School Science Lessons
Food Gardens 6c - Herbs
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Herbs Information and Websites
Table of contents
3.6.0 Plant families, Hamamelidaceae to Nyctaginaceae (dicotyledons).

Hamamelidaceae, Hamamelis, Witch hazel family

Hypericaceae, Hypericum, St. John's wort family

Lamiaceae (Labiateae), mint family, deadnettle family

Acinos species, Lamiaceae.
Acinos species: | Poncirin |
Rock thyme (Acinos alpinus), Lamiaceae.
Basil thyme (Acinos arvensis), spring savory, perennial, up to 30 cm, hardy plant, thyme-mint aroma and flavour, use as tea, | Poncirin |
herbal medicine, Mediterranean, Lamiaceae.
Acinos rotundifolius, Lamiaceae.

Agastache species, giant hyssop, flowers with two-lipped corolla, Asia, North America, Lamiaceae.
Hummingbird mint (Agastache aurantiaca), small aromatic perennial, fragrant showy flowers, desert ornamental, New Mexico, cultivar,
Sweet Lili' (Agastache aurantiaca), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm

Anise hyssop (Agastache foeniculum), blue giant hyssop, mosquito plant, short-lived herbacious perennial, up to 60 cm, clump forming,
many upright purple-blue flower spikes, abundant nectar for bees, | Estragole | culinary uses, refreshing aniseed-flavoured tea, flavouring
food, leaves in apple pie, ornamental, Mexico, Lamiaceae.
Anise hyssop, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm

Korean mint (Agastache rugosa), purple giant hyssop, anise-flavoured, mint-like spice ,| Anisaldehyde | Estragole | Methoxycinnamaldehyde
| Pachypodol | herbal tea, mouthwash, Lamiaceae.
Ajuga species Bugle, Lamiaceae

Apium species, Lamiaceae
Florence fennel (Apium graveolens var. dulce), Lamiaceae.
Florence fennel, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm

Black horehound (Ballota nigra), Bulgaria, Lamiaceae.
Black horehound, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as aerials.

Calamintha species, Lamiaceae.
Ashe's savory (Calamintha ashei), Ashe's calamint | Evodone | USA, Lamiaceae
Calamintha caerulescens, Lamiaceae
Calamintha coccinea, Lamiaceae
Calamintha dentata, Lamiaceae
Large-flowered calamint (Calamintha grandiflora), showy calamint or mint savory, in cooking, treat bruises and cramps, ornamental,
Calamintha incana, Lamiaceae
Calamint (Calamintha sylvatica), common calamint, mill mountain, mountain balm, mountain mint, perennial, low-growing up to 30 cm,
green stalks, opposite, oval matt green leaves, about 2 cm long, whole plant aromatic, alkaline soil, leaf tea, herbal medicine, diaphoretic
and expectorant, leaf poultice for bruises, can cause a miscarriage, temperate regions, low-growing plant, mint smell, lavender flowers,
alkaline soil, leaves used to make tea, Lamiaceae

Clinopodium species, Lamiaceae.
Clinopodium, young leaves used for aromatic herbal tea, Lamiaceae
Lesser calamint (Clinopodium nepeta), nepitella, perennial shrub, | Poncirin | herbal medicine, mint-like pungent spice used to flavour pork,
southern Europe, Lamiaceae.
Nepitella, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Clinopodium umbrosum, Lamiaceae.

Wild basil (Clinopodium vulgaris), aromatic, hedges, culinary uses, fresh or dried as cooked food flavouring in cooked foods or in salads,
aromatic, herbal tea from the fresh leaves, brown-yellow dye, herbal medicine, tea, astringent, carminative, Europe, Lamiaceae.

Stone mint (Cunila origanoides), common dittany, frost mint, perennial, up to 30 cm, ornamental, refreshing cool mint aroma, small
purple flowers, medicinal herb, Lamiaceae.
Stone mint, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.

Ground ivy (Glechoma hederacea), alehoof, cat's foot, perennial evergreen creeper, hardy plant, groundcover, dainty scalloped
leaves, can be used as lawn, formerly used to clarify ale, cultivars have attractive green and white leaves, used for hanging baskets
groundcover, herbal medicine, colds, persistent coughs, liver tonic, ringing in ears, Lamiaceae.
See diagram Glechoma hederacea

Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), azob, perennial, hardy plant, up to 50 cm, spikes of small blue flowers, good scented herb, aromatic
bitter taste, culinary uses, with rabbit, lamb, salads, vegetables, stewed peaches, apricots, used more in candies than cooking for
European cooking, used mainly in Thailand and Vietnam cooking, flavouring in Pernod, Ricard, Chartreuse liqueurs
| Borneol | Camphor | Geraniol | Phellandrene | Pinene | Pinocamphone | herbal medicine, tea for colds (in Bible, "hyssop" used by
Hebrews for Passover ritual purification), in some eau de colognes, Mediterranean region, Lamiaceae.
Hyssop, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as aerials.

Deadnettles (Lamium species), Lamiaceae.
Lamium species, deadnettles, have leaves like nettles and may look like nettles, but have no stinging hairs, so are like a "dead" nettle.
Medical use was as astringents, staunch wounds, tea with honey for chills and flower tops for cooked vegetables.
White deadnettle (Lamium album), hedge plant, large white flowers, Lamiaceae.
See diagram Lamium album

Yellow archangel, (Lamium galeobdolon), yellow deadnettle, aluminium plant, fast growing, invasive, leaves variegated with
silver-grey markings, clusters of yellow flowers with hoods (corolla lobe), unpleasant odour, groundcover, Europe, Lamiaceae.
See diagram Lamium galeobdolon

Spotted dead-nettle, (Lamium maculatum), spotted henbit, purple dragon, prostrate, herbaceous perennial, spotted soft hairy leaves, useful
groundcover in shaded areas, invasive, Europe, Asia, Lamiaceae.
See diagram Lamium maculatum

Purple dead-nettle, (Lamium purpureum), red dead-nettle, purple archangel, groundcover under trees, purple-pink flowers, weed, not much
cultivated, Germacrene, Europe, Lamiaceae.
See diagram Lamium purpureum

Lavandula species, Lavender, Lamiaceae

Lion's tail (Leonotis leonurus), ornamental, herbal medicine, South Africa, Lamiaceae.
Lion's Tail-White, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Lion's Tail-Orange Flower, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.

Lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia), klip dagga, Christmas candlestick, perennial, up to 3 metres, hardy plant, bright orange flowers keep
their colour, attractive seed capsules for dried flower arrangement, herbal medicine, African folk remedy, used by African Hottentots
for its mild psycho-active properties, Lamiaceae.

Motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca), common motherwort, lion's ear, throw-wort, herbaceous, perennial, up to 1 metre, attracts bees,
hardy plant, herbal medicine, anti-inflammatory, laxative, diuretic, aids digestion, period pain, sedative, heart palpitations, but need
medical supervision, Lamiaceae.
Motherwort, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as aerials.
Siberian motherwort (Leonurus sibiricus), honeyweed, chivirico, to 2 m, attracts bees, late season honey plant used in folk magic,
contains many alkaloids, China, Siberia, Lamiaceae.

Gypsywort (Lycopus europaeus), bugleweed, water horehound, perennial, hardy plant, up to 80 cm, from seed, attractive serrated leaves,
non-aromatic, use fresh or dried, herbal medicine, antibacterial, antiviral, astringent, sedative, tea from leaves for fevers and wash on
sores, used for black dye for wool or linen, Europe, Lamiaceae.
Gypsywort, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.

Sweet bugleweed (Lycopus virginicus), Virginia water horehound, square stems, mint smell, bitter taste, herbal medicine, nervous
diseases, cough, North America, Lamiaceae.

Horehound (Marrubium vulgare), white horehound, common horehound, hairy white (hoary), leaves, musky bitter flavour, in candies,
horehound beer soft drink, garden herb, herbal medicine, Europe, Asia, Lamiaceae.
Dried herb sold as aerials.

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), balm, sweet balm, bee balm, heart's delight, honey plant, perennial, up to 40 cm, shiny leaves
easy to grow from seed, sun to part shade, white flowers attractive to butterflies, cut back to
ground after flowering so it comes back with fresh, green growth for the cooler months,
with strong lemon scent, non-running mint, grows in cooler semi-shaded
areas, companion plant, culinary uses, leaves in
salads, with pork, lamb, chicken stuffing, soups, sweet fruit dishes, summer drinks for light lemon flavour | Citral | Citronellal | Citronellol |
Eugenol | Geraniol | Linalyl acetate | herbal medicine, use leaves in sedative tea to treat stress, insomnia, students before exams, headaches,
indigestion, antidepressant, astringent to dry oily skin, cream for cold sores and inflamed skin, Lamiaceae.
Lemon balm, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as aerials or "balm leaf".

