School Science Lessons
Food Gardens 6b - Herbs
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Herbs Information and Websites
Table of contents
3.5.0 Plant families, Balsaminaceae to Gerianaceae (dicotyledons).

Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), red cole, perennial, hardy plant, up to 50 cm, white flowers, spicy roots, grows well but not in full
shade or wet ground, roots will keep in the ground during winter so can be harvested as required, thick pungent rootstock, spicy root
vegetable, culinary uses, with shellfish, poultry, pork, beef, pungent when grated or ground dry root is rehydrated, fresh young
leaves can be eaten raw or cooked or put in creamy sauce but strong flavour so use in moderation, rich in vitamin C and minerals,
anti-oxidant, contains Myrosinase enzyme, good source of suphur in the diet, herbal medicine, digestive tonic, gives temporary relief
bronchial sinus, hay fever, relieves pain, soothes mucous membranes| Sinigrin glucosinolate from separate crushed cells produce:
Allyl isothiocyanate distillation of horseradish produces volatile oil of mustard, synthetic mustard oil with a hot biting taste with a hint
of sweetness, Glucocapparin, China, Brassicaceae.
Dried herb sold as root powder.
If overdose of horseradish, to avoid drawing irritants into the lungs, breathe only in through the nose and out through the mouth.

Family Balsaminaceae, Touch-me-not family
Impatiens species, Balsaminaceae
Busy Lizzie (Impatiens walleriana), garden balsam, impatiens, short-lived perenniel, colourful red flowers, minor invasive, Eastern
Africa, Balsaminaceae.
Golden dragon (Impatiens repens), Ceylon balsam, yellow impatiens, perennial, bright yellow, flowers, herbal medicine, skin
disorders, Balsaminaceae.
Impatiens balsamina | Lawsone | Syringic acid | Balsaminaceae

Family Basellaceae, Basella family, basella, Madeira vines, Papalisa (Ullucus tuberosa), root / leaf vegetable, Andes, South America,
Ceylon spinach (Basella alba), Indian spinach, Malabar spinach, Surinam purslane, Philippine spinach, Florida spinach, sweetheart
(called "spinach", but not "true spinach" (Spinacia oleracea), Basellaceae.
Other plants are called "Ceylon spinach"!
Ceylon Spinach, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Ceylon Spinach - Red Stem, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.

Family Berberidaceae, Barberry family
Berberis species: |
Berberine | Capsanthin | Flavoxanthin | Jatrorrhizine | Obaberine | Palmatine |
Oregon grape (Berberis aquifolium, Mahonia aquifolium), mountain grape (but not a "true grape"), spiny leaflets like holly, herbal
medicine, skin diseases, attractive plant, wine from juice, North America, Berberidaceae.
Dried herb sold as root.
Magellan barberry (Berberis buxifolia) | Calafatimine | Berberidaceae.
Espina amarilla (Berberis laurina) | Berberastine | O-Methylthalicberine | Berberidaceae.
Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii), Thunberg's barberry, red barberry | Berbamine | Berberidaceae.
Cien (Berberis valdiviana), espina en cruz |
Cularine | Berberidaceae.
Barberry (Berberis vulgaris), European barberry, perennial, up to 2-3 metres, hardy plant, thorny shrub, deciduous, evergreen,
yellow wood, racemes of yellow flowers, red and oblong acidic berries, high in vitamin C,
Berberine, herbal medicine, anti-fungal,
anti-bacterial, eye drops, high pectin for making jam, alternative host of wheat rust fungus (Puccinia graminis), New Zealand hedge
plant, Europe, Berberidaceae.
Dried herb sold as bark.
Sacred bamboo (Nandina domestica), heavenly bamboo, (it is not a bamboo Bambusoideae!), perennial, up to 1-2 metres,
green / bronze / red ferny leaves, | Berberine |
Cyanohydrin, C14H17NO3 | traditional herbal medicine, can release toxic HCN, Berberidaceae.
Blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides), squaw root, papoose root | Baptifoline| herbal medicine, Berberidaceae.
Dried herb sold as root.
Mayapple (Podophylum peltatum), American mandrake, yellow egg-shape fruit, roots poisonous, herbal remedy podophyllotoxin,
purgative, warts, North America, Berberidaceae.

Horny goat weed (Epimedium sagittatum, E. grandiflora), barrenwort, bishop's hat, aphrodisiac, treats erectile disfunction, icariin a
flavonoid glucoside, Vietnam, China, Berberidaceae.
Dried herb sold as aerials.

Bignoniaceae, Trumpet creeper family
Midnight horror tree (Oroxylum indicum), Indian trumpet flower, to 12 metres, fast-growing pioneer plant (name from very large
pod against skyline)| Chrysin | Aloe-emodin | Baicalein | herbal medicine, astringent root bark used to treat diarrhoea and dysentery
used new leaves and seed pods eaten, high in protein, iron and calcium, Trumpet creeper family, Bignoniaceae.

Family Bixaceae, Lipstick tree family, Achiote family
Achiote (Bixa orellana), lipstick tree, annatto, fast growing perennial, beautiful flowering small tree or shrub, simple leaves,
almost heart-shaped red fruit in clusters with red stiff hairs, fruit splits to release many dark red seeds that have high carotenoid content,
i.e. Bixin, fruit not edible, hedge and wayside plant, orange-red condiment and commercial food colouring called "annatto", a potential
source of new drugs, dye prepared by stirring seeds in water, from waxy arils of seeds, poisonous leaves, seeds and roots, may cause
skin rashes, fruit not edible but seed pulp used for yellow colour for Philippine and South American cooking, ink, fabric traditional body
paint, war paint, ingestion as a condiment or diet supplement may protect against diseases because of its anti-cancer, hypoglycemic,
antibiotic and anti-inflammatory properties, but as culinary colorant and spice may cause hyperactivity, | E160b Annatto, food additive,
| Bixin | Humulene | Hypolaetin | Limonene | Myrcene | Norbixin | Pinene | herbal medicine, fever, dysentery, purgative, South America.
Achiote, Daley's Fruit Trees

Family Boraginaceae, borage family, forget-me-not family
Bugloss, bristly plants with hairy stems, toothed leaves with spiny margins, small flowers, may refer to:
Pentaglottis species, e.g. Pentaglottis sempervirens.
Alkanet: Any plant of the 50 or so mostly Mediterranean species of the genus Anchusa and the closely-related
Pentaglottis sempervirens, bearing blue, purple, or white flowers, similar to those of bristly plants with hairy stems, toothed leaves with spiny
margins, small flowers, forget-me-nots, on hairy herbaceous stems.
Alkanet (Alkanna tinctoria), alkanna, dyer's alkanet, orchanet, dyer's bugloss, Spanish bugloss, bright blue flower, red pigment from roots
is used in cosmetics, astringent, root antibacterial, antipruritic, astringent, used topically for treatment of skin wounds, varicose veins, indolent
ulcers, bed sores and itching rashes, used orally for diarrhoea, cough, and gastric ulcers, can be dried for later use, root's radical scavenging
activity suggests antiaging effects, dye used in thermomters, acid-base indicator, wood stain, alkannin, drought tolerant in alkaline soils, France.
Other plants are called "alkanet", e.g. Anchusa officinalis, but the name should be reserved for Alkanna tinctoria.
See diagram Alkanna tinctoria

Anchusa, Boraginaceae.
Small bugloss (Anchusa arvensis), annual bugloss | Lycopsamine | Boraginaceae
Italian bugloss (Anchusa azurea), garden anchusa, large blue alkanet, bristly perennial, up to 120 cm, narrow leaves, large blue flowers with white hairs in the throats,
cooked stems eaten, ornamental, weed, Europe, Boraginaceae.
Common bugloss (Anchusa officinalis), "true alkanet" (Spanish Alcanna, henna, red dye), narrow leaves, up to 60 cm, purple flowers in coiled sprays,
| Clivorine | Lithospermic acid | Europe, Boraginaceae.
Dyer's alkanet (Anchusa tinctoria), bright blue flowers, red dye from dark red roots, folk medicine, treat inflammation, Boraginaceae.

Borage (Borago officinalis), starflower, bee bread, common bugloss, annual, self-seeding, up to 75 cm, large hairy leaves, small single
pointed bright blue flowers, culinary herb, tastes like cucumber| Dhurrin | Lycopsamine | Nonanal | used in salad decoration, young leaves
cooked like spinach, in ice blocks in cordials, hair conditioner, accumulates potassium, contains highest source of γ- Linoleic acid | Retronecine
| Pyrrolizidine alkaloids | stock poisons, may accumulate toxic alkaloids, so consume sparingly, Cucumber aldehyde, herbal medicine, used to
treat external inflammation, Boraginaceae.
Borage, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as aerials.
See diagram: Borage

Honeywort (Cerinthe major), ornamental, Europe, Boraginaceae.
Cerinthe major, var. purpurens, purple flowers, Boraginaceae.
Hound's tongue (Cyanoglossum officinale), rats and mice, scaldhead, herbal medicine, Pyrrolizidine alkaloids stock poison,
Allantoin, Boraginaceae.
Retronecine, Boraginaceae.

Echium species, Boraginaceae.
Viper's bugloss (Echium vulgare), tower of jewels, blue devil, blue weed, biennial, self seeds, honey source, spike of blue flowers with red
filaments of the stamens, ornamental, herbal medicine| leaf and seed extracts contain Pyrrolizidine alkaloids | so may be toxic, stock
poison, invasive, pink and bright-blue flowers, red stamens up to 90 cm, elongated oval bristly leaves, flowers used in salads, said to be
used to treat snake bite, leaves and flowering stems said to be antitussive, aphrodisiac, demulcent, diaphoretic, diuretic, juice to treat skin
disorders, flowering heads poultice to treat boils| roots contain Allantoin | leaves harvested then
dried for later use, widespread in Europe, naturalized in North America, Boraginaceae.
Purple viper's bugloss (Epium plantagineum), Patterson's curse, salvation Jane, noxious weed but fodder plant| Pyrrolizidine alkaloids |
Heliosupine | Lithospermic acid | Alkannin | Echimidine | Echinone | stock poison, similar to viper's bugloss but is larger-flowered and
shorter, with softer hair, garden flower, Boraginaceae.

