yerba santa, root beer plant, large heart-shaped leaves with velvet hairs, Mexican
cuisine, tamales, soups, tea, wrap foods when cooked, complex taste, Safrole, Mexico, Piperaceae.
Betel pepper (Piper betel), perennial, warm climate, leaves and berries masticatory, | Estragole | Eugenol | Lusitanicoside | herbal medicine,
Melanesia, Piperaceae.
(paan = Betel leaf + nut of Areca catechu)
Vegetable pepper / betel leaves, Piperaceae.
Haifenteng (Piper chamaejasme) | Futoquinol | Piperaceae.
Tailed pepper (Piper cubeba), cubeb pepper, Java pepper, culinary uses, dried fruit with stalks attached so "tailed", hard white oily seed,
| Cubebene | Cubebin | Dipentene |
essential oil | Cineole | Sabinene | Terpineol | gin flavouring, grown mainly in Indonesia, Piperaceae.
Pepper stem (Piper futokadsura) | Futoquinol | Kadsurenone | Kadsurin A | Piperaceae.
Ashanti pepper (Piper guineense) | Dihydrocubebin | Trichostachine | Piperaceae.
Giant pepper vine (Piper hederaceum), Australian pepper vine, climbing pepper, rainforest vine, zig zag branchlets, young plants have
broad heart-shaped leaves and stems, smooth dark leaves creamy inconspicuous flowers, ovoid fruit forming red cylinder cluster matured,
herbal medicine, stimulant tonic, Australian native food, Piperaceae.
Long pepper (Piper longum), Indian long pepper, | Phenethyl alcohol | Piplartine | Sesamin | Caryophyllene | India, Piperaceae.
"Pepper" (Piper nigrum), black pepper, commercial pepper, table pepper (Greek peperi, pepper), woody perennial climber, herbal medicine,
dried drupe called a peppercorn is ground to form "pepper", culinary uses, savoury dishes, "black pepper" is unripe fruit dried and cooked,
"green pepper" is unripe fruit fried, "white pepper" is ripe fruit seeds (E160c Paprika extract) | Caryophyllene | Limonene | Pinene
| Sabinene | herbal medicine, India, Piperaceae.
Dried herb sold as peppercorns black whole, peppercorns black cracked, and peppercorns black powder.
Dried herb sold as peppercorns white whole, peppercorns white seed powder.
Black pepper, Daley's Fruit Trees
Kava (Piper methysticum), kava kava, garden herb, | Dihydrokarvain,| Dihydromethysticin | Karwain | Methysticin | Yangonin | drink
prepared from roots for sedative and euphoriant, Melanesia,
Black pepper (Piper nigrum) | Hentriacontan-16-one | Phellandrene | Piperine | Trichostachine | Piperaceae.
Giant pepper vine, (Piper novae-hollandae) | Dillapiole | Piperaceae
Betel leaf (Piper sarmentosum), vegetable pepper, wild betel, wild leaf pepper, wild pepper, pointed pepper, betel leaves, garden herb,
perennial, fast growing, 60 cm to 1m, hardy understory plant, large glossy leaves form dense cover, shallow roots, shades out weeds,
herbal medicine, used in Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, China, as digestive, stimulant, carminative, antibacterial, tea to relieve pain in
old people, culinary uses, leaf mild pungent flavour, used raw, cooked, as beef wraps, leaves on flat dishes topped with san choy bao,
in meat dishes, picked green as condiment, ripe seeds embedded in a soft pulp are tasty morsels, Thailand, Piperaceae.
Piper sylvaticum | Piplartine | Piperaceae.
Piper tuburculatum | Demethoxypiplartine | extracts used to kill Schistosoma mansoni, Piperaceae.

Family Plantaginaceae, Plantain family
Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus), common snapdragon, up to 1 m, flowering spike, mouth of flower opened like a dragon's mouth,
| Antirhinoside | Aureusidin | Bracteatin | Caffeoyl-D-glucose | Chrysoeriol | Cyanidin 3-0-rutinoside | Luteolin | Pelargonidin |
Mediterranean region, Plantaginaceae.