Lime balm (Melissa officinalis var. 'lime'), perennial, hardy plant, similar growth and uses to lemon balm, lime aroma, culinary uses,
herbal medicine, Lamiaceae.
Lime balm, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm

Bastard balm (Melittis melissophyllum), ornamental, orchid-like flowers, aromatic honey-scented foliage, Europe, Lamiaceae.

Mentha species, mints, rubefacients (make skin red), Lamiaceae.
Mentha species: | Hesperidin | Limonene | Menthol | Menthone | Piperitone | Pulegone | Labiaceae
Mints, spreading perennial, best grown in separate bed or pot, pick just before use because aroma dissipates quickly, used with lamb or
pork dishes, carrots, potataoes, peas, and in desserts, herbal teas, but may increase oesophageal heartburn.
Marvellous Mints, Basilea Living Herbs
See diagram: Mint flower
See diagram: Peppermint 1
Water mint (Mentha aquatica, Mentha aquatica var. citrata), bergamot mint, orange mint, druid's mint, marsh mint, European watermint,
perennial, strong peppermint aroma and flavour bergamot flavouring, | Menthoforan | herbal medicine, garden herb, Europe, Lamiaceae.
Wild mint (Mentha arvensis), field mint, corn mint, Japanese peppermint, perennial, up to 40 cm, may be deciduous, rub leaves to sniff
aroma of | Menthol | Menthone | herbal medicine, volatile oil helps to clear head and chest, or infuse leaves in boiling water, put a towel
over head and inhale vapour for temporary relief colds, bronchial coughs, sinus, nervous stress, headaches, chew leaves for sore throat,
culinary uses, Lamiaceae.
Japanese Menthol Mint (Mentha arvensis subsp. piperascens), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Asian mint (Mentha asiatica, Mentha longifolia var. asiatica), fragrant purple flowers, evergreen opposite phyllotaxy leaves, propagate from root cuttings
not seed, Lamiaceae.
River mint (Mentha australis), Australian mint, native mint, native peppermint, native river mint, swamp mint, groundcover, herbal leaf,
peppermint-like flavour, Australian native food, Lamiaceae.
Native Mint (Mentha australis), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.
American wild mint (Mentha canadensis), American corn mint, Japanese peppermint, North American field mint, Lamiaceae.
Hart's pennyroyal mint (Mentha cervina), similar to Pennyroyal mint, up to 30 cm, fragrant leaves | pulegone in essential oil | western
Mediterranean, Lamiaceae.
Wild mint (Mentha diemenica), slender mint, Australian native food, Lamiaceae
Native Mint (Mentha diemenica), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.
Mentha japonica, Lamiaceae.
Horse mint (Mentha longifolia) | Rotundifolone | folk medicine, Europe, central Asia, Africa, Lamiaceae
Egyptian Mint (Mentha niliaca), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Pennyroyal mint (Mentha pulegium), squaw mint, mosquito plant, crushed leaves strong smell like spearment culinary herb, folk remedy,
strong smell like spearmint, aromatherapy oil but toxic so use with caution | Pulegone | folk medicine, abortifacient, Europe, North Africa,
Pennyroyal Mint (Mentha pulegium), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Pennyroyal Mentha pulegium, Daley's Fruit Trees
Pennyroyal, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Dried herb sold as aerials.
Corsican mint (Mentha requienii), perennial, carpet form, strong scented leaves, Lamiaceae.
Corsican Mint, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Corsican Mint (Mentha requienii), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Rust free mint (Mentha rubra raripila), rust free spearmint, spicy cooling spearmint flavour, Lamiaceae.
Rust Free Mint Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Spearmint (Mentha spicata subsp. spicata), "mint", garden mint, common mint, perennial, up to 20-40 cm, well-limed soil, best not planted in
garden with other plants as most mints spread underground, plant in large pot or bed just for mints, L-carvone terpene gives distinct
aroma, pyridines, Egypt.
| L-Carvone | Cineole | Limonene | Myrcene | Pinene | herbal medicine, culinary uses, with meats, gravies, mint jelly,
used for mint sauce, toothpaste, chewing gum, vegetable, vinegar, drinks, serve with fruit, mints make refreshing teas, Lamiaceae.
Dried herb sold as leaves.
Spearmint, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Apple mint (Mentha suaveolens), woolly mint, round-leafed mint, ornamental green and cream variegated leaves, sweet smell like
pineapple, so sometimes called "pineapple mint", hardy, easy to grow, full sun, atracts bees, used to make apple mint jelly, salads, drinks.
Apple Mint, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Sachalin mint (Mentha sachalinensis), garden mint, used in teas, easy to grow, Japan, Lamiaceae.
Spearmint (Mentha spicata, subsp. spicata) "mint", garden mint, common mint, lamb mint and mackerel mint, | Carvone | Diosmetin | Rotundifoline |
Balkan Peninsula and Turkey, naturalized in Europe and Asia, Lamiaceae
Spearmint (Mentha spicata), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Mentha spicata (Mentha spicata) Daley's Fruit Trees
Apple Mint (Mentha suaveolens), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.
Apple mint (variegated), Mentha suaveolens 'variegata', Daley's Fruit Trees
Mentha X gracilis, Lamiaceae.
Ginger Mint, (Mentha X gracilis) ( M. arvensis X M. spicata), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Hung Cay Mint (Mentha X gracilis), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Peppermint (Mentha X piperita) (Watermint X Spearmint) | Eriocitrin | Menthofuran | Menthol | Rosmarinic acid | Europe, Lamiaceae
< a href="#Peppermint">Peppermint (Mentha X piperita)
Basil Mint (Mentha X Piperita Citrata), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
White Peppermint (Mentha X piperita), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as leaf.
Peppermint Mentha X piperita, Daley's Fruit Trees
Candymint peppermint (Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'). (mentha x piperita), perennial, hairy red-purple stems, aromatic leaves, crisp flavour,
invasive, Lamiaceae
Chocolate mint (Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'), flower opens upwards leaving bracts and elongating tip, popular confection, Lamiaceae.
Chocolate Mint (Mentha X piperita f. citrata 'Chocolate'), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Chocolate mint, Mentha X piperita f. citrata, Daley's Fruit Trees
(Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' includes varieties such as 'Eau De Cologne Mint', 'Grapefruit Mint', 'Lemon Mint' and 'Orange Mint'.
Leaves are aromatic and hairless.
Orange mint (Mentha X piperita var citrata), lemon mint, eau de cologne mint, strong citrus smell, Lamiaceae.
Eau de Cologne Mint (Mentha citrata), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
(Mentha X piperita 'Crispa'), wrinkled leaves, Lamiaceae
Moroccan Mint (Mentha spicata var. crispa), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
(Mentha X piperita 'Lavender Mint', Lamiaceae
(Mentha X piperita 'Lime Mint'), lime-scented leaves, Lamiaceae
(Mentha X piperita 'Variegata'), green and pale yellow leaves, Lamiaceae
Apple Mint (Mentha X rotundifolia), Egyptian mint, round-leaved mint, Lamiaceae
Whorled mint (Mentha X verticillata), Lamiaceae
Cuban Mint (Mentha X villosa), mojito Mint Lamiaceae
Mint, Old fashioned mint (Mentha X villosa), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.
Peppermint (Mentha X piperita, M. aquatica X M. spicata),
herbaceous perennial, smooth stems with square cross-section, fast growing, spreads
easily so grow in pots, cut stems before flowering and hang branches to dry, older leaves
give cooling sensation, chew raw leaves, used for herbal tea, mint sauce, herbal remedy, headaches, indigestion,
nausea, stale breath, main components: Menthol | Menthone | Peppermint oil | Pinene, Europe, Middle East, Lamiaceae.
Peppermint ( Mentha X piperita),
Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as leaves.
Peppermint, Daley's Fruit Trees
White peppermint (Mentha piperita officinalis), perennial, grey / green leaves, milder taste than peppermint, Lamiaceae.
White Peppermint, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Lemon mint (Mentha citrata, Mentha X piperita var. citrata), bergamot mint, eau-de-cologne mint, citrata, eau de cologne mint,
horse mint, water mint, perennial, perfume-like lemon odour, used in herbal teas, herbal medicine, analgesic, antiseptic, nausea, stomach
ache, not for pregnant women, Lamiaceae.
See diagram Variegated mint, Lamiaceae
Ginger mint (Mentha spicata X Mentha arvensis), Lamiaceae.
Ginger Mint, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm,
See text below images.
Chocolate mint (Mentha X piperita), Lamiaceae.
Chocolate mint, up to 60 cm, spread to 60cm, large ovate dark bronze-green leaves,
lilac-purple flowers open from the bottom of false whorl to top of inflorescence,
aroma and flavour like peppermint with some chocolate, but some people cannot detect chocolate
Chocolate Mint, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Moroccan green mint (Mentha spicata, var. Spicata), green mint, Lamiaceae.
Scotch spearmint (Mentha X gracilis), red mint, Lamiaceae.
Bergamot mint (Mentha X piperita var. citrata), fragrant, Lamiaceae.
Mentha X piperita var. vulgaris, essential oil said to cause abortion, Lamiaceae.
Woolly mint (Mentha X villosa var. alopecuroides), Bowles mint, Egyptian mint, Lamiaceae.