Heliotrope (Heliotropium arborescens), common heliotrope, garden heliotrope, cherry pie, turnsole, perennial, up to 1 metre, woody
shrub, leaves alternate, green, veined, pebbled, terminal clusters of fragrant flowers, sweet vanilla-scented, colour varies white to purple,
poisonous seeds, vanilla-like fragrance, perfume ingredient, fast growing from cuttings, formerly a popular ornamental, | Heliotridine |
Piperonal | Supinidine | Peru, Boraginaceae.
European heliotrope (Heliotropium europaeum), European turnsole, annual herb, up to 40 cm, soft hairs on oval leaves, spike of
white flowers, sap used for food colouring, weed of wheat crops, Pyrrolizidine alkaloids, stock poison | Heliotridine | Piperonal
| Supinidine | Heliotridine | Lasiocarpine | Retronecine | Mediterranean region, Boraginaceae.
Heliotrope - Cherry pie (Heliotropium aborescens)
Heliotrope- Cherry pie, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Heliotrope -Golden (Heliotropium aborescens)
Lord Robert (Heliotropium arborescens, Lord Robert)
Heliotrope -Lord Robert, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Pentaglottis, Boraginaceae.
Evergreen bugloss (Pentaglottis sempervirens), "alkanet", green alkanet, evergreen alkanet,
perennial, up to 1 m, oval pointed evergreen leaves and white-eyed blue flowers, roots release red colour, in cosmetics, Boraginaceae.
See diagram Pentaglottis sempervirens
See diagram Pentaglottis sempervirens.

Forget-me-not (Myosotis sylvatica), woodland forget-me-not, annual or biennial, to 50 cm, from seed, first rosette of hairy green leaves,
then red-green stalk, blue flowers with yellow centres, garden flower, groundcover under other plants, former herbal medicine for lung
diseases and scorpions |
Symphytine | widely cultivated, Europe, Boraginaceae.
True forget-me-not (Myosotis scorpioides), scorpion grass because spiral inflorescence, noxious weed, Europe, Boraginaceae.

Pulmonaria species, Boraginaceae.
Lungwort (Pulmonaria officinalis), Our Lady's milkdrops, herbaceous, evergreen, rhizome, ovate spotted leaves, red to purple trumpet-like
flowers, herbal medicine, chest diseases, acid-base dye, Boraginaceae.

Symphytum species, Boraginaceae.
Comfrey (Symphytum officinale), true comfrey, common comfrey, up to 1 metre, hardy plant, leaves over 30% protein mulch, compost,
liquid fertilizer, animal food, poultry food, culinary uses, eaten raw and cooked, vitamins B 12, rich in potash and nitrogen, herbal
medicine, leaves and roots ointment, poultices, useful culinary herb | Pyrrolizidine alkaloids, stock poison | Allantoin
| Retronecine | Echimidine | Heliosupine | Lasiocarpine | Lithospermic acid | Rosmarinic acid | Symphytine |
| folk medicine, suitable for herbal infusion but roots contain toxic Pyrrolizidine alkaloids which may cause liver damage, Boraginaceae.
Comfrey, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as comfrey leaf.
Dried herb sold as comfrey root powder.
Comfrey, Daley's Fruit Tree
Comfrey bocking 14 (Symphytum uplandicum), cultivar of Russian comfrey, valued for high potash content and very high yields,
add leaves to the compost, rots down quickly and adds nutrients and speeds up the decomposition of other materials, culinary uses,
herbal medicine, Europe, Boraginaceae.
Russian comfrey (Symphytum uplandicum, S. officinale, Comfrey x S. asperum), rough comfrey, perennial,
vitamin B 12, rich in potash and nitrogen, valuable for mulch, in compost and liquid fertilizer, leaves over 30% protein, animal, poultry
food, leaves and roots, herbal medicine, made as ointment, poultices culinary uses, raw and cooked, culinary uses, herbal infusions,
Europe, Boraginaceae.

Family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae), Mustard family
Brassicas may self-seed and hybridize readily, so select seed carefully.
Brassica species and cultivars, Brassicaceae.
Brassica species: | Hydroxyglucobrassicin | Lutein | Methoxyglucobrassicin | Progoitrin | Sirodesmin |
Brassica napus (B. napobrassica), turnip, rutabaga, swede, Swedish turnip, yellow turnip, Canadian turnip, feed for sheep, Brassicaceae.
Rapeseed (Brassica napus), Canola, rape, oilseed rape, rapeseed oil, canola cultivar, Brassicaceae, Canola oil, canola, vegetable oil, from
cultivars of: Brassica napus, Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera, Brassica juncea, (also these species and cultivars are called "canola").
Canola (Brassica species), Brassicaceae.
Brassica campestris | Methoxy brassinin |
See following glucosinolates: Glucosinolates
Brassica campestris var. chinensis | Glycoalyssin | Glycoiberverin | Gluconapoleiferin | Glucoputranjivin |
Brassica campestris var. rapifera | Glycoalyssin | Glucocheirolin | Glucoerucin | Glucoerisolin | Gluconapoleiferin |
Brassica pekinensis | Glucoberteroin | Gluconapoleiferin |
Brassica napobrassica, rutabaga, sweed, neep
Bok choy (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis), pak choi, pok choi, napa cabbage, do not form heads, have smooth dark green leaf blades
southern China, Southeast Asia, Brassicaceae.
Pekin cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis), Chinese cabbage, Shanghai cabbage, napa cabbage ('wombok' Australia), used in East
Asian and European region cuisine, Beijing region of China, Brassicaceae.
Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa), Brassicaceae.

Upland cress (Barbarea vulgaris), yellow rocket, winter cress, vegetable, Brassicaceae.
Upland cress, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.

Asian greens (Brassica species), Brassicaceae.
Asian Herbs and Greens, Basilea Living herbs
Asian Greens, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, Giant Red Mustard (Brassica juncea), See text below images.
Asian Greens, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, Mibuna (Brassica rapa var. japonica), See text below images.
Asian Greens, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, Mizuna (Brassica rapa nipposinica), Brassicaceae, See text below images.
Asian Greens, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, Mizuna Purple (Brassica rapa, japonica group), See text below images.
Asian Greens, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, Mustard Streaks (Brassica juncea).
Asian Greens, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, Tatsoi Purple (Brassica narinosa), See text below images.
Braya, northern rock cress, Brassicaceae.

Mustards, Brassicaceae.
White mustard (Sinapsis alba, Brassica alba, Brassica hirta), yellow mustard, annual, used in mustard and cress sandwiches, seeds in
mustard pickles | Sinalbin | Glycoiberverin | Gluconasturtiin | Glucoputranjivin | Sinalbin | Sinigrin | herbal medicine, widely grown
for seed for less pungent white mustard, sprouts hot tasting but can be eaten raw, used in "mustard and cress sandwiches", in
American mustards, salads, green manure, emetic, fodder crop, widely grown, Mediterranean region, India, Brassicaceae.
Dried herb sold as mustard seed yellow whole seed or mustard seed yellow seed powder.

Brown mustard (Brassica juncea), Chinese mustard, Indian mustard, leaf mustard, Oriental mustard, vegetable mustard, sarepta mustard
| Glucobrassicanapin | Glycoiberverin | Gluconapin | Gluconapoleiferin | Gluconasturtiin | Hydroxyglucobrassicin | Progoitrin | Sinigrin |
raii, mustard oil contains Sinigrin, Brassicaceae.

Black mustard (Brassica nigra), table mustard, short pod mustard, condiment, Allyl isothiocyanateis pungent when crushed seed mixed
with water, culinary uses, mustard sauce, salads, mustard and cress sandwiches, herbal medicine, used for mustard poultices, emetic,
green manure, India, Brassicaceae
Dried herb sold as mustard seed black whole seed.

Brassica oleraceae, Brassicaceae
All contain: | Cyanin | Hexacosan-1-ol | Indole-3-acetonitrile | Nonacosane | Sinapic acid | Triacontan-1-ol |
Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala), wild cabbage, borecole, kale, collard greens, non-heading cultivars, winter greens, coloured leaves,
Kale dried herb sold as aerials powder, Brassicaceae.
Kale varieties (Brassica species), Brassicaceae.
Dwarf Blue Curled Kale, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Brassica oleracea), See text below images.
Red Russian Kale, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Brassica oleracea), See text below images.
Black Tuscan Kale, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Brassica oleracea acephala), See text below images.
Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra), Chinese broccoli, gailan, kai lan, oriental cuisine, Brassicaceae

Colza cabbage (Brassica oleracea), cultivated for oil seeds used for illumination and lubrication, Brassicaceae.

Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), Romanesco broccoli, complex head inflorescence, used in pickles, Brassicaceae

Cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. capitata), savoy cabbage, red cabbage (contains anthcyanin), cone cabbage, large terminal bud, pickled
to form sauerkraut, Brassicaceae

Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera), dense, compact, axillary buds packed on upright stem, Brassicaceae

Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes), edible swollen stem, boiled vegetable and livestock feed, Brassicaceae

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), non-compacted single inflorescence, possibly anti-cancerous (cultivars: Calabrese broccoli
or 'broccoli', Sprouting broccoli, Purple cauliflower), Brassicaceae

Wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. oleracea), cabbage, headed cabbage, leafy green, purple or pale green, biennial grown as annual
vegetable crop for dense-leaved heads, Brassicaceae.