Bacopa species, water hyssop, Plantaginaceae.
Lemon bacopa (Bacopa caroliniana), perennial, hardy plant, groundcover, likes wet spot, herbal medicine, culinary uses, crushed leaves
lemon smell flavour, marsh plant, aquarium use, grown from cuttings, North America, South Korea, Plantaginaceae.
Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), water hyssop, herb of grace, Indian pennywort, perennial, hardy plant, small white flowers, creeping
wetlands herb, bacoside saponins (possibly neuroprotective), aromatic Indian culinary herb, memory enhancer, supports brain function,
mental alertness, learning, concentration, short and long term memory, improves circulation, temporary pain relief, treats asthma and
many disorders, culinary uses, groundcover, aquarium plant, India, Africa, Australian native food, Plantaginaceae.
(Centella asiatica also called "Brahmi".)
Brahmi, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as aerials.

Ivy-leaved toadflax, (Cymbalaria muralis), Kenilworth ivy, Mediterranean region, Plantaginaceae.

Digitalis species, Plantaginaceae.
Digitalis species, entire plant poisonous, Plantaginaceae.
Digoxigenin, C23H34O5, (DIG), is a steroid in D. purpurea, D. orientalis and D. lanata, attached to sugars, to form glycosides, e.g. Lanatoside
Rusty foxglove (Digitalis ferruginea) | Digiferrugineol | Plantaginaceae.
Digitalis orientalis | Digoxin | Hispidulin | Scutellarein | Plantaginaceae.
Common foxglove (Digitalis purpurea), foxglove, purple foxglove, lady's glove, soft, velvet-like leaves, | Caffeic acid | Digitalin | Digitalose
| Digitogenin | Digitonin | Digitoxin | Gitogenin | Gitonin | Gitoxin | Lactic acid | Purpureaside | Tigonin | herbal medicine, formerly for heart
disorders but now rarely used, powerful diuretic, bees like it, garden ornamental, Europe, Plantaginaceae.
Woolly foxglove (Digitalis lanata), Grecian foxglove | Acetyldigoxin | Diginatin | Digoxin | Gitogenin | Gitoxin | lanatoside C | Tipogenin |
Tigonin | herbal medicine (main source of digoxin used to treat heart failure), Plantaginaceae.
Straw foxglove (Digitalis lutea), small yellow foxglove, tubular yellow flowers with brown dots, garden plant, Plantaginaceae.
Digitalis micrantha, Plantaginaceae.
Spanish foxglove (Digitalis thapsii) | Chrysoplenetin | Plantaginaceae.

Plantago species, seeds used for producing mucilage
Plantago species: | Catapol | Planteose | Plantaginaceae.
Sand plantain (Plantago arenaria, P. psyllium), French psillium, dark psillium, branched plantain, dietary fibre, | Arenaine | herbal medicine,
bulk-forming laxative, India, Plantaginaceae.
Dried herb sold as psyllium seed husks.
Che Qian Zi (Plantago asiatica) | Helicoside | Plantaginaceae.
Erba stella (Plantago coronopus), buck's-horn plantain, USA, Plantaginaceae.
Erba Stella, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
English plantain (Plantago lanceolata), ribwort plantain, narrowleaf plantain, buck thorn, lamb's tongue, ribwort plantago, perennial, weed in
cultivated land | Aucubin | herbal medicine, used as herbal tea, respiratory tract problems, skin infections, insect bites, bee stings, contains
phenylethanoids and iridoid glycosides, Europe, Plantaginaceae.
See diagram Plantago
Bload-leaved plantain (Plantago major), common plantain, narrowleaf plantain, greater plantain, widely distributed, seed pods used by
children make to "guns" also seed pods in Metamucil "natural fibre commercial product and high in mucilage, | Plantamajoside |
herbal medicine, used for wound healing and as a poultice, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, astringent, diarrhoea, weakly antibiotic,
wounds, insect bites, haemorrhoids, culinary uses, young leaves eaten raw, potherb, as tincture, weed, Plantaginaceae.
Red Plantain, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Plantago major 'Rubifolia'), Plantaginaceae.
Dried herbsold as aerials.
Sea plantain (Plantago maritima), goose tongue | 6-Hydroxyluteolin | Plantaginaceae.
Psyllium (Plantago ovata), ispaghula, blond plantain, desert Indian wheat, husks and seeds are more commonly used, mixture of
polysaccharides: pentoses, hexoses, and uronic acids, seed and husk preparations contain 47 - 70% soluble fibre and 85% total
fiber by weight, the highest level of soluble dietary fiber of any grain source, hydrophilic because high content of hemicelluloses,
resistant to fermentation, arabinose and xylose sugars "digestible," herbal medicine, take with at least 250 ml water but do not if have
bowel obstruction, southwestern United States, Plantaginaceae
Evergreen plantain (Plantago sempervirens) | Boschniakine | Plantaginaceae.