Monarda species, Lamiaceae.
Lemon bergamot (Monarda citriodora), lemon beebalm, purple horsemint, annual, pale purple-pink flowers, easy to grow, flowers
in the subtropics, up to 50 cm, bees love flowers, companion plant, grown from tiny black seed, cuttings or root division, in rich, loose,
moist soil, in full sun but better, leaves in some shade, dormant in winter if in cold region, culinary uses, leaves with citrus-like
flavour when crushed in salads, garnish, citronella, phenolic monoterpenes, thymol, wine, herbal medicine, anti-inflammatory, North
America and Mexico, Lamiaceae.
Lemon bergamot, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Bergamot (Monarda didyma), red bergamot, beebalm, scarlet beebalm, wild bergamot, Oswego tea (infusion from Oswega Indians),
ornamental, bright whorl of scarlet flowers but not in subtropics, herbaceous, clump-forming spreading perennial, ovate pointed
leaves, forms a clump, up to 1 metre, lemon-like odour, | Isosakuranetin | Monardaein | Pelargonin | Linalyl acetate in essential oil |
addition to Earl Grey Tea, North America, culinary uses, young leaves in salads, cook with pork, Lamiaceae.
(Monarda didyma, red bergamot has no botanic relationship to Citrus aurantium, bergamot orange, Rutaceae, in Earl Grey tea, but it
smells like bergamot orange).
Bergamot, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Wild bergamot (Monarda fistulosa), wild bergamot, bee balm, horse mint, many varieties with different odours, clumps of creeping
rhizomes, common on prairies, Thymoquinone, folk medicine of native Americans, used to treat colds, North America, Lamiaceae.
Spotted beebalm (Monarda punctata) horsemint | Thymol |Folk medicine, Lamiaceae.

Nepita species, Lamiaceae.
Catmint (Nepita cataria), catnip, cat mint, | Nepetalactone | essential oil contains Pulegone |, insect repellent, attracts cats, "detestable to all
except cats" herbal medicine, Asia, Lamiaceae.
Six Hills Giant Catmint, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Nepita X racemosa), See text below images.
Catmint Walkers Blue, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Nepita X faasseni racemosa)
Catnip (Nepita cataria), catmint, perennial, 50 cm, hardy plant, white flowers, some cats like it so use dry leaves for cat toys,
herbal medicine, Lamiaceae.
Catnip, Mudbrick Cottage
Dried herb sold as aerials.

Ocimum species, basils, Lamiaceae.
Ocimum species: | Eugenol | alpha-Terpinine |

American basil (Ocimum americanum
Hoary basil, lime basil, annual herb, white or lavender flowers, herbal medicine, aromatic leaves, high proportion of Camphor, food
flavouring, introduced weed in Australia, Africa, India, China, Southeast Asia
Lime Basil, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Basil (Ocimum basilicum), common basil, cooking basil, sweet basil, true sweet basil, French basil, European basil,
Genovese basil, annual, up to 75 cm, aromatic hardy plant, smooth light to dark green leaves, almost hairless, white flowers have strong
cloves scent,
usually harvested before flowering, the more harvested it will produce up to ten months supply, grow in sun with
well-drained soil and add well-rotted manure or compost, leaves ovate, flowers white or pink, fruits have four small
nutlets, mucilaginous when wet, companion plant, bees love it, leaf spray deters insects, store in freezer, depending on cultivar, leaves taste
like anise, with strong, sweet smell, culinary uses, green salads, meats, spaghetti, tomato dishes, pizza, purees, pesto sauce, pasta, and
pistou, with eggs, flavour depends on leaf age, different flavour varieties have different proportions of | Camphor | Cineole | Estragole |
Eugenol | Linalool | Methyl cinnamate | Methyl eugenol | Ocimene | Pinene | Safrle | herbal medicine, relieves flatulence, traditional
aphrodisiac, stimulates lactation, used to treat menopause disorders, migraine headaches, nervous disorders, basil
essential oil by steam distillation has unpleasant "cooking smell", widely cultivated, Africa, India, Lamiaceae.
Essential oils industry seek varieties with little or no Estragole.
Dried herb sold as basil leaf.
Basil essential oil contains: Pinene, Camphene, Myrcene, Limonene, Ocimene, Camphor, Linalool, Methyl chavicol, Terpineol, Citronellol,
Geraniol, Methyl cinnamate and Eugenol.
See diagram: Sweet basil
Sweet Basil, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Ocimum basilicum), See text below images.
Fine Leaf Basil, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Ocimum basilicum),
Basils, Basilea Living Herbs

Perennial basil (Ocimum basilicum 'African Blue')
Perennial Basil, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.

Spicy Globe Basil, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Ocimum basilicum 'Spicy globe'), See text below images.

Anise basil (Ocimum basilicum 'anise')
Anise-Basil, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Ocimum basilicum 'anise'),

Cinnamon basil (Ocimum basilicum 'cinnamon')
Cinnamon basil, narrow serrated dark green shiny leaves, with red-purple veins, small pink flowers, easy to grow but needs 6-8 hours
sunlight each day, spicy, fragrant aroma and flavor, used in teas, baked goods, cookies, pies, pastas, salads, jellies, vinegar.
Cinnamon Basil, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Ocimum basilicum, 'Cinnamon'),
See diagram: Cinnamon basil.

Green Ruffles Basil (Ocimum basilicum 'Green Ruffles')
Green Ruffles Basil, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Ocimum basilicum 'Green Ruffles'),

Dark Opal Basil (Ocimum basilicum 'Dark Opal')
Dark Opal Basil, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Ocimum basilicum 'Purpurascens'), See text below images.

Greek basil (Ocimum basilicum var. purpurescens)
Ornamental basil, grown in balcony pots, up to 1 metre, drought-hardy plant,
purple-magenta leaves and pale pink flowers, usually annuals, grown from seeds in spring and summer in sunny sheltered position in
light to sandy, well-drained soil, pinch out the centres of flower heads to form a bushy plant, Lamiaceae.
Greek Basil, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm

Lemon Basil (Ocimum basilicum X O. africanum hybrid)
Up to 50 cm, Lamiaceae.
Lettuce Leaf Basil, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Ocimum basilicum 'Lettuce leaf'), See text below images.
See diagram Lemon basil.

Mrs Burns basil (Ocimum basilicum var. citriodura 'Mrs Burns')
Mrs Burns basil, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Thai basil (Ocimum basilicum var. thyrsiflorum)
Kapura tulasi, annual, up to 50 cm, ornamental, small, narrow leaves and purple
stems, with lavender to white flowers, sweet anise-clove fragrance, grown near front door for good luck, culinary uses, gives "Thai
taste" to cooking, has been cultivated to provide distinctive traits, flavour more stable under high or long cooking temperatures than
sweet basil, essential oil contains Camphor, forms basil camphor crystals, herbal
medicine, may have chemopreventative effects against some cancers, India, Lamiaceae.
See diagram: Thai basil
Thai Basil, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.
Acimum canum, leaves for culinary flavouring | Nevadensin | traditional herbal medicine, used to treat fevers, parasitic, inflammation of
joints, headaches, dysentery, insecticide, essential oil contains linalool, seeds for dietary fibre, Lamiaceae.
African tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum)
Clove basil, East Indian basil, tree basil, shrubby basil, perennial basil, wild basil, up to
1.5 metres, herbal medicine, [essential oil: | Citral | Eugenol | high Phenol ], India, Africa, Polynesia, Sudan, Lamiaceae.
Tulsi Vana Basil, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Ocimum gratissimum).

Camphor basil (Ocimum kilimanscharicum)
More than 1 metre high, oval silver-grey leaves, ornamental shrub, not like a "typical basil", Lamiaceae.
Camphor Basil, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Ocimum kilimanscharicum), See text below images.