Savoy cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. sabauda L), red cabbage (contains anthcyanin), winter vegetable, cone cabbage, large terminal
bud, pickled to form sauerkraut, Brassicaceae

Field mustard (Sinapis arvensis, Brassica arvensis), charlock mustard, wild mustard, charlock, annual oilseed plant, young plants eaten as
vegetable, but plants with seed are toxis, invasive, North Africa, Asia, Europe, Brassicaceae.

Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), Jack-by-the-hedge, hedge garlic, penny hedge, sauce-alone, poor man's mustard, short-lived perennial,
up to 75 cm, spikes of white flowers, crushed heart-shaped leaves have garlic-like smell, culinary uses in salads, herbal medicine, diuretic,
invasive, Brassicaceae.

Shepherd's purse, (Capsella bursa-pastoris), mothers' hearts| Garbanzol | Luteolin | herbal medicine, Hungary, Brassicaceae.
Dried herb sold as aerials.

Wallflower (Cheiranthus cheiri), colourful flowers, scents in nosegays, called a "gillyflower" because it smells of clove, poisonous,
dangerous cardiotonic drug, Brassicaceae.

Rocket (Eruca sativa, Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa), rocket salad, rocket cress, arugula, "regular rocket", garden vegetable, eaten raw, leafy
vegetable, used to add taste to salads, green manure, trap crop for fungus pathogens| Behenic acid | herbal medicine, former cough medicine
from seeds, alleged to increase libido, Brassicaceae.
Salad Rocket, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Wild Rocket, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Diplotaxis tenuifolia), See text below images.

Sweet rocket (Hesperis matronalis), fragrant ornamental (not salad rocket Eruca, so do not consume this Hesperis!), Brassicaceae.
Double rocket (Hesperis matronalis), evewood, dame's violet, vegetable, herbal medicine, Brassicaceae.

Woad (Isatis tinctoria), blue dye from leaves, can be poisonous, Brassicaceae.

Lepidium species, peppercresses, Brassicaceae
Pepperwort (Lepidium latifolium), broad-leaved pepperweed, cress, garden cress (not "watercress"!), pepper grass, maca, perennial
pepperweed, peppergrass, dittany, whitetop, dittander, damp coastal soils, Carvacrol, herbal medicine, was used to treat leprosy, hot
condiment like horseradish, southern Europe, Mediterranean region, Asia, Brassicaceae.
Maca (Lepidium mayenii), herbaceous biennial, fleshy hypocotyl, like a parsnip, root vegetable, flour, herbal medicine, human fertility
disorders, anti-stress "adaptogen", South America, Brassicaceae
Dried herb sold as root powder.
Cook's scurvy grass (Lepidium oleraceum) (near extinct), coastal plant, young leaves edible raw or cooked, hot taste like cress, source of
vitamin C, New Zealand, Brassicaceae.
Garden cress (Lepidium savitum), cress, "mustard and cress", garden pepper cress, pepperwort, pepper grass, poor man's pepper, pepper-like
flavour and aroma, up to 60 cm, small white-pink flowers, vitamins A, C and K| Glucolepidiin | Gluconasturtiin | Lepidimoide | Sinapic
acid | Sinapine | commercially grown in Europe, Brassicaceae.

Honesty (Lunaria annua), money plant, ornamental, dried flowers, seed pods look like silver coins so money plant, can see through disc-shaped
diaphanous seed pods so indicating "honesty", Brassicaceae.

Watercress (Nasturtium officinale), perennial, up to 30 cm, well limed soil, grow in pot at back door so close, for daily use, culinary
uses raw and cooked, rich source of vitamins, iron, potassium, iodine, calcium germanium, culinary uses| Gluconasturtiin | herbal
medicine, Brassicaceae.
Watercress, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.

Garlic cress (Peltaria alliacea), sauce-alone, jack-by-the-hedge, garlic mustard, vegetable that smellsof garlic, herbal medicine,

Radish (Raphanus sativus), root vegetable, small plant with short growing period, culinary uses, raw salad vegetable, pungent odour
companion plant| Raphanin, Glucosyl caffeate C15H18O9 | Glucoberteroin | Glucobrassisin | Glucoiberverin | Glucoraphinin
| Glucoraphenin | Methyl mercaptan | Phaseolic acid | Sinalbin | garden crop, Southeast Asia, Brassicaceae.

Wasabi (Eutrema japonicum), Japanese "horseradish", stems used as pungent condiment,
vapours that stimulate the nasal passages more than the tongue, grows naturally partly submerged or along cool mountain streams of
Japan, matures in 18 months - two years, also use the leaves in salads, curries, pickles, use small amount of finely-grated large stem
with soy sauce as dipping sauce for sushi
sauce contains Myrosinase and Allyl isothiocyanate
and many enzymes are released by grating cell rupture.
Commercial "wasabi" may be mainly horseradish, e.g. "S&B Wasabi, Prepared wasabi in tube. Ingredients: Horseradish (31%),
Wasabi Japonica (4.5%), Excessive consumption of this food may have a laxative effect."
Partly used root, stem and even whole plants can be kept in a household refrigerator for several weeks.
If overdose of wasabi, to avoid drawing irritants into the lungs, breathe only in through the nose and out through the mouth.
Extremely strong pungency from vapours that stimulate the nasal passages more than the tongue.
See diagram: Wasabi, Japan, Brassicaceae.

Butterfly bush (Buddleja), popular "butterfly bushes, popular garden plants, Asia, Africa, Americas, Buddlejaceae
Alternate-leaved Butterfly Bush (Buddleja alterniflolia), weeping flora, Buddlejaceae
Summer lilac (Buddleja davidii) butterfly bush | Catalpol | Buddledin A | Buddlejaceae
Buddleja davidii 'Black Knight', to 4.0 m, deep purple flowers, popular garden plant, China, Buddlejaceae
Buddleja davidii 'Nanho Blue', Buddlejaceae
Buddleja davidii 'Santana', Buddlejaceae
Orange ball tree (Buddleja globosa) orange buddleja | Catalpol | Verbascoside | Buddlejaceae
Buddleja globosa, honey-scented, globular inflorescences, Buddlejaceae.
Buddleja officinalis | Verbascoside | Buddlejaceae

Family Burseraceae, Frankincense family
Bursera species, linaloe berry| linalool |
| Mexican copal
Arabian balsam tree (Commiphora gileadensis), Mecca myrrh (also called Balm of Gilead, but this name usually reserved for Cedronella
carariensis), beshem, perennial, up to 4 m, alternate leaves on short condensed side shoots, pinnate with oblong 3-5 leaflets, red flowers
and fruits with four longitudinal white stripes, pleasant smell if twig broken or leaf crushed, sap flows out from cut bark then hardens
with sweet smell, chewed hardened resinous gum tastes like lemon or pine resin, burned as incense, aromatic leaves for tea
| Cinnamaldehyde | herbal medicine, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, Burseraceae.
Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha, C. molmol), hirabol myrrh, Somalian myrrh, spiny tree, up to 4 m, grey outer bark, green inner bark
exudes translucent yellow gum-resin (Bible: Matthew 2:11), herbal medicine, do not take internally, Yemen, Somalia, Burseraceae.
Dried herb sold as myrrh gum resin, pea-size pieces.
See diagram: Myrrh (Kew Gardens).
Abyssinican myrrh (Comiphora abyssinica, Comiphora habessinica) | Cuminaldehyde | Burseraceae.
Mukul myrrh tree (Comiphora mukul) | Cinnamaldehyde | Pelargonin | Burseraceae.

Canarium species, Burseraceae.
Canarium species: | Amyrin | Elemolic acid | Tarexerol |
Galip nut (Canarium indicum, Canarium commune), ngali nut tree, kenari ambon, tall tree| Elemicin | edible nuts, timber, South Pacific,
Elemi (Canarium luzonicum), harvested oleoresins also called "elemi", varnishes, herbal medicine, respiratory problems, Philippines, Burseraceae.
Pili nut (Canarium ovatum), roasted nut kernels eaten, nuts collected wild but cultivated in Philippines, ornamental, Southeast Asia,
Kenari nut (Canarium vulgare), Java nut, Java olive, edible oily kernels eaten after removal from very hard shell of oblong, pointed
fruits, kernel oil fed to infants | Anethole | Limonene | Phellandrene | herbal medicine, headache, nasal congestion, Burseraceae.

Frankincense (Boswellia sacra), olibanum gum, aromatic resin, Burseraceae.
Species of Boswellia used to produce the most frankincense aromatic resin, and herbal medicine:
Boswellia carteri (B. sacra), tree up to 8 m, leaves clustered at ends of tangled branches, outer bark peeling in papery flakes, green
inner bark produces exudate hardening to pale green oleo-gum-resin, sweet-smelling fumes when burnt, soft wood with milky latex,
used for incense | Pinene | Limonene | herbal medicine, treat digestion and respiratory disorders, mentioned 17 times in the King James
Bible, Ethiopia, Somalia Oman, Yemen, Muscat, India, Burseraceae .
Dried herb sold as resin.
See diagram: Boswellia sacra
Boswellia frereana, African elemi, elemi frankincense, Burseraceae.
Boswellia papyrifera, Sudanese frankincense, elephant, tree, Bursuraceae.
Boswellia serrata, Indian frankincense, Indian olibanum, Ayurvedic medicine, Burseraceae.

Family Cactaceae, Cactus family
Opuntia species: | Betanin | Cholla gum | Kaempferol 3-methyl ether | Quercetin 3-methyl ether |
Opuntia bergeriana, hardy plant used as grafting rootstock | Betanin | Cactaceae
Prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica), Indian fig opuntia, cholla, jointed stem cactus, tuna, Indian fig, large shrub, grown from cuttings,
requires dry cold
climate, fruit, medium, red or white, sweet, many small seeds, hardy plant, up to 1-3 metres, culinary uses, but must be carefully peeled,
thick leaves cooked vegetable, high fibre, used as fresh, jelly, fruit called "tuna" eaten fresh, in jams, in Mexican nopales and proprietary
drink Trivita "Nopalea"| Indicaxanthin | Isobetanin | herbal medicine, vitamin C source, reduce inflammation, from cuttings, Mexico,
Central America, Cactaceae.

