School Science Lessons
Food Gardens 6ab - Herbs
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Herbs Information and Websites
Table of contents
3.4.0 Plant families, Asteraceae (dicotyledons).

Family Asteraceae, Daisy family, e.g. cobblers pegs, emelia, everlasting daisy, groundsel, lettuce, St. Mary's thistle,
Achillea species, Asteraceae.
Balkan yarrow (Achillea ageratifolia) | C20H30NO | Asteraceae.
Lavender cotton (Achillea fragrantissima) | Eugenol | Asteraceae.
Yarrow (Achillea millefolium), common yarrow, white yarrow, thousand-leaved milfoil, nosebleed, carpenter's wort, perennial, hardy
plant, feathery silver-grey fern-like foliage, small white daisy-like flowers, groundcover, ornamental, dried flower arrangements, leaves
in compost heap act as catalyst for quick breakdown, culinary uses, flowers and leaves in salads, flowers in cooked dishes| Achillin
| Anacyclin | Betonicine | Caffeic acid | Chamazulene | Homostachydrine | Stachydrine | Trigonelline | Viburnitol | herbal medicine,
temporary relief from colds, diarrhoea, fevers, headaches, period pain, aerial parts used as an infusion (or essential oil), to treat bleeding,
wound healing and reduce inflammation, bruises, haemorrhoids, eczema, used for snuff (in ancient Greece, the yarrow was supposed to
have sprung from the rust on the sword of Achilles), yarrow is diuretic so avoid if taking diuretic drugs, e.g. frusemide, indapamide,
Northern Hemisphere, Asteraceae.
Red Yarrow, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Achillea millefolium), See text below images.
White Yarrow, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Achillea millefolium), See text below images.
Dried herb sold as aerials.
Achillea nana, Achillea wilhelmsii | Anacyclin | Asteraceae.
Sneezewort (Achillea ptarmica), bastard pellitory, perennial, up to 40 cm, infused leaves as insect repellent| Anacyclin | herbal medicine,
leaves chewed to relieve toothache, dried leaves powdered sneezing powder (snuff), culinary uses, leaves in salads, Europe, North America,
Woolly yarrow (Achillea tomentosa), yellow yarrow, up to 50 cm, herbaceous perennial, terminal inflorescence of yellow flowers, woody
underground rhizome, Asteraceae.
Woolly Yarrow, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.

Toothache plant (Acmella oleracea), paracress, electric daisy, jambu, up to 30 cm yellow flowers, antiseptic leaves, rubbed on toothache,
teething baby, mouth sores, relief with quick anaesthetic effect, natural antibiotic leaves eaten fresh like cress and added to salads have
been found to give relief for thrush and candida, Spilanthol, Brazil, Asteraceae.
Toothache plant (Acmella oleracea), Mudbrick.

White weed (Ageratum conyzoides), flossflower, rumput tahi ayam, annual herb, long-lasting flowers, ornamental, herbal medicine,
| hydrocyanic acid| Eugenol | coumarin | Malaysia, Central America, Asteraceae.
Flossflower (Ageratum houstonianum), blue billy, goat weed, pussy foot, blueweed, annual, garden bedding, usually blue thread-like
flowers, affects insect growth hormones, invasive, Central America, Asteraceae.
Anthemis species.

Burdock (Arctium lappa), greater burdock, clot-burr, biennial, grown from seed, hardy plant, large, oval heart-shaped leaves soft to touch,
stalks up to 60 mm, quick growing, single deep taproot in loose soil with medium nitrogen content| Arctigenin | Arctiopicrin | traditional
herbal medicine for many complaints, may either lower or raise blood sugar levels, may have oestrogen-like properties, antioxidants, diruetic,
dissolves calcification, bitter, stimulates bile flow, boosts immune system, herpes episodes, tinctures of burdock may contain high concentrations
of alcohol, culinary use, leaves and roots eaten, sliced roots eaten in Japan called "gobo", burdock and dandelion cordial for gout, noxious weed,
seeds have encapsulated hooky burrs which stick in sheep fleeces, Europe, Asteraceae.
Burdock, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as root.
Lesser burdock (Arctium minus)
, common burdock | Arctiopicrin | Onopordopicrin | Asteraceae.
Woodland burdock (Arctium nemorosum)| Arctiopicrin | Asteraceae.
Woolly burdock (Arctium tomentosum| Arctiopicrin | Asteraceae.
A "burdock" is any weed-like Actium species growing in desolate areas, having a dry fruit with hooks called a burr (bur).
Burdock burrs are said to be the origin of "Velcro".