African Blue Basil (Ocimum kilimanscharicum X basilicum 'Dark opal')
Perennial, sterile hybrid, purple from anthocyanins then green, attractsbees, | Camphor
high concentration | 1-8-Cineole | Linalool | said to be much easier to grow than
common basil, but camphor smell may be too much for some cuisines, East Africa, Lamiaceae.
African Blue Basil, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
See diagram: Basil, African blue.

Bush basil (Ocimum minimum)
Culinary use, milder than sweet basil, leaves and flowers eaten fresh or dried, cloves scent, soaked
to form "sherbet tokhum", mosquito repellent, herbal medicine, digestive problems, nausea, carminative, Lamiaceae.
Tulsi Kapoor Basil, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Ocimum sanctum)
Tulsi Rama Basil, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Ocimum sanctum)
Tulsi Krishna Basil, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Ocimum tenuifolium).
Holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum, O. sanctum), sacred basil, tulsi basil, tulasi, Indian sacred basil, surasa, bush tea leaf, native basil,
"native thyme", "wild marjoram", aromatic, short-lived perennial, very frost sensitive, purple smaller flowers than common basil, smooth
slender green elliptic leaves, up to 1 m, hairy purple stem, fruits contain four small brown nutlets, anise-like or clove-like musky fragrance
and flavour, grows near temples in India, Hindu rosary beads, major flavouring ingredient in Thai cuisine, herbal tea, leave plant to flower
to be put in tea, salads, high levels of Eugenol, herbal medicine, to treat liver disorders, coughs, colds, tonic aiding digestion, anti-stress
"adaptogen", India, Lamiaceae.
See diagram: Holy basil
Thai Holy Basil, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Ocimum tenuiflorum, 'Krapao')
Dried herb sold as aerials.

West African basil, (Ocimum viride)
Fever plant, perennial, up to 1 metre, aroma like thyme, herbal medicine, antiseptic leaves, antiseptic, for fevers
including malaria, eye wash, gargle, poultices, repel insects, general, tonic, diarrhoea, wound dressing, conjunctivitis,

Origanum species, about 40 species, most contain Carvacrol, Lamiaceae.
Dittany of Crete (Origanum dictamnus), Cretan oregano, mountain perennial, small shrub, green-white velvety roundedleaves,
aromatic flavouring in vermouth and absinthe | Carvacrol | Cymene | herbal medicine, treat many disorders, traditional aphrodisiac,
potion used by female wizard Hermione, ornamental, Crete, Lamiaceae.
Marjoram (Origanum majorana, Marjorana hortensis), sweet marjoram, pot marjoram, knotted marjoram, hyssop, thorny
caper, perennial herb, smooth hairs, aromatic leaves, sweet pine and citrus flavours, essential oil, store in freezer, culinary uses, milder
flavour than oregano so better than oregano when used in combination with other herbs, Italian dishes, with tomatoes, potatoes, chicken, rice
| Arbutin | Eugenol | Terpinene| Carvacrol | Linalool | Sabinene | Terpinene | essential oil contains borneol, camphor, and pinene
herbal medicine, Mediterranean region, Lamiaceae.
Dried herb sold as leaves.
Pot Majoram (Origanum onites), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Oregano (Origanum vulgare, O. creticum), wild majoram, perennial, up to 30 cm, companion plant, culinary uses, similar
to marjoram, meat and savoury, warm and slightly bitter taste but range of flavours in different varieties and may be numb to the
tongue, herbal medicine, Carvacrol, herbal medicine, essential oil, aids the digestion, leaves
rubbed on toothache area for relief, Greek and Italian cuisine, Turkey, Lamiaceae.
Dried herb sold as leaves.
Recently, a consumer magazine tested 12 samples of commercial oregano and found other ingredients, e.g. Sumac and olive leaves.
Golden oregano (Origanum vulgare 'Aureum'), perennial, groundcover, dainty round yellow leaves, Lamiaceae.
Oregano, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Golden Oregano, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Za'atar (Origanum syriacum, O, zaatar, Majorana syriaca), ezov (bible: hyssop I Kings iv. 33), Lebanese oregano,
Syrian oregano, aromatic perennial, best grown in pots, grey-green leaves, spicy smell and flavour, used to flavour hummus, dips, soups, key
ingredient in Za'atar spice mix used for bread dipping, seasoning, and bread pastry, Mediterranean region, Lamiaceae
See diagram: Za'atar
Za'atar, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.

Cat's whiskers (Orthosiphon aristatus), Java tea, perennial, hardy plant, 1 metre, beautiful mauve to white flowers, garden shrub,
herbal medicine, leaf and flower tea to maintain normal kidney function, Sinensetin, South East Asia, Lamiaceae.
Cats Whiskers, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.

Perilla (Perilla frutescens var. crispa), "shiso" perennial, up to 1 metre, hardy plant, Perillaldehyde or have lemon taste so have
Limonene, herbal medicine, antioxidant, culinary uses, aromatic green or purple leaves with purple underside, flavour salads, meat
tenderizer, sushi, sweets, sauces, oil from leaves, Linolenic acid, half-hardy, ornamental leaves, East Asia, Lamiaceae.
(Perilla frutescens var. frutescens), "Perilla oil" from Perilla frutescens seeds, drying oil substitute for linseed oil, edible oil in Asia, East
Asia, Lamiaceae.
Wild Perilla plants are reported to be toxic.
Shiso Perilla (Perilla frutescens), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Red shiso (Perilla frutescens var. crispa), purple mint, Lamiaceae.
Green shiso (Perilla frutescens var. crispa), Lamiaceae.
Perilla Britton (Perilla frutescens Britton), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Purple perilla (Perilla frutescens var. crispa), aromatic leafy plant, Japanese cuisine, beefsteak plant, leafy, aromatic, green or
purple leaves, Lamiaceae.
Purple Perilla, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm

Russian sage (Perovskia atriplicifolia), folk medicine, Lamiaceae.
Russian sage, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm

Jerusalem sage (Phlomis fructicosa), small shrub, up ti 1 m, aromatic leaves, showy yellow or purple flowers, popular ornamental,
Turkey, Lamiaceae.

Plectranthus species, Lamiaceae.
Mother of herbs (Plectanthus amboinicus, Coleus amboinicus), five seasons herb, all herb, French thyme, Spanish thyme, Indian borage,
Mexican mint, country borage, "Cuban oregano", three-in-one-herb, up to 40 cm, ground sprawler, succulent round aromatic leaves for
meat flavouring like oregano, fleshy perennial, up to 50 cm, hardy plant, very attractive white / green leaves, lavender flowers, culinary
uses, bedtime tea, aromatic leaves with meat and vegetables, chopped and toasted on bread with butter, used chopped finely for soup,
herbal medicine, antiseptic leaves chewed for sore throat, grown from cuttings, plant has strong odour and taste like oregano, rub on skin
to deter mosquito bite, | Camphor, frilly-edged thick leaves | Carvacrol | herbal medicine, Southern and Eastern Africa, Lamiaceae.
Dried herb sold as root particles or root powder.
Mother of herbs, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Indian coleus (Plectranthus barbatus), Lamiaceae
Scary cat plant (Plectranthus caninus), cat scat plant, reputed cat repellent, perennial, hardy plant, 40 cm, aromatic leaves, roots easily
from cuttings or from just touching the ground, leaves and flowers sticky to the touch, mild odour like marijuana, East Africa and
Southeast Asia, Lamiaceae.
Plectranthus coleoides, candle plant, low-growing creeper, green, scalloped leaves (houseplant), Lamiaceae.
Kaffir potato (Plectranthus esculentus), Livingstone potato, dazo, hause potato, perennial, up to 2 m, branches form ground tubers
"potatoes", nutritious, easy to grow, herbal medicine, treat digestive problems, Africa, Lamiaceae.
Plectranthus fruticosus, light green, oval to heart-shaped leaves (houseplant), Lamiaceae.
Plectranthus oertendahlii (houseplant), Lamiaceae.

Forskohlii (Plectranthus barbatus, Coleus forskohlii), | Forskolin, | herbal medicine, anti-hypertensive, Lamiaceae.
Forskohlii, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm

Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin), true patchouli, perennial, up to 1 metre, delightful aromatic,
bath bags, perfumery, moth repellent, companion plant, culinary uses, try a leaf to flavour a green salad, essential oil patchouli oil,
perfume fixative, odour to carpets, India, China, Lamiaceae.
Patchouli, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as leaf.
Java patchouli (Pogostemon heyneanus), intensely coloured flowers, herbal remedy, anti-depressant, insect repellent, perfume
industry, Lamiaceae.
Java patchouli, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm

Self heal (Prunella vularis), common self-heal, heal-all, halal, sicklewort, perennial, garden herb, groundcover, herbal medicine sore
throats, wash, sprains, Lamiaceae.
Self-heal, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.