Family Campanulaceae, Bellflower family.
Campanula species, Campanulaceae.
Bellflowers (bell-shaped flowers), Campanula species, Campanulaceae.
Campanula species: | Fraxin | Triglochinin |
Small American bellflower (Campanula americana), tall bellflower, Campanulaceae.
Carpathian hairbell (Campanula carpatica), tussock bellflower, compact pot plant, Campanulaceae.
Italian bellflower (Campanula isophylla), Star of Bethlehem, falling stars, trailing campanula (houseplant), Campanulaceae.
Canterbury bell (Campanula medium)| Lobeline | Campanulaceae.
Rampion bellflower (Campanula rapunculus), rampion, bellflower, salads, herbal medicine, Campanulaceae.
Creeping bellflower (Campanula rapunculoides), creeping rootstock, Campanulaceae.
Harebell (Campanula rotundifolia), witch's bells, bluebell (in Scotland), Canterbury bells, Europe, ornamental, perennial, Campanulaceae.
Nettle-leaved bellflower (Campanula trachelium), throatwort, herbal medicine, Campanulaceae.
Dang shen, poor man's ginseng (Codonopsis pilosula), traditional Chinese medicine, Campanulaceae
Dried herb sold as root pieces.
Codonopsis clematidia | Codonopsine | Central Asia, Campanulaceae

Lobelia, Campanulaceae.
Lobelia species, lobelias, Campanulaceae.
Cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis), garden plant, entire plant poisonous, North America, Campanulaceae.
Indian tobacco (Lobelia inflata), perennial, hardy plant, up to 40 cm, blue flowers | Isolobeline | Lobelanidine | Lobelanine | Lobeline
| herbal medicine, poisonous, North America, India, Campanulaceae.
Dried herb sold as aerials (Practitioner only)
Great Blue Lobelia, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Lobelia siphilitica), Campanulaceae.
Heath lobelia (Lobelia urens), Europe, Spain, Campanulaceae.

Family Cannabaceae, Hemp family
Hops (Humulus lupulus), European hop, lupulus, garden herb, herbal medicine, may cause mild central nervous system CNS
depression, drowsiness, slowed breathing and thinking | lupulin alkaloid, | Linalool, | Humulene | Humulone | Isovaleric acid | Lupulone
| Prenylnaringenin | Tricyclodehydroisohumulone | China, Cannabaceae.
Hops, Mudbrick Cottage
Dried herb sold as flowers.

Cannabis (Cannabis sativa), Indian hemp, marijuana, chokeweed, annual herb, dioecious, slightly lignified| Linalool | Cannabichromene
| Cannabisativine | Tetrahydrocannabinol | herbal medicine, narcotic drug containing powerful alkaloids, phenolic resins and psychoactive
alcohol delta-tetrahydrocannabinol, THC, analgesic and hallucinatory, cannabis alkaloids, white bast fibre for ropes, coarse cloth, oakum,
Central and Western Asia, Mongolia, Cannabaceae.
Dried herb sold as hulled seed.
Industrial hemp, grown for industrial fibres and seed (Cannabis sativa L. subsp. sativa var. sativa), Cannabaceae.

Capparis, caper family, Capparaceae
Capparis: Australian native fruits with potential for development.
Native pomegranate (Capparis arborea), wild lime, wild lemon, rainforest bush, up to 8 metres, crooked irregular
trunk, sharp prickles, single white flowers, green smooth fruit resembles guava, native Australian food, eastern Australia, Capparaceae.
Capparis arborea, Daley's Fruit Trees
Thorn caper (Capparis microcantha), melada, shrub, climbing habit, parts used for local medecines, Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Capparaceae.
Wild orange (Capparis mitchellii), native orange, bumble tree, bimbil, up to 6 m, white/cream large flowers,
Australian native food (not related to citrus orange or other "wild oranges"), Australia, Capparaceae.
Capparis mitchelli, Daley's Fruit Trees
Capers (Capparis spinosa), caper bush, Flinders rose, perennial shrub, round-ovate fleshy leaves, capers are unopened flower buds,
| pungent sulfur compounds Anthocyanins | Kaempferol | Quercetin | preserved in brine, vinegar, if dry-salted then raspberry aroma
from Raspberry ketone, in sauces fish dishes, mature fruit preserved as caper berries, Mediterranean region, widespread in semi-arid
regions, Capparaceae
Wild passionfruit (Capparis spinosa subsp nummularia), caperbush, native caper, up to 1.5 m, green unripe fruit may be poisonous, orange
ripe fruit splits open revealing little black inedible seeds but fruit pulp edible, Australian native food, Capparaceae
Woolly caper bush (Capparis tomentosa) African caper | Hydroxystachydrine | Stachydrine | poison to sheep and calves, Africa, Capparaceae.

Three-leaved caper (Crataeva magma), varuna, Indian herbal medicine, bitter saponins, found along banks in India, anti-inflammatory,
diuretic, lithontriptic, demulcent and tonic, bark decoction contains ceryl alcohol, friedelin, lupeol, betulinic acid and diosgenin, used
for treatment of urinary tract infections, painful and burning urination, and urinary and kidney stones, India, China, Capparaceae.
Dried herb sold as bark powder.

Family Caprifoliaceae, Honeysuckle family
(Valerianaceae, Valerian family, is now considered part of the Caprifoliaceae, e.g. lemon verbena, vervain, chaste tree, corn salad,
Aztec sweet herb, and lantana.)
Lonicera species: | Coniferin |
Secologanin |
Dutch honeysuckle (Lonicera caprifolium), herbal medicine, Caprifoliaceae.
Etruscan honeysuckle (Lonicera etrusca) Caprifoliaceae.
Lonicera grandiflora, honeysuckle, Bhutan, Caprifoliaceae.
Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), Chinese jin yin hua, perennial, rambler, hardy plant, aromatic flowers in perfumery,
herbal medicine, Caprifoliaceae.
Black-berried honeysuckle (Lonicera nigra) | Cauloside C35H56O8 | Oleanic acid 3-glucuronide C36H58O9 | Caprifoliaceae.
Honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymenum), common honeysuckle, European honeysuckle, woodbine, up to 7 metres evergreen, twining
climber, can be a huge plant, tubular, two-lipped, aromatic flowers in perfumery, herbal medicine, Southern Europe,
China, Caprifoliaceae.
Coral honeysuckle (Lonicera sempervirens), trumpet honeysuckle, Caprifoliaceae.

Spikenard (Nardostachys jatamansi), nard, musk root, all heal, rose-purple flowers, up to 1 m, pink, bell-shaped flowers,
aromatic, amber colour essential oil distilled from crushed rhizome, ancient incense (Bible, Mark 14:3), herbal medicine, eastern
Himalayas, Caprifoliaceae.

Valerian (Valeriana officinalis), Caprifoliaceae.
Garden valerian, all heal, Hercules woundwort, perennial, heads of pink or white flowers, up to 50
cm, for perfume, shade lover, rich phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, potassium, add to compost, companion plant, in garden said to
stimulate earth worms, leaves tea spray to promote disease-resistant plants from dampening-off disease | Actinidine | Hydroxyphenethyl
actinidine C18H12NO | isovaleric acid | Bornyl acetate | Valerenic acid | Valerianine herbal medicine, use valerian capsules of tincture,
tea to treat anxiety, for temporary relief of pain, headache, hiccups, irritable bowel syndrome, as a sedative, anticonvulsive,
discontine taking if heart palpitations or nervousness, do not use if taking sleep-enhancing or mood-regulating medications, amino
acid valine, Bulgaria, Kenya, Mexico, Poland, Caprifoliaceae
Valerian, Mudbrick Cottage
Dried herb sold as root and as root powder.
Tobacco root (Valeriana edulus), Caprifoliaceae.
Tobacco root, (Valeriana edulus), Caprifoliaceae.
Lamb's lettuce (Valerianella locusta), corn salad, Rapunzel, dark green rounded leaves, vitamin C, beta-carotene, used in salads, waste
spaces weed, Europe, Asia, Caprifoliaceae

Family Caricaceae.
Papaya project (Carica papaya), Caricaceae.

Family Caryophyllaceae
Pink family (carnations)
Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus), carnation, pinks, clove pink, malmaison, sops-in-wine, gillyflower, short-lived herbaceous
perennial, cut down dead flower heads, propagate by cuttings, full sun, up to 30 cm, ornamental, petals have clove-like flavour,
hence "clove-pink", used in liqueurs and cordials| clove scent from oil of Eugenol, | Chalconaringenin | Dianthalexin | Dianthramine
| Lychnose | Mediterranean region, Caryophyllaceae.
A single carnation worn in the lapel buttonhole of a man's suit is called a "boutonnière".
The first carnations had a pink fleshy colour and smelt of cloves, so were called "clove pinks".
Pink carnations were associated with the Virgin Mary.
Nowadays, carnations have a wide range of colours and certain colours have certain meanings, so ask a florist to suggest a suitable
colour when buying carnations.
Green carnations may suggest homosexuality.
Clove Pink, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.

Rupturewort (Herniaria glabra), flat, mat-forming, groundcover| Herniarin | Caryophyllaceae.
Rupturewort, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.

Rock soapwort (Saponaria ocymoides), tumbling, prostrate, many branched hairy stem, pink flowers, rock garden ornamental, Europe,
Soapwort (Saponaria officinalis), common soapwort, bouncing bet, crow soap, fuller's herb, bruisewort, perennial, up to 30cm,
mild detergent properties, used to wash old fabrics, in bath, shampoo hair and the dog, herbal remedy, chop leaves or root and
simmer in water 5 minutes, strain and use, also for dandruff and rashes | contains poisonous Saponins | Saponoside D
| Europe, Caryophyllaceae.
Soapwort, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.