Rau om (Limnophila aromatica), rice paddy herb, perennial, 10 cm, traditional Asian herb, grows in rice paddies, in Vietnam and Thai
cuisine, culinary uses, small leaves used raw and cooked in curries, sweet / sour dishes, meat, has affinity with roasted chicken,
vegetables, salads, tip sprigs as garnish, leaves pleasantly aromatic and wonderful refreshing lemon-like flavour, over fifty
phytochemicals, mostly terpenoids, phenolics and flavonoids, e.g. | Ocimene | Camphor | Terpinene ester terpinolene vascular
protective, Plantaginaceae.
Rau om, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm

Veronica species, Plantaginaceae.
Veronica species: | Catalpol | Plantaginaceae.
Brooklime (Veronica beccabunga), European speedwell, perennial, hardy plant, groundcover, wet places, leaves raw and cooked, rich in
chlorophyll, vitamins A and C and minerals, culinary uses, leaves in salads and as garnish, herbal medicine, diuretic, high nutritional value,
Slender speedwell, (Veronica filiformis) | Isoscutellarein | creeping speedwell, Whetzel weed, Plantaginaceae.
Speedwell (Veronica officinalis), common speedwell, heath speedwell, Paul's betony, perennial, groundcover, herbal medicine, wash on
wounds, skin, conditions, tea for stress, blood tonic, indigestion, Hungary, Plantaginaceae.
Speedwell, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Dried herb sold as aerials.
Birdeye speedwell (Veronica persica) | Catalposide | Plantaginaceae.

Family Polemoniaceae.
Jacob's ladder (Polemonium caruleum), Greek valerian, abscess root, Andes mountains, herbal medicine, ornamental, Polemoniaceae.
Polymonium viscosum | Scaleol | Polemoniaceae.

Polygalaceae, Milkwort family
Butterfly pea shrub (Polygala fructicosa) | Fruitinone A | Polygalaceae.
Glandleaf milkwort (Polygala macrodenia) and P. paena and P. polygaena | Demethyldeoxypodophyllotoxin | Polygalaceae.
Myrtle-leaf milkwort (Polygala myrtifolia), self-seeding invasive so not sold in Australia, South Africa, Polygalaceae.
Polygala senega | Senegin II | Spinasterol | Polygalaceae.
Yuan zhi (Polygala tenuifolia), yuan zhi, dried root extract Chinese herbal medicine, expectorant, enhances memory, sedative, Polygalaceae.
Milkwort (Polygala vulgaris), common milkwort, herbaceous, perennial plant, herbal medicine, was supposed to increase nursing mother's
milk, Polygalaceae.