Pycnanthemum, Mountain mints, Lamiaceae.
Flowering Short-toothed Mountainmint, (Pycnanthemum muticum) Lamiaceae
Mountain mint (Pycnanthemum pilosum), delightful tingling peppermint flavour, Lamiaceae.

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), Herb Cottage Rosemary, woody, perennial, hardy plant, up to 1 metre, companion plant,
aromatic fragrant spiny leaves and flowers, herbal medicine, treat tiredness, upset stomach, inhalation agent, in "Hungary water" former
alcohol-based perfume, digestive, hair conditioner, culinary uses, in stuffing, roast meats, cream cheese, in biscuits, as tincture,
aroma remains after drying plant, garden hedge | Camphor | other phytochemicals: Carnosol | antioxidants: Borneol | Cineole | Myrcene |
Pinene | Terpineol | Mediterranean region, Egypt, Australia, Lamiaceae
Rosmarinus officinalis var. angustifolia (R. tenuifolius), pine-scented rosemary, pine-needled rosemary, Lamiaceae.
Rosmarinus officinalis var. lavendulaceus (R. officinalis, R. humulis, R procumbens), prostrate rosemary, Lamiaceae.
Rosmarinus officinalis, rosemary, var. officinalis, rosemary, herbal medicine dispels melancholy, Lamiaceae.
Beneden Blue Rosemary, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Blue Lagoon Rosemary, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Herb Cottage Rosemary, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.

Dried herb sold as leaves and leaf powder.

Salvia species, about 1000 species, sages, Lamiaceae
Salvia species, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm

Sage (Salvia officinalis), common sage, garden sage, Dalmation sage, perennial, up to 40 cm,
evergreen woody stems, grey-green leaves, blue-purple flowers, culinary use, pepper-like flavour, folk medicine, ornamental,
Mediterranean region | Camphor | Cineole | Pinene |
Thujone | herbal medicine, sage leaf constituents may stimulate menstruation and be arbortifacient, do not use this herb during
pregnancy, lactation, long term, or with other anticoagulant medication, may increase sedative side effects of drugs, do not take
if hypoglycaemic or during anticonvulsive therapy, culinary uses as traditional flavouring herb, as tincture,
Egypt, Turkey, Lamiaceae.
Sage, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as leaves and leaf powder.
Sages, culinary uses, stuffing, with meat, salads, soups, cold drinks
White sage (Salvia apiana), bee sage, Lamiaceae.
White Sage, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Rough blue sage (Salvia chamelaeagnea), Lamiaceae.
Blue sage (Salvia clevelandii), Lamiaceae.
Diviner's sage (Salvia divinorum), diterpenoid psychoactive substances, not toxic, may be illegal to ingest, Lamiaceae.
Fruity sage (Salvia dorisiana), peach-scented sage, British Honduran sage, perennial, up to 1 metre, delicious smelling leaves and bright
pink flowers, Lamiaceae.
Fruity sage
, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Pineapple sage (Salvia elegans), pineapple-scented sage, herbacious perennial, up to 1.5 m, base for fruit cups,
scarlet flowers used as
garnish, ornamental, leaves smell like pineapple, atracts butterflies, Lamiaceae.
Pineapple sage, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
See diagram: Pineapple sage
Greek oregano, Greek skies (Salvia fruticosa 'Greek Skies'), Lamiaceae.
Greek Skies, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
See diagram: Greek oregano
Humming bird sage (Salvia guaranitica 'Tequila')
Hummingbird sage, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
large shrub, blue flowers, South America, Lamiaceae.
Chia (Salvia hispanica), annual to biennial, height more than 1 metre, purple-blue flowers, seed, stores well, herbal medicine,
culinary uses, leaf tea like sage, high protein nutty seeds source of essential fatty acids, energy food and enzyme action, catalysts aid.
food digestion, thirst quencher, add to drinks, baking, Mexico, Lamiaceae.
Dried herb sold as seed.
Spanish sage (Salvia lavendulidefolia), lavender-leaved sage, Lamiaceae.
Mexican sage (Salvia leucantha), perennial, purple flowers, Lamiaceae.
Mexican sage, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Grey sage (Salvia leucophylla), purple sage, Lamiaceae.
Lyre-leaf sage (Salvia lyrata), perennial, up to 40 cm, herbal medicine, Lamiaceae.
Baby sage (Salvia microphylla 'Baby Sage'), dwarf compact shrub, red flowers and bracts, Lamiaceae.
Baby Sage, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Red-rooted sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza, 'Red Rooted Sage'), red sage, Chinese sage, dan shen, Lamiaceae.
Dried herb sold as root.
Golden sage, Salvia officinalis "Icerterina"), variety of garden sage, Lamiaceae.
Golden sage, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Purple sage (Salvia officinalis, "Purpurascens")
Purple sage, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Tricolour sage (Salvia officinalis 'Tricolor'), pink-cream and green leaves, Lamiaceae.
Fuzzy bolivian sage (Salvia oxyphora), fuzzy cerise pink flowers, very ornamental, Lamiaceae.
Fuzzy Bolivian sage, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Mountain desert sage (Salvia pachyphylla), blue sage, carnosol antioxidant + phytochemicals, herbal medicine popular in Latin
America, used to treat influenza, North America, Lamiaceae.
Apple sage (Salvia pomifera, Salvia calycina), Lamiaceae.
Clary sage (Salvia sclarea), muscatel sage, clary wort, clear eye, see bright, clary, clarry, eye bright, huge grey-green leaves, herbal
medicine, Lamiaceae.
Clary sage, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Scarlet sage (Salvia splendens), garden ornamental, Lamiaceae.
Bog sage (Salvia uliginosa), whorls of indigo blue flowers, Lamiaceae.
Bog Sage, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Wild clary sage (Salvia verbenacea), wild sage, pasture weed, England, Lamiaceae.
Annual clary sage (Salvia viridis), oval, ornamental, herbal medicine, sore gums, Lamiaceae.

Savory, Satureja species, contain Carvacrol, Lamiaceae.
Savory (Satureja repandra), perennial, hardy plant, prostrate groundcover, white flowers, culinary uses, sauces, salads, soups, meat,
vegetable, with beans, squash | Carvacrol | Thymol | Lamiaceae.
Lemon savory (Satureja repandra biflora), perennial, up to 30 cm, bright green leaves have exquisitely, strong lemon aroma and
flavour, Lamiaceae.
Lemon savory (Satureja montana citriodora), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Pink savory (Satureja thymbra), za'atar rumi, Lamiaceae.
Pink savory, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Summer savory (Satureja hortensis), annual herb, food flavouring, Lamiaceae.
Winter savory (Satureja montana), evergreen, perennial, food flavouring, Lamiaceae.
Winter Savory, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Prostrate Winter Savory, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm

Scutellaria species, skullcaps, scullcaps, Lamiaceae.
Baikul skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis), in leaves of medicinal herb Huang-chin, used to treat cancer, contains baicalin, China,
Baikal skullcap, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as root.
Chinese skullcap (Scutellaria formosa), perennial, bush, up to 50 cm, purple flowers, herbal medicine, Lamiaceae.
Skullcap (Scutellaria galericulata), common skullcap, marsh skullcap, hooded skullcap, hardy, perennial herb, leaves contain
Baicalin, herbal medicine, herbal teas, sedative, Northern hemisphere, Lamiaceae.
Blue skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora), mad dog skullcap, side-flowering skullcap, perennial, 40 cm, deciduous, wet habitats, herbal
medicine, diuretic kidney tonic, temp, relief of nervous headaches, stress, insomnia, contains baicalin, sedative, USA, Lamiaceae.
Blue skullcap, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as aerials and aerials powder.

Stachys species, usually spike inflorescence, Lamiaceae.
Chinese artichoke (Stachys affinis), Japanese artichoke, artichoke betony, crosnes, wood betony, clown's woundwort, woundwort,
herbaceous perennial sprawling plant with rough, light green leaves, attractive tubers like pearly seashells, hardy plant, up to 50 cm,
hardy plant, deciduous, attractive tubers look like pearly sea shells, delicate nutty flavour, Lamiaceae.
Lamb's ears (Stachys byzantina, S. lanata), woolly hedge nettle, lamb's tongues, perennial, hardy plant, up to 20 cm, ornamental,
attractive border plant, grey furry felt-like leaves fun to touch, herbal medicine, attractive border plant, Lamiaceae.