Chickweed (Stellaria media), starwort, perennial, hardy plant, a, groundcover, indicates moist fertile soils, highly nutritious, mild
pleasant flavour| high
Oxalic acid content | herbal medicine, herbal tea to treat any hot inflamed skin
that needs bathing, culinary uses, edible leaves used in salads, soups, on pizzas, used in compost, animal feed, Caryophyllaceae.
Dried herb sold as aerials.

Family Casuarinaceae.
She-oak (Casuarina equisetifolia), coast she-oak, sheoak, drooping branches like horse hair, ornamental, tree, apparent leaves are
twigs, real leaves reduced to small scales at nodes of the flattened green stem, monoecious, oval woody fruit used as missiles in
children's games, herbal medicine, diarrhoea, can fix atmospheric nitrogen, invasive, widespread in Australia and pacific region,
Most species of Casuarina are called "she-oak" or "sheoak".
Drooping she-oak, (Casuarina stricta), dioecious tree up to 10 M, chewable young cones called "oak apples" | Casuarictin
| Casuarinin | Pedunculagin | Tellimagrandin | Australia, Casuarinaceae.

Family Chenopodiaceae, formerly the Beetroot family (Goosefoot family)
Chenopodiaceae are a family of flowering plants, also called the Goosefoot family.
Although widely recognized in most plant classifications. e.g. the Cronquist system, the more recent gene-based APG system (1998)
and the APG II system (2003) have included these plants in the family Amaranthaceae:
Beetroot, (Beta vulgaris), Amaranthaceae

Family Clusiaceae (Guttiferae) Garcinia species, Clusiaceae.

Family Convolvulaceae. Morning glory family, Convolvulaceae.
Hawaiian baby woodrose (Argyreia nervosa), woolly morning glory, perennial, magnificent climber beautiful heart-shaped, velvety
leaves, ideal pressed for crafts and for gift cards, herbal medicine, and euphoric uses, Convolvulaceae.
Ipomoea species, Convolvulaceae.

Family Crassulaceae (Stonecrop family).
Kalanchoe species, Crassulaceae.
Sempervivum species, Crassulaceae, grown on rooftops, hen and chicks, cats and kittens
Houseleek (Sempervivum tectorum), sengreen, hen-and-chickens, herbal medicine, rock garden pot plant, Crassulaceae.
Houseleek, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.

Sedum species, stonecrops, Crassulaceae.

Family Cucurbitaceae, Cucumber family, chilacayote, choko, courgette, cucumbers, gourds, long bean, loofah, pie
melons, rock melons, snake gourd, squash, watermelons, zucchini, Cucurbitaceae.
6.6.10 Pumpkin family, cucurbits (Cucurbitaceae)
Pumpkin family, cucurbits (Cucurbitaceae), buffalo gourd (Cucurbita foetidissima), fresh gourd edible but later bitter, extractable
oil from seeds mostly Linoleic acid, cucurbitacins B, D, and E, starch in tap root, fodder, biofuel Native Americans used it for rattles,
leaf insecticide, fruit soap, North America, Cucurbitaceae.
Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), pumpkin seed, pepita| Cucurbic acid | Kaurane C20H28O4 | herbal medicine, seeds for prostate gland disorders,
Queensland blue pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima), winter squash, Cucurbitaceae.
Squash (Cucurbita moschata), butternut squash| Cucurbitine | used in pumpkin pie, tropical plant, South American origin, Cucurbitaceae.
Cucurbitacins are steroids derived from toxic tetracyclic triterpene cucurbitane, which are also known as the "Bitter Principle".
Jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphyllum), "immortality herb" because suppoed to cause longevity, "twisting vine orchid", climbing vine,
dioecious, grown as annual to harvest in summer, gypenosides saponins, widely used as a herbal tea, dietary supplement, and vegetable
in Asian countries, contains at least six gypenosides associated with therapy for treatment of type-2 diabetes and obesity, and moderate
cytotoxicity against certain human breast cancer cells, herbal medicine usually as herbal tea, antioxidants, regulate blood pressure, lowers
serum cholesterol, protects liver, South China, east Asia, northern Vietnam, Cucurbitaceae.
Dried herb sold as aerials.

Bitter melon (Momordica charantia), balsam gourd, bitter gourd, balsam pear| Charantin, momordicine alkaloid | Lycopene | herbal
medicine, Cucurbitaceae
Dried herb sold as sliced fruit.
Gac fruit (Momordica cochinhinensis), red melon, baby jackfruit, bitter gourd, spring bitter gourd, orange colour, highest
concentration of beta-carotene, herbal medicine, Vietnam, Cucurbitaceae.

Family Didiereaceae, Jade family
Jade plant (Portulacaria afra), perennial, hardy plant, potted jade is placed either side of house front door and is said to invite
prosperity into house, culinary uses, succulent, pleasantly sour flavoured leaves added to salads, Didiereaceae.

Family Dipsacaceae, Teasel family
See diagram: Dipsacus (Kew Gardens)
Dipsacus asper and Dipsacus azureus | phenolic acids in ethanol extracts | Celastraceae alkaloid Cantleyene | Dipsacaceae
Teasel (Dipsacus japonicus), erect perennial herb, leaves joined at the base, terminal inflorescence with spine-tipped bracts, herbal
medicine, Dipsacaceae.
Dried herb sold as root powder.
Fuller's teasel (Dipsacus sativas), teasel, stiff reflexed bracts, formerly widely grown for fulling, Dipsacaceae.
Wild teasel (Dipsacus fullonum), shepherds' rod, small teasel, straight flexible bracts, herbal medicine, Dipsacaceae.
A teasel was a device to for teasing woollen cloth to raise a knap.
Teasel plants had prickly stems with small white or lilac flowers in cylindrical heads between spine-tipped bracts.
When cloth was beaten with a teasel plant, the prickles or bracts caught on wool fibres to raise the knap.
A fuller was used to "full" cloth, i.e. clean cloth and thicken it by raising the knap.

Family Ericaceae, Heath family
Bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), common bearberry, uva urzi, bear's grape, kinnikinnick, crowberry, foxberry, hog cranberry,
meal berry, manzanita| Arbutin| ursolic acid | herbal medicine, skin lightener because prevents melanin
formation, circumpolar regions. Russia, Ericaceae.
Dried herb sold as leaves.
Heather (Calluna vulgaris), common heather, heath, evergreen shrubs, in infertile soils, grows in a "heath", Europe,
Dried herb sold as flowers.

Gaultheria species, wintergreen, Ericaceae
Gaultheria species: | Catechol |
Miquel's Wintergreen (Gaultheria miqueliana) | Glucaronic acid, Ericaceae.
American wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens), snowberry, teaberry, checkerberry, aromatic wintergreen, gaultheria
oil, oil of wintergreen, refreshing aroma| Methyl salicylate | Pyrocatechuic acid | Salicyclic acid | herbal medicine, Ericaceae.
Copperleaf snowberry (Gaultheria hispida), snow berry, erect multi-branched shrub, wet forests and alpine woodlands,
snow-white berries, copper-tinged leaves, up to 2m in a forest, dark green glossy leaves with depressed veins and serrated
leaf margins, red stems, terminal clusters of small white urn- shaped flowers, red capsules, edible fruit bitter taste, may be
anti-inflammatory, Australian native food, Tasmania, Ericaceae
See diagram: Wintergreen

Vaccinium species, Ericaceae
Vaccinium species: | Cyanidin 3-0-galactoside | Peonidin | Petunidin |
Lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium), Ericaceae.
Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum), northern highbush blueberry, many varieties and hybrids, black-blue berry, acidic fruit,
important commercial crop, usually eaten raw, phenolic antioxidants, anthocyanin pigments in fruit skin turn green with baking soda,
folk medicine, Native Americans used fresh fruit to treat urinary tract infections, cystitis, Ericaceae.
Dried herb may be sold as berries infused in raw cane sugar and sunflower oil.
See diagram: Blueberry
Blueberry, Dailey's Fruit Trees
Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon subgenus Oxycoccus, USA cranberry), perennial vine, uneatable raw because high acidity so
processed to cranberry sauce for turkey dishes or dried, apple taste, manganese| Benzoic acid | polyphenols and phenolic derivatives
| Caffeic acid 3-glucoside | Carotene | Lutein | Myricetin | Ursolic acid | herbal medicine, cranberry juice is traditional cure for urinary
tract infections, e.g. cystitis, but no evidence for this cure, ingesting large quantities of cranberry juice may be unsafe, e.g. inhibits
anticoagulant drug warfarin, in swamp areas, North America, Ericaceae
Cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos, in Britain), big plant, acid taste stronger than V. macrocarpon, Europe, Ericaceae
Vaccinium corymbosum, high bush blueberry, Ericaceae.
Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), European blueberry, huckleberry, whortleberry, dwarf shrub, small blue flower,
found on moors and waste spaces, edible | rich in flavonoids | herbal medicine, North America and Europe, Ericaceae.
Dried herb sold as berries.
See diagram: Bilberry
Bog bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum) | Malvidin | Ericaceae.
Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), cowberry, complex flavour| Arbutin | Hydroquinone | Proanthocyanidin | Ericaceae.

Family Euphorbiaceae, Spurge family, cassava, sweet leaf bush, star gooseberry, phyllanthus, Queensland asthma weed
Candlenut (Aleurites moluccanus), Indian walnut, candlenut fruit, buah keras, carie nut, Indian walnut, candlenut oil is a fixed oil, wild food
plant, Australia, Euphorbiaceae.
Large flowering tree, spreading crown of large leaves brown fruit envelops nuts, used in Indonesian dishes, curry pastes
and meat tenderiser, but nuts should not be eaten raw as toxin in the oil can induce nausea and vomiting, vigorous self seeder, Euphorbiaceae
See diagram: Candlenut
Candlenut, Daley's Fruit Trees
Mu oil tree (Aleurites cordata, Vernicia montana), chine oil tree | Corilagin | Eleosteric acid | Mallotusinic acid | Euphorbiaceae.
Tung oil tree (Aleurites fordii), used to penetrate wood, seal against moisture in paints and varnishes, because it dries hard, may be carcinogenic
| Diterpenoid diesters | Trimethoxycoumarin | Euphorbiaceae.