Family Polygonaceae, knotweed family, Buckwheat family, buckwheat, tade, turkey rhubarb, dock
Polygonum (Persicaria) (Latin persicum peach,), leaves look like peach leaves
Knotgrass (Polygonum aviculare), common knotgrass, prostrate knotweed | Aviculin | Flavonoids | used in Vietnam rau dang soup,
Croatia, Polygonaceae.
Dried herb sold as aerials.
Bistort / Dimity (Persicaria bistorta, Polygonum bistorta), common bistort, pudding grass, snakeweed ("bistort" because twisted roots),
used to make bitter tasting puddings, herbal medicine, ornamental, Europe, Polygonaceae.
Dried herb sold as bistort root.
Bistort, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.
Water pepper (Persicaria hydropiper), smartweed, marsh pepper knotweed, perennial, hardy plant, 40 cm, herbal medicine, peppery-tasting
leaves, culinary uses, in sushi, tempura, Polygonaceae.
Lady's thumb (Persicaria maculosa, Polygonum maculata), redshank, spotted lady's thumb, Jesus plant, red legs, herbal medicine but may
contain irritant oil, oxalic acid, jointed stems, annual / perennial, climber, Polygonaceae.
Vietnamese mint (Persicaria odorata), Vietnamese coriander, Vietnamese cilantro, false mint, laksa leaf, rau ram, creeping, herbaceous,
trailing plant, long, slender leaves with some central dark coloration, perennial, up to 50 cm, hardy plant, pink flowers, garnish, culinary
uses, peppery taste, culinary use in rice paper rolls, spicy pungent flavoured leaves with curries, salads, Asian cooking, marinades, stir
fries, duck dishes, herbal medicine, digestion disorders, supposed to reduce fertility (it is not a "mint" (Mentha), but it looks like a mint),
Vietnamese mint, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Prince's feather (Persicaria orientalis, Polygonum orientale), kiss-me-over-the-garden-gate, fast-growing annual, hanging pink clusters of
flowers, garden favourite, China, Polygonaceae.

Japanese knotweed, (Fallopia japonica, Polygonum cuspidatum), fleeceflower, vegetable, honey, reveratrol, worst invasive species, East
Asia. Polygonaceae
Tuber fleeceflower (Fallopia multiflora, Polygonum multiflorum), Chinese knotweed, fo ti, he shou wu, traditional Chinese medicine root
used for rejuvenating tonic, Polygonaceae.
Dried herb sold as processed root.

Rheum species, rhubarbs, Polygonaceae.
Rheum species: | Aloe-emodin | Chrysophanol | Emodin | Rhaponticin | Rhein | Polygonaceae.
Himalayan rhubarb (Rheum emodi), Emodin, Ayurvedic medicine, Polygonaceae.
Rheum maximoviczzi | Pyrogallol | Polygonaceae.
Luan guo da huang (Rheum moorcroftianum) | Chrysophanol 8-glucoside | China, Polygonaceae.
Chinese rhubarb (Rheum palmatum, R. officinale), Turkish rhubarb, rhubarb root, astringent | Alizarin | Chrysazin | Physicon 8-gentiobioside |
Physicon 8-glucoside | Sennoside A | Aloe-emodin | Emodin | Rhein | Glucogallin | herbal medicine, da-huang,
purgative, cathartic, anti-bacterial, Polygonaceae.
Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum), garden rhubarb, perennial, hardy plant, up to 1 metre, poisonous leaf blades used for pest spray, raphides |
Malic acid about 1.5% | Oxalic acid about 1.2 % | Citric acid about 0.1% | Aacetic acid about 0.1% | herbal medicine, culinary uses, stewed
leaf stalk have cathartic and laxative properties, in salads, wine, jams, China, Polygonaceae.
Dried herb sold as root and as root powder.
Rhubarb, Daley's Fruit Trees
False rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum), rhapontic | Oxalic acid | herbal medicine, poisonous leaves, vegetable, Polygonaceae.
(Rheum indulatum), Rhein, Polygonaceae.

Rumex species, Polygonaceae.
Sorrel (Rumex acetosa), common sorrel, garden sorrel, spinach dock, perennial, up to 50 cm, hardy plant, herbal medicine, culinary uses,
edible stems and arrow-shaped leaves, sour taste from oxalic acid, in soups, sauces, salads, stuffing, omelettes, pot herb, vegetable purees,
Central Asia, Polygonaceae.
Sorrel, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.

Sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella) Common sheep sorrel, red sorrel, sour weed, field sorrel, perennial, hardy plant, groundcover, culinary
uses, leaves beneficial to eat at start of meal to stimulate digestive juices in mouth, add to salads, added to cooked dishes as source of
acidity, as garnish, rich in Oxalic acid, strong antioxidant, ingredient in essay tea, culinary uses, raw sorrel in sauces make the sauce
look greener, herbal medicine, USA, Polygonaceae.
Sheep Sorrel, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as whole plant and whole plant powder.