Betony (Stachys officinalis), purple betony, wood betony, bishop's wort, common hedgenettle, perennial up to 60 cm,
groundcover, herbal medicine, sedative.
Betony, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as aerial parts.
Wood betony (Stachys sylvatica), hedge woundwort, hedge nettle, to 80 cm, purple flower, crushed leaves have, unpleasant smell,
herbal medicine, used to treat wounds, sedative, Lamiaceae.

Canada germander, (Teucrium canadense), wall germander, wood sage, herbal medicine, tea is diaphoretic and diuretic, used to
stimulate menstruation, Lamiaceae.
Tree germander (Teucrium fruticans), shrubby germander, Mediterranean region, Lamiaceae.
Tree Germander, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Cat thyme (Teucrium marum), perennial, up to 30 cm, aromatic grey leaves and pink flowers, some cats love to roll in it, herbal
medicine, Lamiaceae.
Cat Thyme, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Wood sage (Teucrium scorodonia), woodland germander, Lamiaceae.

species, about 70 species, many different flavoured varieties, Lamiaceae.
Thyme (Thymus vulgaris), common thyme, garden thyme, French thyme, garden edge perennial, can be walked on, up to 40 cm, bee
forage, herbal remedy, antiseptic thyme gargle for sore throat, culinary uses, holds strong flavour so add at beginning of cooking,
bouquet garni, casseroles, meat dishes, with zucchini, tomatoes, add to meat, savoury dishes, as tincture, red thyme oil, white thyme oil,
Carvacrol if taste like oregano or Thymol if less penetrating flavour | Cymene | Linalool | Pinene | herbal medicine, produces phenol,
antiseptic, Egypt, Lamiaceae.
Thyme, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as leaves.
Lemon thyme (Thymus X citriodorus), lemon-scented, thyme, mother of thyme, Breckland thyme, wild thyme, perennial, 20 cm,
Lemon Thyme, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
See diagram: Lemon thyme
Wild thyme (Thymus serphyllum), creeping thyme, perennial, 5 cm, herbal medicine, oil of thyme, lawn grass, Cymene Lamiaceae.
Wild Thyme, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
(Thymus mastichina), mastic thyme, Spanish marjoram, up to 40 cm, delightful refreshing menthol-eucalyptus
fragrance, Lamiaceae.
Lavender thyme (Thymus thracicus), lavender-scented thyme, low growing, sturdy leaves and stem, suitable for rockeries, clean
thyme smell with lavender, Lamiaceae.
See diagram: Lavender thyme

Family Lauraceae, Laurel family
Cinnamomum, the 6 plants sold as cinnamon:
Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum cassia), Chinese cinnamon, "cassia", up to 15 m, aromatic bark, most common type of
cinnamon, highly ornamental tree, spice is bark peeled from branches after 2 years, scrape bark leave until inner bark curls into cinnamon
sticks as it dries, chew base of leaf for a cinnamon flavour, cassia lignea, Camphor, cassia oil from
bark, China, Lauraceae.
Dried herb sold as cassia bark chips, cassia bark powder, cassia bark 3.5" quills,
Indonesian cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanii), Padang cassia, padang cinnamon, Batavia cassia, Java cassia,
korintj, up to 7 m, used to make powdered cinnamon for household cooking, high amount of Coumarin,
but no Eugenol, Indonesia, Lauraceae.
Camphor laurel (Cinnamomum camphora), Camphor, steropten, gum camphor, Japanese camphor, Formosa camphor, very large
tree up to 30 m, evergreen, long-living, Bornane, used to produce Camphor moth balls
as substitute for naphthalene, noxious weed in Queensland because invasive, China, Lauraceae.
Malabar cinnamon (Cinnamomum citriodorum), sweet, fragrant, pungent taste, used in Indian cooking Sri Lanka,
Wild cinnamon (Cinnamomum iners), wayside tree, up to 30 m, bright red narrow oblong leaves turn yellow and green,
ripening fruit. turns blue-black | Carpacin| Cinnamic acid |
all parts poisonous, food flavouring, herbal medicine, fevers, colic, purgative, Lauraceae.
Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureirii), Vietnamese cinnamon, Vietnamese cassia, Southeast Asia, high in essential
oil and Coumarin, most expensive cinnamon, Lauraceae.
Indian bay leaf tree (Cinnamomum tamala), Indian cassia, malabuthrum, up to 20 m, cuisine, leaves and bark used in
Indian cooking for cinnamon-like aroma, Linalool, herbal tea, India, China, Lauraceae.
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum, Cinnomomum zeylandicum), "true cinnamon" (but other Cinnamomum may be used to make
"cinnamon"), Ceylon cinnamon, Seychelles cinnamon, Madagascar cinnamon, evergreen trees, up to 15 m
Cinnamon, Daley's Fruit Trees
Cinnamon leaf contains cinnamon essential oil, 70% to 90% | Benzyl benzoate | Cineole | Cinnamaldehyde | | Eugenol | Eugenol acetate
| Linalool | Safrole | .
Cinnamon bark contains essential oils | Benzaldehyde | Caryophyllene | Cineole | Cinnamaldehyde | Cuminaldehyde | Cinnamyl acetate |
Cymene | Ethyl cinnamate | Eugenol | Furfural | Linalool | Methyl chavicol | Phellandrene | Pinene |.
Cinnamon "sticks" are cut from the inner bark of the stem, India, Sri Lanka, Lauraceae.
Dried herb sold as zeylandicum bark chips, bark powder, bark 3" quills.
Cinnamon oil, cassia bark oil, oil of cassia, C19H22O2, 282.383 g/mol, oils extracted from the leaves or bark of Cinnamomum verum
used in flavouring, perfumary, medical uses as a carminative, diuretic, antiflatulent, antipyretic, antiallergenic, anti-inflammatory
and in cardiac disorders, and cinnamon leaf oil has similar uses and for industrial applications.

Lindera species, Lauraceae.
Lindera citriodora, Citral, Lauraceae.
Spicebush (Lindera benzoin), Benjamin bush, citrus-like aromatic leaves, dioecious, small yellow flowers, scarlet-yellow berries,
leaves used for tea and allspice substitute, native American herbal medicine, North America, Lauraceae.
(Other species are called "spicebush".)
Lindera strychnifolia, uyaku, Chamazulene, herbal medicine, stomach and renal disorders, Lauraceae.
Lindera umbellata var. umbellata, kuru-moji, Lauraceae.
Lindera aggregata, Lindera Root, Japanese Evergreen Spicebush, Radix Lindera, Evergreen Lindera, Wu Yao, traditional Chinese medicine,
treat abdominal pain, hernia, Tiantai Mountain, China

Bay tree (Laurus nobilis), Grecian laurel, sweet bay, bay laurel, laurel, Roman laurel, noble laurel, perennial, hardy plant, topiary sculpture
pot plant, up to 4-6 metres, slow growing, evergreen tree, pot plant grown from root cuttings or seeds, dioecious, needs rich moist soil
and part shade to full sun, blooms in mid to late spring, can grow as tub specimen, dark green aromatic leaves deter cockroaches and
weevils, culinary uses, meat and vegetable dishes, marinades, poached fish, marinades, single leaf in milk puddings sauces, stews,
custards, aromatic leaves in "bouquet garni" | Cineole | Eugenol | Linalool | Methyl eugenol | Pinene
| + other terpenes, herbal medicine. but external use only, bay essential oil as rubbing oil for rheumatic complaints, sprains,colds,
influenza, formerly a symbol of victory and success in ancient Greek and Roman culture so "crowned
with bays", in Bible only in three epistles of New Testament, origin of "poet laureate", "baccalaureate", Mediterranean region, Lauraceae.
Dried herb sold as bay leaf.
Bay oil contains Cineol, Pinene, Linalool.
Bay Tree, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Bay Tree, Daley's Fruit Trees

California bay laurel, (Umbellularia californica), headache tree, California bay tree, Oregon myrtle | strong bay tree smell of Cineole |
also: pinene | Sabinene | herbal medicine, traditional headache cure, crushed leaves give temporary headache relief, large hardwood tree,

Avocado (Persea americana), avocado, ahuactl, bata, agnate, abuacath, alligator pear (from "ahuacatl", testicle-shaped fruit),
medium to large tree, evergreen, fast growing, fruit large, green or purple, flesh yellow, nutty flavour, used fresh, salads, propagation
from seeds, grafting, Tropical America, Lauraceae.
Avocado leaves of Mexican varieties have tarragon aroma, dried then added to flavour dishes | Anethole | Estragole | Lauraceae.
Avocado, Daley's Fruit Trees