Euphorbia species, Euphorbiaceae.
Euphorbia species: | Eophol | Geraniin | Ingenol | Mallotusinic acid | Resininferatoxin |
Candelilla (Euphorbia antisyphilitica), sunspurge, snow-on-the-mountain, candelilla wax-covered leafless stems, ornamental
poisonous, unpleasant milky sap, southern USA, Mexico, Euphorbiaceae.
Candelilla wax plant (Euphorbia cerifera), Euphorbiaceae.
Asthma plant (Euphorbis hirta), asthma weed, hairy spurge, erect or prostrate annual, white latex, herbal medicine, India,
Green spurge (Euphorbia esula), leafy spurge, invasive| Ingenol dibenzoate, may be anti-leukaemic | Siberia, Euphorbiaceae.
Crown of thorns (Euphorbia milii), tu y yo, entire plant poisonous, Christ plant (houseplant), Euphorbiaceae.
Baseball plant (Euphorbia obesa), gingham golf ball, spherical succulent (houseplant), South Africa, Euphorbiaceae.
Radium weed (Euphorbia peplus), petty spurge, cancer weed, milkweed, perennial, up to 30 cm, culinary uses, salads, herbal
medicine, white stem sap supposed to cure warts, corns and skin cancer, (basal cell carcinomas), Euphorbiaceae.
Radium weed, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima), Mexican flame leaf, spectacular coloured bracts, affected by photoperiodism.
The leaves, stem and milky sap are mildly poisonous. Mexico, Euphorbiaceae.
Thyme-leaf spurge (Euphorbia thymifolia), red caustic creeper, caustic latex, herbal medicine, Africa, tropical America,
Indian tree spurge (Euphorbia tirucalli), milk bush, toxic latex, can be grown in semi-arid areas, herbal medicine, Africa,
African milk tree (Euphorbia trigona), cathedral cactus, candelabrum-shaped succulent, deciduous oval leaves (houseplant), Central
Africa, Euphorbiaceae.
Jatropha species (Jatropha), Euphorbiaceae.
Barbados nut (Jatropha curcas) , purging nut, JCL, poisonous, toxalbumin, semi-evergreen shrub, easy to grow in deserts, used for
biodiesel, folk medicine, voodoo cult practices, propagation by seed, stem cuttings, Tropical America, Euphorbiaceae.
Bellyache plant (Jatropha gossypilifolia), poisonous to humans and stock, invasive (looks like Castor
oil plant. Ricinus communis), Euphorbiaceae.
Buddha belly plant (Jatropha podagrica), gout plant, purging nut, Guatemalan rhubarb, bottleplant shrub, Euphorbiaceae.

Family Fabaceae (Leguminosae), Pea family
4.0.0 Legumes, peas & beans Pasture legumes
Subfamily Caesalpinioideae, tamarind, carob, bauhinia, cassia, Fabaceae.
Subfamily Mimosoideae (Mimosaceae), sensitive plant, wattles, ice-cream bean, Fabaceae.
Subfamily Faboideae (Papilionaceae, Papilionoideae), American groundnut, beans, binko, broom, caterpillar plant, chickpeas,
crotalaria, gidee-gidee, gorse, guar, indigo, jicama, kudzu, laburnam, lentils, lupine (lupin), mucuna, peanut, peas, pigeon pea, pinto
pea, red clover, rice beans, senna, tree lucerne, Fabaceae.

Albizia species, Fabaceae
Lebbeck tree (Albizia lebbeck), Fabaceae
Jequirity bean (Abrus precatorius), crab's eye, rosary pea, jumbie bead, gidgee-gidgee, precatory bean, wild liquorice, climber,
seeds used as beads but contains toxic Abrin,herbal medicine, India, Fabaceae.

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea), groundnut but is a legume and not a "nut", herbaceous, annual, needs light sandy-loam acidic soil,
five months of warm weather, regular moisture, pods ready for harvest 120 to 150 days after seeds planted, pods unripe if
harvested too early, pods snap off stalk and stay in soil if harvest too late| Arachidic acid | Dihydroxychromone | Peanut lectin
| Prenylresveratrol | Verruculotoxin | South America, Fabaceae.

Pinto pea (Arachis pintoi), pinto peanut, amarillo peanut, pasture legume, hardy plant, up to 10-15 cm, bright yellow flowers,
small peanut, mulch source, improve tropical pasture, erosion control, orchard groundcover, animal fodder, 20-30 cm deep
mat, weed control, fix nitrogen, culinary use, leaves for garnish, high nutritional value, Fabaceae.
See diagram: Pinto peanut

Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis), green rooibos, green bosch, rooibos tea| Linalool | Safranal | South Africa, Fabaceae.
Dried herb sold as "Original Rooibos tea, Caffeine free", leaves.

Astragalus species are called milkvetch or locoweed or goat's-thorn, Fabaceae.
Astrgalus species: | Gum tragarcanth | Selenocystahionine |
Astragalus atropubescens | Miserotoxin | Fabaceae.
Astragalus canadensis | Cibarian | Karakin | Fabaceae.
Astragalus cibarias | Cibarian | Coronarian | Karakin | Fabaceae.
Astragalus cicer | Mucronulatol | Fabaceae.
Tragacanth (Astragalus gummifer), gum tragacanth, milkvetch, goat's thorn, locoweed | (E413) | Gum tragacanth | herbal medicine,
western Asia, Fabaceae.
Mongolian milkvetch (Astragalus membranaceus), huang qi, astragalus root milk vetch, goat's thorn, Syrian
tragacanth, gum dragon, southernwood, man's tree, boy's love, field southernwood | Astragaloside, "Lectranal" dietary supplement |
Chinese folk medicine, circulation and heart disorders, anti-stress "adaptogen", China, Fabaceae
Astragalus membranaceus, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Dried herb sold as root powder.
Woolly locoweed (Astragalus mollissimus), stagger weed, miserotoxin, swainsonine alkaloid locoine, causes locoweed poisoning
of cattle, North America, Fabaceae.
Astragale de Marseille (Astragalus tragantha), coussin-de-belle-mere, goat's thorn, grows near beaches, white flowers with purple
tinges, produces natural gum tragacanth for pharmaceuticals, Mediterranean region, Fabaceae.

Bauhinia species, orchid trees, Fabaceae.
Jiu Long Ten (Bauhinia championii) | Sinesetin | used to treat osteoarthritis infantile malnutrition, stomachache, traumatic injury | Fabaceae.
Butterfly tree (Bauhinia purpurea), bauhinia, tropical garden tree, two-lobed, butterfly-shaped leaves,
hydrocyanic acid, quercitin, rutin, herbal medicine, leaves for sores and boils, flowers for laxatives, ornamental attractive flowers, Fabaceae.
Yellow bauhinia (Bauhinia tomentosa), butterfly tree, kupu-kupu, yellow bell orchid tree, small garden shrub, two-lobed leaves with
heart-shaped base, scent-less flowers as singles or pairs, pale mauve petals with crimson spot at base,
| Dihydroxyflavan| Dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavan
| leaves and fruit may cause diarrhoea, tropical garden tree, folk medicine, antifungal and antibacterial, tropical garden tree, Fabaceae.

Cassia species Fabaceae
Cassia species: | Anisaldehyde |
Cassia absus | Chacksine | Ayurvedic medicine used to treat many health problems, Fabaceae
Senna spectabilis, Cassia carnaval | Resveratrol | Fabaceae
Cassia dentata | Resveratrol | Fabaceae
Crown of gold tree (Cassia excelsa), bright yellow flowers above the leaves in showy flower clusters, seeds in 15 cm long cylindrical pods
| Cassine | Fabaceae
Golden shower tree (Cassia fistula), golden rain tree, Indian laburnum, up to 20 m, large racemes of golden
flowers hang down, fruits long woody cylindrical pods, containing many seeds in pulp| Cuminaldehyde | Anthroquinone | Hydrocyanic acid
| Ricinoleic acid | Saponins | herbal medicine, laxative,
widely grown ornamental, strong timber, India, Fabaceae.
Chinese senna (Senna obtusifolia Cassia obtusifolia), sicklepod | Aurantio-obtusin glycoside | Chryso-obtusin glucoside | Obtusifolin glucoside |
invasive, widespread, Fabaceae.
Senna quinquangulata (Cassia quinquangilata) shrub, up to 3 m, folk medicine harvested from the wild, Fabaceae
Alexandrian senna (Senna alexandrina, Cassia senna)| Aloe-emodin | Chrysophanol | Rhein | Sennoside A |herbal medicine, ornamental, Egypt,
Sudan, Fabaceae.
Siamese cassia (Cassia siamea}, cassia tree | Cassiamin C | Chrysophanic acid anthrone | tropics, Fabaceae.
Sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia, Cassia tora, ), sickle senna, wild weed, up to 90 cm, stems have strong smell, pale
yellow flowers in leaf axils, sickle-shaped pods edible plant and seeds, pesticide, | Chryso-obtusin glucoside | Chrysophanic acid anthrone
| Rubrofusarin | Chrysophanol | Cinnamaldehyde | Cinnamyl acetate | Mmethoxycinnamate | very useful herbal medicine, laxative to expel
intestinal worms, skin diseases, earache, eye sensitivity, Southeast Asia, Fabaceae.
Septicweed (Senna occidentalis, Cassia torosa), coffeeweed, coffee senna, Mogdad coffee stinkingweed, styptic weed | Physicon gentiobioside
| anthraquinones| emodin | chrysarobin | N-methylmorpholine | herbal medicine, coffee substitute, may poison cattle, Fabaceae

Caesalpinia species, Fabaceae.
Sappanwood (Caesalpinia sappan), sappan tree, brazilwood, brazilin red dye, saponin, tannin, herbal tea, herbal medicine, antibacterial and
anticoagulant properties, bruises, coughing blood, after giving birth, Southeast Asia, Fabaceae.

Carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua), St John's bread, vegetable gum, large tree, evergreen, fast growing, up to 15 years to have pods,
grows better in dry climate, fruit, large pod, drinks, chocolate substitute, | L-Alanine | Pyrogallol | E410 | Locust bean gum | in sweets, syrup,
flour, grown from seeds, grafting, Mediterranean region, Fabaceae.
Carob tree, Daley's Fruit Trees

Butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea), pigeon wings, slender perennial climber, pinnate compound leaves, beautiful blue pea flowers, resembles
inverted legume flower with "keel" on top that resembles female genitals, used to colour rice and nonya cakes blue, young pods cooked
and eaten| Anthocyanin Delphinidin glucoside C33 H41O22 | herbal medicine, nervous problems and female reproductive problems, used to
colour rice cakes blue, ornamental revegetation, Ternate, Indonesia, South America, Fabaceae.

Honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia), heuningbos, bergtee, mountain tea, flowers smell of honey, popular herbal tea, leaves are
harvested, cut, bruised and "oxidized" until dry in the sun, South Africa, Fabaceae.
Dried herb sold as leaves.

Broom (Cystisus scoparius), common broom, Scotch broom, shrub with yellow flowers, ornamental, invasive, Geoffrey, count of
Anjou, father of Henry II, wore common broom blossom, called Latin planta genista, in his hat, so his descendent kings were later
called "Plantagenets", Fabaceae.

Genista species, Fabaceae
Genista species: | Anagyrine | Cytisine | Genistein | Retamine |
Genista cinerea | Cinegalline | Hydroxylupanine | Fabaceae.
Genista juncium | Retamine | Fabaceae.
Genista sphaerocarpa | Retamine | Fabaceae.
Dyer's broom (Genista tinctoria), waxen woad, dyer's green wood, dyer's greenweed, perennial shrub, meadow plant, up to 1.5 m,
full sun, spikes of yellow pea-like flowers, formerly source of yellow dye| Genistin | Rhombifoline | Tinctorine | isoflavone Genistein, phytoestrogen |
herbal medicine, skin complaints but too toxic for internal medicine, yellow ornamental, Fabaceae.

Goat's rue (Galega officinalis), galega, professor weed, French lilac, holy hay, perennial, hardy plant, up to 1metre, white pea flowers,
contains saponins, flavonoids, chromium salts| Galegine | Guanidine | Hydroxykaemferol |
herbal medicine, leaves used in diet for balancing metabolism, increased breast milk, toxic to sheep, noxious weed,
Southern Europe, Fabaceae.
Goats Rue, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as aerials.

Glycyrrhiza, Licorice, Fabaceae
Glycyrrhiza species: | Liquiritigenin | Pinocembrin |
Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), liquorice, English liquorice, herbaceous perennial, up to 1 metre, deciduous, large divide leaves, narrow
sticky leaflets, uppright stems of mauve-violet flowers, up to 1.5 m, full sun, culinary uses, root 50 x sweeter than sugar but can be taken
by diabetics, used to sweeten foods, drinks, thirst quencher, herbal medicine, licorice tea to treat bronchial coughs, strained vocal chords,
stomach disorders, blood tonic, mucous congestion, pain, coughs, throat ailments, indigestion, constipation, root chewed to quit smoking,
licorice may increase the absorption of drugs and affect their liver metabolism, increase toxicity of Digoxin | Aspartic acid | Glabridin
| Glycyrrhetinic acid | roots contain Glycyrrhizin | Hispaglabridin | Isoliquiritigenin | used to flavour confectionary
and drinks, but "licorice" from sweet shops for children may be made of licorice
flavouring, reduce the effects of blood pressure or diuretic drugs, cause electrolyte disturbances if tobacco chewing, reduce the effects of birth
control pills and hormone replacement therapies, increase the risk of bleeding when used with anticoagulants, e.g. warfarin, heparin,
aspirin, do not take if have high blood pressure, kidney disorders or low potassium levels, overuse can cause water retention and high
blood pressure, anti-stress "adaptogen", not to be taken for up to four weeks because can cause high blood pressure, Fabaceae.
Licorice, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as root.
American licorice (Glycyrrhiza lepidota), "wild licorice | Glabranin | Glepidotin A, B and C | Prenyldihydropinosilvin | roots chewed,
American native medicine, North America, Fabaceae.
Chinese licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis), gan cao, Chinese herbal medicine, flavanoid narcissin, contains glycyrrhizin so may cause
high blood pressure, China, Fabaceae.
Chinese licorice, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Dried herb sold as root powder, dried root and root sticks 6".

Griffonia (Griffonia simplifonia), woody climbing shrub| 5-hydrotryptophan precursor to form Serotonin| herbal medicine, Africa,

Medicago species, Fabaceae
Medicago species: | Coumestrol | Medicarpin | Sativan | Vestitol |
Medicago species is called a "medick" (originally from Medea, Iran), or "bur clover",
A "bur" is usually a fruit with hooks, some burs may injure grazing animals, medicago usually used as a fodder or green manure plant.
Burr medick (Medicago denticulata), legume fruit spirally coiled, Fabaceae.
Calvary clover (Medicago echinus), Fabaceae.
Black medick (Medicago lupulina), nonsuch, hop clover, annual, up to 30 cm, 3 leaves, yellow flower, wide distribution| Liquiritigenin | Fabaceae.
Common burr medick (Medicago polymorpha), tropical pasture legume, Fabaceae.
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), lucerne, perennial, hardy plant, green fodder, nitrogen-fixing legume, up to 1 metre, quick regrowth,
used for mulch, animal and poultry fodder, liquid fertilizer, culinary uses, cut for tea, salads, sprouts can be eaten raw, cooked | Arginine
| Citramalic acid | Cryptoxanthin | Homostachydrine | Liquiritigenin | Medicagenic acid triglucoside | Ononitol | Spinastrol
| Succinic acid | Tricin | Trigonelline | Vitamin K 1 | herbal medicine, infusion, tropical pasture legume, Fabaceae.
Dried herb sold as aerial parts.
Snail medick (Medicago scutellata), tropical pasture legume, Fabaceae.
Barrel medick (Medicago truncatula), tropical pasture legume, Fabaceae.

Melilotus species Fabaceae
Melilotus species: | Dicoumarol | Fabaceae
White melilot (Melitotus albus), white sweet clover, tropical pasture legume, Fabaceae.
Bokhara clover, white sweet clover, honey production | Coumaric acid | Melilotic acid | Dicoumarol | herbal medicine, Fabaceae.
Melitotus caspius | Melilotic acid | Fabaceae.
Melilot (Melilotus officinalis), common melilot, yellow melilot, yellow sweet clover, melilot trefoil, white clover, sweet clover,
plaster clover, sweet lucerne, wild laburnum, king's clover, perennial, annual, up to 60 cm, vanilla-like fragrance when crushed, new
mown hay smell | leaves contains bitter-tasting Coumarin which
may cause damp hay poisonous to cattle | Melitonin in flowers | Melilotic acid | coumarin as
flavouring agent, herbal medicine, flowers and flowering stems used for diuretic, throat infections, anti-inflammatory tea for congestion
of the lymph system, Fabaceae.
Southern melilot (Melilotus messanensis) | Messagenin | Fabaceae.

Sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica), sensitive mimosa, shame plant, perennial, up to 50 cm, nastic movement, feathery leaves with
leaflets responsive to touch, then resume position after about one hour, at night fold naturally (mimosa "mimics" the motion of animals),
fascinating to grow, children and adults love to touch and watch leaves fold up, culinary uses| Mimosine | Noradrenaline | Turgorin |
herbal medicine, food for nervous system, weed, Fabaceae.

Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens), cowhage, climbing shrub, young plant covered with hairs, seed pods have itchy orange hairs
containing mucanain enzyme, beans eaten| L-dopa | Dimethyltryptamine | Hydroxy-L-Tryptophan | Serotonin | folk medicine, mental
disorders, snakebites, tropical fodder crop, India, Fabaceae
Dried herb sold as seed powder.

Balsum of Peru (Myroxylon balsamum var. pereirae), balsam of Tolu, Peru balsam, black balsam, China oil, Honduras balsam, beans
contain coumarin, acrid, bitter, viscous resin, exudes trunk of the tree containing a gum resin and a volatile oil, the flower has a strong fragrance,
used for food and drink flavouring, but may cause allergic reaction, perfume fragrance, medicinal products, invasive | eugenol| Nerolidol |.
Peru balsam is a mounting medium for microscope specimens, refractive index of 1.597, Central America and South America, Fabaceae.
essential oil contains benzyl benzoate, benzyl cinnamyl, cinnamic acid, benzoic acid + resins.

Pueraria species, closely genetically related, Fabaceae.