Red-veined dock (Rumex sanguineus)
Red-veined dock has dark green leaves marked with deep red or red-purple veins, and have a juicy lemon taste.
Red sorrel Daley's Fruit Trees

French sorrel (Rumex scutatus)
French sorrel, buckler sorrel, shield-leaf sorrel, "green-sauce", culinary herb, used in salads and soups, diuretic, Polygonaceae.
French sorrel, Daley's Fruit Trees

Yellow dock (Rumex crispus), curled dock, great monk's rhubarb (not Rheum rhubarb!), perennial, hardy plant, up to 1 metre,
floating seeds, oxalic acid in mature plant, herbal medicine, seed and leaf infusion as laxative, digestive, Polygonaceae.
Dried herb sold as root.

Wild rhubarb (Rumex hymenosepalus), canaigre dock, Polygonaceae.

Red Sorrel (Rumex sanguineus), Polygonaceae.
Red Sorrel, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.

Portulacaceae, Purslane family
Portulaca grandiflora, rose moss, Portulacaceae.
Portulaca intraterranea, large pigweed, central Australia desert, succulent leaves, tap-root tastes like potato, Australian native food,
Purslane (Portulacca oleracea), common purslane, pigweed, munyeroo, perennial, hardy plant, succulent, groundcover, culinary uses,
all parts edible, rich source of vitamins, high in minerals and omega-3 fatty acids, culinary uses, salads and cooked, potherb, herbal
medicine, Chinese "longevity herb", ornamental, Australian native food, Portulacaceae.

Family Primulaceae, Primrose family.
Moneywort (Lysimachia nummularia 'aurea'), 'Golden' moneywort, loose strife, herb twopence, yellow willow herb, creeping jenny,
perennial, bright yellow flowers, ornamental, groundcover, herbal medicine, wash, compress, ointment rashes, wounds, Primulaceae.
(Other genera are called "creeping jenny".)
Golden Moneywort, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.

Primula species, Primulaceae.
Oxslip (Primula elatior), Primulaceae.
Fairy primrose (Primula malacoides), (houseplant), Primulaceae.
German primrose (Primula obconica), large rounded heads, pink and blue flowers, hairy leaves allergic reactions (houseplant), China,
Cowslip (Primula veris), common cowslip, paigles, herb Peter, St. Peter's keys, herbal medicine, herbal tea, Primulaceae.
Primrose (Primula vulgaris), common primrose, English primrose (houseplant), flowers and leaves edible in salads, Primulaceae.

Family Ranunculaceae, Buttercup family
Aconitum species, Ranunculaceae.
Aconitum species: entire plant poisonous especially roots and seeds, Ranunculaceae.
Aconitum bulleyanum | Bulleyaconitine | Crassicauline A | Lannaconitine | Yunaconitine | herbal medicine, analgesic, anti-inflammatory,

Monkshood (Aconitum napellus), aconite, wolfsbane, helmetflower, hooded yellow flowers, perennial, up to 50 -100 cm, dense spikes
of zygomorphic flowers, hooded blue or white flowers, sepals blue and showy, posterior sepal hood-shaped, herbal medicine potent
alkaloids: | Aconitine | Isoaconitine | Lycaconitine | Napelline | dangerous herbal medicine, all parts poisonous, handle only with gloves,
drugs mainly from root, in March, 2017, severe, potentatal toxic effects, recent deaths rom abnormal heart rhythms of patients in UK and
San Francisco after drinking a herbalist's tea containing aconite (ancient Greek myth: aconite grew from the foam from the many mouths
of Cerberus, the "hound of Hades"), Ranunculaceae.

Wolfsbane (Aconitum vulparia), true wolfsbane, hooded yellow flowers, poisonous, Ranunculaceae.

Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa, Cimicifuga racemosa), Native American herbal medicine, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, menstruation
disorders, hot flushes, menopause problems (may have estrogen-like effects), lower blood pressure, alcohol content of tinctures, do not
use if taking contraceptive pills or hormone replacement therapy, North America, Ranunculaceae.
Dried herb sold as root.
Red baneberry (Actaea rubra), chinaberry, doll's eye, white cohosh, perennial, red fruits, herbal medicine, menstruation problems,
poisonous, poison arrows, North America, Ranunculaceae.
Baneberry (Actaea spicata), herb Christopher, herbaceous perennial, up to 60 cm, black berries, poisonous berries, herbal medicine,
ornamental, Ranunculaceae.