Sassafras tree (Sassafras albidum), white sassafras, up to 20 m, cuisine uses, leaves used thicken and flavour gumbo dishes
| Limonene | Linalool | Myrcene | Phellandrene | Pinene | in roots and bark | herbal medicine of native Americans, formerly used to
flavour root beer, North America, Lauraceae.
See diagram: Sassafras

Family Lecythidaceae. Brazil nut family
Fish poison tree (Barringtonia asiatica) fish killer tree, putat laut, large coastal tree, mangrove, simple leaves, large white flowers
with pink stamens, opening at night to attract moths, fruits like square box or hanging lanterns are pulped to stun fish, herbal medicine,
all parts of tree poisonous, stomach ache, intestinal worms, Methyl salicylate, saponins, Malaysia, Pacific Ocean region, Lecythidaceae.
Mango pine (Barringtonia calyptrata), cassowary pine, up to 10 m, cream white fragrant flowers,
blue oval fruit like little mango, Papua New Guinea, northern Queensland, Lecythidaceae.
Barringtonia calyptrata, Daley's Fruit Trees
Powderpuff tree (Barringtonia racemosi), flowers on hanging racemes, masses of delicate white stamens like a powder puff, toxic,
folk medicine, poison saponins used to stun fish, used to treat malaria, coastal swamps, Indian ocean, Lecythidaceae.

Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), large tree, up to 50 m, rigid large capsule fruit containing nuts, commercial production from wild
collection, shells contain aflotoxins, nutritious food, often sold in mixed nuts where they rise to the top, shells crushed for abrasive polish,
protected tree so may not be cut down, South America, Lecythidaceae.

Paradise nut (Lecythis ollaria), sapucaia nut, zabucajo, monkey pod, coco de mono, large tree, woody, pot-like fruit that monkeys
can reach into, nuts accumulate selenium so can be toxic, Brazil, Lecythidaceae.

Family Lentibulariaceae, Bladderwort family (carnivorous), only 3 genera, Utricularia, Pinguicula and Enlisea.
Leafy bladderwort (Utricularia foliosa), perennial, groundcover, lichen like, thrives in damp area and shade, carnivorous plant with
capillary leaves bearing bladders to catch insects, Lentibulariaceae.
Bladderwort (Utricularia vulgaris), common bladderwort, groundcover, lichen-like plant, thrives in damp area and shade,
carnivorous plant with tiny pods that trap insects, Lentibulariaceae.

Family Linaceae.
Flax (Linum, usitatissimum), common flax, linen flax, linseed, flaxseed, food / fibre crop make linen, linseed oil,
mentioned in the Bible, herbal medicine, flaxseed oil contains omega-3 fatty acids reduces inflammation of bursitis,
flaxseed oil is safe but flax seeds may cause bowel obstruction so consume seeds with at least 250 mL water
fibres with thick cellulose walls, only cultivated flax plants exist, Linaceae.
Dried herb sold as brown whole seed linseed.

Family Lythraceae, Loosestrife family, e.g. Lythrum, Lawsonia, Punica, Sonneratia (mangrove apple), Trapa (water chestnut).
Henna (Lawsonia inermis), Egyptian privet, Cypress shrub, mignonette tree, perennial, up to 2-3 metres, hedge plant, leaves as
orange dye for hair and skin artistry, anti-microbial, herbal medicine, astringent bark, contains the naphtha quinone lawsone, natural
orange, C10H6O3, North Africa, Lythraceae.
Henna tree, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as leaf.

Pomegranate (Punica granatum), dadima (French, pome, apple, Latin granatum, hardy plant, more than 2 metres,
semi-deciduous, slow growing grown from seeds and cuttings, shrub, fruit with large, round, juicy pulp, many seeds, herbal
medicine, anxiety, menopause, rich in antioxidants, fruit eaten raw, juice, in fruit salad, tannins extracted from root bark, Ayurvedic
medicine, cultivated throughout India, North America, China, Lythraceae.
Dried herb sold as freeze-dried fruit juice dried powder.
Pomegranate, Daley's Fruit Trees

Purple loosestrife, (Lythrum salicaria), herbaceous perennial, up to 2 m, many erect stems from woody origin, red-purple flowers,
herbal medicine, safe astringent, diarrhoea, dysentery, Europe, Lythraceae.

Magnoliaceae, Magnolia family
Magnolia species
Champak (Magnolia champaca, previously Michelia champaca), joy perfume tree, in India strong perfumed flowers used for
worship, to 30 m, Honokiol, bark used as herbal medicine, treat stress, in "joy" perfume (champaca essential oil, attar holy fragrance,
not used for therapeutic purposes), valuable timber, cultivated ornamental, Southeast Asia, Magnoliaceae.

Family Meliaceae, Mahogany family, e.g. Melia, Toona (red cedar), mahogany
Neem tree (Azadirachta indica, Melia azadirachta), margosa, nimba, perennial, herbal medicine, seeds and leaves as an azadirechtin
insecticide for contact and ingestion control, neem oil, natural toothbrush, India, Meliaceae.
Dried herb sold as leaves
See diagram: Neem tree
Neem tree, Daley's Fruit Trees

Monimiaceae, Monimia family
Boldo (Peumus boldus, Boldu boldus, Boldoa fragrans), boldo, boldus, boldu, contains boldine, ascaridole, Cineol, Linalool, and
many alkaloids, herbal medicine, antioxidants, chemoprotective, hepatoprotective, Chile, Monimiaceae.
Dried herb sold as leaves.

Moraceae, mulberry family
Breadnut (Brosimum alicastrum), Maya breadnut, medium to large tree, grows well in limestone soils, good ornamental and shade
tree, fruit, small orange, thin pulp, large starchy seed, used cooked, propagation from seeds, Central America, Moraceae.
Cow tree (Brosimum utile), Central American milk tree, milky sap is edible, "palo de vaca", "vegetable cheese", Central America,
Other genera are called "cow tree".

Ficus species, fig trees, includes the banyan fig that starts as an epiphyte, e.g. Indian banyan tree. Moraceae.
Ficus carica, common fig, edible fig, Moraceae

Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera), tapa cloth tree, siapo (historical paper), invasive weed, pollen allergy, bark fibre used
for tapa cloth, paper, rope, edible fruit, Japan, Moraceae.

Mulberry (Morus species), at first grow fast then slow, fruit is multiple fruit, monoecious or dioecious.
White mulberry (Morus alba), silkworm mulberry, medium to large tree, short-lived, fast-growing, deciduous, fruit small, juicy sweet,
used fresh, pies, herbal medicine, diabetes, ornamental, widely cultivated to feed silkworms, propagation from cuttings, grafting,
Northern China, Turkey, Moraceae.
Dried herb sold as mulberries white whole fruit or as crumbles.
Black mulberry (Morus nigra), large fruit with staining juice, large tree, 308 chromosomes, hairy lower leaf surface, Asia. Moraceae.
Mulberry, Daley's Fruit Trees

Family Moringaceae, Horseradish tree family
Indian horseradish tree (Moringa oleifera), drumstick tree, tree of life, miracle tree (in Africa because
so many uses), ben tree, forest tree and cultivated tropical tree, delicate foliage, attractive pale yellow flowers, long green pods, tiny
edible leaves, high concentration of vitamins C and A, calcium and protein, peeled roots used as substitute for horseradish, slender,
semi-deciduous, perennial tree, to about 10 m, drooping branches, keep pruned to under 2 metres for accessible leaves
subtropical and tropical climates, flowering and fruiting freely and continuously, best on a dry sandy soil, shade tree,
drought-hardy, avenue tree pruned 4-5 metres, foliage has mustard flavour, used in Indian and Sri Lankan dishes. herbal medicine, used
as very nutritious leaves eaten raw or added at the end of cooking of curries and stir fry dishes, eat fresh flowers, flavour like asparagus,
eat beans when small and tender or chop larger pods for curries, high quality bean oil from seeds, roots have horseradish (Amoracia
rusticana), smell, India and spread to Asia, Central and South America, Africa and the Pacific, Moringaceae.
Dried herb sold as leaves.
See diagram: Drumstick tree
Phantom tree (Moringa ovalifera), ghost tree, herbal medicine, antibiotic substances, Namibia, Moringaceae.
Drumstick tree Daley's Fruit Trees

Family Myricaceae, Bayberry family
Bayberry (Myrica cerifera), southern wax myrtle, wax myrtle, evergreen shrub, dioecious, aromatic compounds on glandular leaves
and flowers so susceptible to wildfires, can fix nitrogen faster than legumes, used to make wax candles,
herbal medicine, Myricaceae.
Dried herb sold as bark.
Sweetgale (Myrica gale), bog-myrtle, Europe, North America, Myricaceae.