Prosopis species, Fabaceae
African mesquite (Prosopis africana) iron tree , used as food, tannins | Prosopinine | herbal medicine, fish poison, tropical Agrica, Fabaceae.
Algarrobo blanco (Prosopsis alba) | Beta-phenethylamine alkaloid | Tryptamine alkaloid | Spain, Fabaceae.
Jammi (Prosopsis cineraria), khejri tree, national tree of UAE called ghaf | Patuletin | arid western Asia, Fabaceae
Mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), honey mesquite, screw bean, thorny shrub, up to 6 m, paired spines on twigs, large seedpods,
used to make flour | Mesquite gum = arabinogalactan + sugar components, clear light coloured exudate | folk medicine, used as adhesive
to make the sweet "gum drops", pods andshoots used as cattle fodder, invasive, southern US, Mexico, Peru, Fabaceae.
Dried herb sold as root powder.
Bayahonda blanca (Prosopis juliflora) | Juliflorine | Mesquite gum | tryptamine | widespread invasive, Mexico, Fabaceae
Vinal (Prosopis ruscifolia) | Cassine | folk medicine, useful timber, invasive, Argentina, Fabaceae
Velvet mesquite (Prosopis velutina), | Mesquite gum | herbal medicine, used to treat sore throat and stomach ache, desert plant, native
American food, USA, Fabaceae

Catechou (Senegalia catechu), catechu, kher, black cutch, source of extracts cutch and catechu, seed extract red paan for chewing
betel leaf, traditional medicine, Catechin, Asia, Fabaceae.

Candle bush (Senna alata, Cassia alata), seven golden candlesticks, emperor's candlesticks, ringworm bush, guajava, ornate yellow
candle-like inflorescence blooms through most of the year, brown-black seed pods with two broad wings called senna pods,
anthraqinone, sennosides, dianthrone O-glycosides, yellow chrysophanic acid, saponin, herbal remedy, ringworm, stimulating laxative,
ornamental, weed, Mexico, Fabaceae.

Alexandrian senna (Senna alexandrina, Cassia angustifolia, C. lanceolata, C. senna, C. Officinalis), Alexandrian senna, true senna,
Indian senna, Egyptian senna, senna tea, herbal remedy, senna leaves and senna pods for treatment of constipation congestion of the
colon, senna glycosides (the sennosides A and B), irritate lining of the bowel causing increased intestinal muscle contractions
leading to vigorous bowel movement, commercial cultivation, ornamental, Egypt, India, Fabaceae.
Dried herb sold as leaves. and as seed pods.
See diagram (Senna alexandrina) (Photo by Lalithamba)
See diagram: Sennoside

Trifolium species, Fabaceae
Trifolium (Latin tres three, folium leaf), species called"trefoils", Fabaceae.
Trifolium species: | Biochanin A | Coumestrol | Formononetin | Genistein | Geraldone | Maackiain | Medicarpin | Ononin | Pratensein |
Savitan | Vestitol | Fabaceae.
Lesser trefoil (Trifolium dubium), suckling clover, may be the shamrock symbol of Ireland | Resveratrol | Fabaceae
Alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum) | Hydroxyhomopterocarpin | Fabaceae
Red clover (Trifolium pratense), perennial, up to 30 cm, culinary uses, leaves and flowers in salads, sprouts can be eaten raw | Daidzin
| Irilone | Kaempferol | Phaseolic acid | Pratensein | Trefolirhizin | herbal medicine, tea for antispasmotic, bronchial
problems, do not use during pregnancy or advanced stages of estrogen-driven cancers, do not use with Heparin or Warfarin due to the
coumarin content, suitable for herbal infusion, Fabaceae.
Red Clover, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Dried herb sold as flowers.
White clover (Trifolium repens), Dutch clover, attracts bees, forage crop| Daidzein | Lotoaustralin | Slaframine | Triacontan-1-ol | herbal tea,
Europe, Central Asia, Fabaceae.
Dragon's blood clover (Trifolium repens 'Dragon's Blood'), perennial, hardy plant, groundcover, very attractive leaf markings of red,
white and green, many small flowers aggregated to form a head, groundcover, use leaves in salads, herbal medicine, tea for coughs and
colds, culinary uses, leaves in salads, Fabaceae.
Subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum),"sub clover", weed but pasture plant, after fertilization fruit grows downward into soil,
| Cadaverine | Deoxykaempferol | Fisetin | Formononetin | Geraldone | Europe, Australia, Fabaceae.

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), small hard seed, bitter with sweet
Sotolone lactone, like dried hay,
(hence foenum-graecum Latin Greek hay), food flavouring, in commercial curry pastes, contains Disogenin, outer layers
of soaked seed exude gel used in sauces, herbal medicine, Asia, Mediterranean region, Fabaceae.
Dried herb sold as seed.

Mimosa bush (Vachellia farnesiana, Acacia farnesiana), fragrance acacia, sweet wattle, sweet acacia, cassie, huisache, needle bush,
forms thorny thickets, serious weed, bark and seed pods used for tannin, leaves to flavour chutney, perfume from flowers, herbal
medicine, malaria, diarrhoea, Mexico, Central America, Fabaceae.

Family Gentianaceae, Gentian family
Stemless gentian (Gentiana acaulis), Gentiacauline, Gentianaceae.
Willow gentian (Gentiana asclepidiadea), Gentioflavine, Gentianaceae.
Bavarian gentian (Gentiana bavarica), Swertianin, Gentianaceae.
Short-leaved gentian (Gentiana brachyphylla), Swertianin, Gentianaceae.
Field gentian (Gentiana campestris), Demethylbellidifolin, Swertianolin, Gentianaceae
Caucasian gentian (Gentian caucasa) Gentianaine, Gentianaceae
German gentian (Gentiana germanica), Demethylbellidifolin, Swertianolin, Gentianaceae
Central asia gentian, (Gentiana kaufmanniana), Gentianine, Gentianaceae
Great yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea), yellow gentian, gentian root, bitter root, bitterwort | Amarogentin | Gentianose | Gentiopicrin
| Gentisein | Gentisin | Isogentisin | Pyrocatochuic acid | in gentian bitters
from distilled root, main ingredient of Angostura bitters and in other bitters, herbal medicine, digestive disorders, heartburn, Gentianaceae.
Dried herb sold as root.
Snow gentian (Gentiana nivalis), Gentianaceae.
Spotted gentian (Gentiana punctata), source of gentian bitters, possibly the most bitter substance known, herbal medicine, digestive and
other disorders, Gentianaceae.
Japanese gentian (Gentiana scabra), Gentianaceae.
Dried herb sold as root.
Chinese gentian (Gentiana triflora), gentian, herbal medicine, "Angostura aromatic bitters", gentianine alkaloid, Gentianaceae.
Fringed gentian (Gentianopsis sp.), Gentianaceae.
Centaury (Centaurium erythraea, C spicatum), common centaury, spike centaury, European centaury, herbal medicine, gastric
disorders, kill worms, topical cure for freckles, Gentianaceae
Dried herb sold as aerials.

Family Geraniaceae, Geranium family, cranesbills (seed pods like a crane's bill)
Geranium species, geraniums, Gerianaceae.
Geranium species: | Geraniin | Xanthoxylin |
Wild geranium (Geranium maculatum), spotted geranium, wood geranium, herbaceous perennial, up to 60 cm, long rhizome with scars,
herbal medicine, astringent, garden plant, North America, Geraniaceae.
Bigroot geranium (Geranium macrorrhizum), Labrador tea, Bulgarian geranium, rock cranesbill, leaves that are aromatic when crushed,
flowering groundcover, germacranolide, herbal medicine, high anti-microbial, essential oil of geranol used in aromatherapy, ornamental,
Meadow geranium (Geranium pratense), dove's foot, herbaceous perennial, herbal medicine, Europe, Asia, Geraniaceae.
Herb robert (Geranium robertianum), red robin, Roberts geranium, Gallotannin C41H31O26, Geraniaceae.
Bloody geranium (Geranium sanguineum), bloody cranesbill, up to 50cm, thick rhizome, red leaves in Autumn, herbaceous perennial,
Europe, Asia, Gerianaceae.
Little Robin (Geranium purpureum), orange pollen, strong unpleasant smell, herbal medicine, common weed, Geraniaceae.
Herb robert (Geranium robertianum), common cranesbill, red robin, death come quickly, storksbill, Robert geranium, fox geranium,
stinking Bob, crow's foot, annual, hairy, red-green stalks with joints, fern-like leaves up to 30 cm, valued herbal medicine, source of
germanium, helps take oxygen to cells, herbal medicine. tonic and therapeutic healing properties helps immunity, leaves eaten, tea,
or wash, for nosebleeding, toothache, geranin, crushed leaves have unpleasant "burning tyre" smell, culinary uses, weed, Europe,
North Africa, Geraniaceae.
Herb Robert, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as aerial parts.

Pelargonium species, "geraniums", storksbills, Geraniaceae.
Pelargonium species: | Peonidin | Tartaric acid |
Rose-scented pelargonium (Pelargonium capitatum), rose geranium, coastal geranium, essential oil from glandular tissue, South Africa,
Geraniaceae (subgenus), Crisped-leaf pelargonium (Pelargonium crispum), pink flowers, edible leaves, salads, houseplant or outdoor
plant, South Africa, Geraniaceae (subgenus), Sweet scented geranium, (Pelargonium graveolens), folk medicine, South Africa,
Apple pelargonium (Pelargonium odoratissimum), apple scent | Citronellol | Geranyl acetate | Geraniaceae.
Kidney-leaved pelargonium, (Pelargonium reniforme), umckaloabo | Trimethoxycoumarin | Geraniaceae | bitter tasting root used as folk
medicine, stomach ailments, liver problems, South Africa, Gerianaceae.
Horse-shoe pelargonium (Pelargonium zonale), wildemalva| Pelargonin | Geraniaceae.
Geraniaceae (subgenus), Cultivars and hybrids
Scented Geranium, African Spice, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Scented Geranium, Candy Dancer, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Scented Geranium, Chocolate Peppermint, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Scented Geranium, Cinnamon, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Scented Geranium, Citronella, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Scented Geranium, Fernleaf, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Scented Geranium, Nutmeg, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Scented Geranium, Lemon Crisp, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Scented Geranium, Lime, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Scented Geranium, 'Rose', Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Scented Geranium, 'Snowflake', Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Umckaloabo (Pelargonium sidoides), South African geranium, root extract herbal medicine, treat respiratory disorders, Geraniaceae.
Dried herb sold as root.