Anemone species, Ranunculaceae.
Poppy anemone (Anemone coronaria), blood red flowers, ornamental, Northern Europe (not a "poppy" Papaver), Ranunculaceae.
Wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa), wind flower, ornamental, perennial herb, delicate little plant forming carpet, shady woodland,
spreading mass of stolons, white starry flowers, 2 cm across, herbal medicine, treat headaches, ornamental, Northern Europe, NW Asia,
See diagram Anemone nemorosa 1 | See diagram Anemone nemorosa 2
Eastern pasqueflower (Pulsatilla patens, Anemone patens), prairie crocus, cutleaf anemone, purple flowers, dangerous herbal medicine,
poisonous, Northern Europe, USA, Ranunculaceae.
See diagram: Eastern pasqueflower
(The word "pasque" refers to Easter)
Desert anemone (Anemone tuberosa), tuber anemone, up to 40 cm, woody tuber, entire plant poisonous, on rocky slopes, North America,
Pasqueflower (Pulsatilla vulgaris, Anemone vulgaris, Anemone pulsatilla L.), Dane's blood, common pasque flower, European pasqueflower,
herbaceous grassland perennial, up to 30 cm, deep roots, rosette of leaves, upright rhizome food-storage organs, long silver-grey and hairy
leaves and stems, bell-shaped purple flowers, silky seed-heads, fresh plant is toxic, dangerous herbal medicine, Europe, Ranunculaceae.

Columbine (Aquilegia vulgaris), granny's bonnet, perennial, poisonous, ornamental, Ranunculaceae.
Red columbine (Aquilegia canadensis), ornamental, perennial herb, Ranunculaceae.

Delphinium">Delphinium species, larkspurs, Ranunculaceae.

Lesser celandine, (Ficaria verna), fig buttercup, cuckoo bud, pilewort, crowfoot, noxious weed, poisonous to grazing animals, herbal
medicine, Ranunculaceae.

Helleborus species, Hellebores, Ranunculaceae.
Christmas rose (Helleborus niger), black hellebore, evergreen perennial, flowers look like roses, flowers in winter, poisonous root, garden
plant, Europe, Ranunculaceae.

Hepatica (Hepatica nobilis, Anemone hepatica), liverwort, anemonol, perennial, poisonous, Ranunculaceae.

Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), orange root, yellow puccoons, bitter taste, Berberine, coptisine alkaloid, herbal medicine,
anti-inflammatory action on mucous membranes to reduce congestion and treat coughs, colds and sinusitis, heartburn, goldenseal
tincture to improve immune system to treat odour-producing bacteria in the oral cavity, do not use if have hypertension, Ranunculaceae.
Dried herb sold as root powder.

Love-in-a-mist (Nigella damascena), ragged lady, devil-in-a-bush, love-in-a-puzzle, black seeds, ornamental, herbal medicine, Ranunculaceae.

"Nigella" (Nigella sativa), onion seed, gith, chernushka (US), blackseed, Roman coriander, (confusing names: black caraway, "black
cumin", black onionseed. black sesame, nutmeg flower, fennel flower - but not related to "fennel"), used in India, small black angular
seeds sprinkled on bread |
Alpha-hederin | Carvacrol | Pinene | Thymoquinone | herbal medicine, black seed oil, may be anti-cancerous,
garden herb, Egypt, Ranunculaceae.
Dried herb sold as whole seed.
See diagram: Black Cumin seed

Buttercup (Ranunculus acris), common buttercup, meadow buttercup, hairy, yellow flowers, flowers colour of butter, but serious
pasture weed, entire plant poisonous to cattle, native American folk medicine, used as poultice, ornamental, widely distributed, Ranunculaceae.

Family Resedaceae, Mignonette family
Mignonette (Reseda odorata), essential oil for perfumes, fragrant, Egypt, Resedaceae.
Weld (Reseda luteola), dyer's rocket, yellow dye, Resedaceae.