Myristicaceae, Nutmeg family
Nutmeg (Mystica fragrans), perennial, hardy plant, up to 1-2 metres, bee forage, musk scented leaves, moth repellent and in
| Cineole | Geraniol | Limonene | Methyl eugenol | Myrcene | Myristicin | Sabinene | Safrole | herbal medicine, anti-bacterial,
anti-fungal, inhalant for headaches, tea, constipation, stomach ache, diarrhoea, coughs, candida, fevers, and externally as a wash for
skin conditions, Sri Lanka, Lamiaceae.
Dried herb sold whole or as chips.
Mace, has thin, bright red aril or lace-like covering over the shell of the nutmeg to encapsulate the endosperm, nutmeg seed, low
toxicity | Methyl eugenol | Myristicin | Pinene | Sabinene | sold as ground mace, Lamiaceae.

Family Myrtaceae, Myrtle family (phloem on both sides of xylem), e.g. Angophora, Eucalyptus, guava, feijoa, Brazilian cherry,
Indian hill gooseberry, midyim, Cedar Bay cherry, jambolan, nutmeg, bottlebrush, jaboticaba, lemon myrtle, Malay apple, melaleuca,
See diagram: Jambolan

Backhousia, Myrtaceae.
Curry leaf myrtle (Backhousia angustifolia), up to 5 m, near streams, small white flowers, curry-scented crushed leaves, Australian native
food, Myrtaceae
Aniseed myrtle, Backhousia anisata, now Syzygium anisatum, Australian native food, Myrtaceae.
Aniseed Myrtle, Daley's Fruit Trees
Lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora), lemon-scented myrtle, citral chemovar, never break, sweet verbena tree, fast growing tree but tender
when young, up to 3-8 m, needs full sun and protected site, well-drained or poorly-drained soil, tolerate light frosts, attracts birds and
butterflies, better to harvest older leaves for deeper flavour than lemon grass, culinary uses, ornamental tree, lemon-like food flavouring for
teas, seafood, baked goods, desserts, cultivated because highest natural resource of Citral in essential oil, leaves and flowers rich in
vitamins, herbal medicine, south-east Queensland, Australian native food, Myrtaceae.
Dried herb sold as leaves and leaf powder.
Cinnamon myrtle (Backhousia myrtifolia), (wombai), grey myrtle | Elemicin | Australian native food, Myrtaceae.
Cinnamon Myrtle Daley's Fruit Trees

False rue (Baeckea frutescens), cucau atap, small tree, needle-like leaves| essential oils | Cineole | Limonene | folk medicine, treats
sunstroke, fever, after birth tonic, ornamental, Myrtaceae.

Manuka tea tree (Leptospermum scoparium
Manuka tea tree, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm

Myrtle (Myrtus communis), common myrtle, fragrant and glossy, evergreen leaves, many white flowers,
small tree up to 2 metres, can trim to bush size, culinary uses, culinary uses, flavour meat, fresh berries, leaves and flowers rich in vitamin C,
malic and citric acid, salads, cooked dishes, herbal medicine, cosmetic oil (in Bible Nehemiah 8:15), Myrtaceae.

Pimenta species, Myrtaceae
Allspice (Pimenta dioica), Myrtaceae, Jamaica pepper, pimenta, perennial, attractive hardy tree, dense foliage, bush or more than 3 metres,
tree or trim to bush size, young plants need shade and water, need male and female plants for pollination, small flowers, flowers contain
both types of reproductive organs, but in some trees "female flowers" have infertile pollen and "male flowers" have sterile eggs, hard
woody red-brown berries, the spice is the brown dried unripe fruit, the "berry", aroma and flavour combination of nutmeg, cinnamon and
biscuits, | essential oil high concentration of Eugenol | also: Caryophyllene | Cineole | herbal medicine, arthritis, muscular disorders,
supposed aphrodisiac, but may irritate mucous membranes, ancient Mayas used it for embalming, male or female plants as ornamental,
Central America, Jamaica, Myrtaceae.
Dried herb sold as berries.
See diagram Allspice.
Allspice, Daley's Fruit Trees

Bay rum tree (Pimenta racemosa), West Indian bay tree, up to 12 m, white flowers, oval fruits, essential oil from distilled leaves
with distilled rum used to make bay rum | Lusitanicoside | essential oil contains mainly: Chavicol | Eugenol | Methyl eugenol | also: Citral |
Myrcene | Phellandrene | concentrated oil is toxic, invasive, West Indies, Myrtaceae.
See diagram Bay rum tree

Plinia cauliflora (Myrciaria cauliflora) Brazilian grapetree, jaboticaba, purple white-pulped fruit grow on the trunk, eaten raw or used
to make jellies, jams, juice or wine, Brazil, Myrtaceae
Jaboticaba Daley's Fruit Trees

Psidium species, guava, Myrtaceae
Psidium: Australian native fruits with potential for development.
Psidium araca, Araca, Myrtaceae.
Cattley guava (Psidium cattleianum), cherry guava, cattleianum, cattley guava, strawberry guava, bail,
shrub or small tree, evergreen, fast growing, fruit small,
round, red or yellow, subacid, used fresh, jelly, propagation from seeds, Brazil, Myrtaceae.
See diagram Cattley guava
Costa Rican guava (Psidium friedrichsthalianum), small to medium tree, evergreen, attractive ornamental, fruit yellow, soft acid pulp,
many seeds, used fresh, jelly, juice, propagation from seeds, attractive ornamental, Central America, Myrtaceae.
Guava (Psidium guajava), common guava, yellow guava pineapple guava, small to medium tree, evergreen, fast growing, prolific,
fruit medium to large, round, sweet or sour, aromatic, high in vitamin C, few seeds, pear-like flavour, high nutritional value, used fresh,
jelly, preserves, juice, propagation from seeds, air-layering, grafting, | Casuarictin | Casuarinin | Gallic acid | Tellimagrandin I | herbal
medicine, Mexico, South America, Myrtaceae.
Guava, Daley's Fruit Trees

Finger cherry (Rhodomyrtus macrocarpa), wannakai, native loquat, finger cherry, | Rhodomyrtoxin | poisonous red fruit, may cause
blindness in children, Australia, Myrtaceae.
Rose myrtle (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa), Ceylon hill gooseberry, Indian hill gooseberry, downy myrtle, 2 metres, small shrub, green-purple,
evergreen, fast growing, seeds, drought-hardy plant, attractive pink flowers, invasive in some countries, culinary uses, good flavour small
green-purple fruit, eaten fresh, jams, pies, drinks, hardy plant, high nutritional value, herbal medicine, tropical Asia, Myrtaceae.
Ceylon Hill Gooseberry, Daley's Fruit Trees
Native guava (Rhodomyrtus psidioides), shrub with fruity smell, Myrtaceae.
Native Guava, Daley's Fruit Trees

Turpentine tree (Syncarpia glomulifera), timber has high silica content, resistant to marine borers, Myrtaceae.

Clove (Syzygium aromaticum), Myrtaceae
clove gillyflower, evergreen, up to 12 m, grown from seeds, air-layering, cloves are dried aromatic flower buds picked just
before they open then dried, pungent flavour and aroma, antimicrobial, food preservative, high concentration of
antioxidants, cuisine uses, in spice mixes to flavour meat and sweets, Indonesian kretek cigarettes
contains phenolic compounds, mainly | Casuarictin | Eugeniin | Eugenol, also: Caryophyllene | Eugenol acetate | Gallic acid | Tellimagrandin |
Vanillin | traditional herbal medicine, digestion disorders, coughs, sinuses,excesive gas bloating, topical application for rheumatism
and inflammation | attractive ornamental, Madagascar, originally from Maluku Islands, Indonesia, Myrtaceae.
Dried herb sold as clove flower bud whole.
See diagram: Syzygium aromaticum
Clove oil, oil of cloves, essential oil, C7H12ClN3O2, 205.642 g/mol, from flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum trees which contains
about 85% Eugenol, has both analgesic and antiseptic properties, numbs nerve endings, inmouth washes, used to treat tooth and gum pain.

Family Nyctaginaceae.
Sweet sand-verbena, (Abronia fragrans), Nyctaginaceae.
Four o'clock flower, (Mirabilis jalapa), Nyctaginaceae.
Punarnava, (Boerhavia diffusa), Nyctaginaceae.