Pellitory (Anacyclus pyrethrum), pellitory of Spain, Spanish chamomile (the original "pellitory", does not contain pyrethrins), food spice,
herbal medicine, pungent root for toothache, Mediterranean region, Asteraceae.

Marguerite (Argyranthemem marguerite), marguerite daisy, dill daisy, Canary Islands, Asteraceae.

Arnica species, Asteraceae. Arnica species: | Diosmetin | Isorhamnetin | Patuletin |
Chamisso arnica (Arnica chamissonis)
Arnica species: | Diosmetin | Isorhamnetin | Patuletin |
Arnica, up to 60 cm, herbal medicine, use arnica cream treat used to treat alopecia hair loss and
infused oil cream from flowers only on unbroken skin to treat bruising, e.g. black eye, North America, Asteraceae.
Chamisso, (Arnica chamissonis), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Mountain tobacco (Arnica montana), mountain daisy, leopard's bane, perennial garden herb, single daisy-like flower from rosette of soft
hairy leaves, up to 75 cm, no culinary use, do not consume (arnica essential oil contains linolenic, linoleic myristic, palmitic acids,
Thymol | thymol ethers | Helenanin (may cause allergic reactions, so use with care)| Arnicolide A | herbal medicine to treat bruising,
muscle disorders, rheumatic pain, topical arnica cream for knee pain, internal irritant, anti-inflammatory but do not use on broken skin, herbal
tobacco but may be poisonous, Eurasia, North America, Asteraceae.
Arnica montana, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, Dried daisy-like flowers, used to treat sprains, bruises and dislocations
Dried herb sold as flowers.
Arnica sachalinensis | Eupatoriochromene | Sakhalin Island, Russia, Asteraceae.

Artemisia species, Asteraceae, insect repellents, formerly used to treat human parasites
Artemisia species: | Achillin | Axilarin | Camphor | Canin | Cichoriin | Desacetoxymatricarin | Isochlorogenic acid | Naringenin | Santamarin
| alpha- and beta- Santonin | Scopolin | Vulgarin |
See diagram: Artemisia
Artemisia arborescens, Old woman, shrub, tufted silvery foliage

Artemisia abrotanum, southernwood, old man, lad's love, pungent smell, used as a bitters, Asteraceae.
Southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum), lad's love, perennial, finely divided leaves with lemon scent, up to 1 metre,
companion plant, garden spray, culinary uses, Asteraceae.
Southernwood, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.

Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium), sage brush, Dian's bud, sand sage, roman wormwood, green ginger, armoise, perennial, up to 50 cm,
grey leaves, garden spray, companion plant, sachets in cupboards to deter moths, extremely bitter, flavours absinthe and vermouth,
terpenoid compound thujone in wormwood (used in green aniseed-flavoured liqueur absinthe), | Absi
nthin | Artabsin | Artemisinin
| Chamazulene | Sesartemin | Thujone | Yangambin | herbal medicine, but use with care, for stomach upsets, expelling parasitic worms,
indigestion, former febrifuge, ornamental, Asteraceae.
Wormwood, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as aerials.
Wormwood Tree, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Woolly Wormwood, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.

African wormwood (Artemisia afra), lanyana, wild eals, perennial, up to 1 metre,
fragrant ferny foliage| Scopoletin |Asteraceae.

Sweet wormwood (Artemisia annuua), quing hao, sweet sagewort, sweet annie, annual wormwood, Chinese
wormwood| coumarin | flavones | flavonols | phenolic acids| Artemisinin | quing hausau C15H22O5 | Asteraceae.
Dried herb sold as aerials.
Artemisia apiacia | Methyl caffeate | Asteraceae.
Artemisia arbuscula |Arbusculin A | Asteraceae.
Artemisia ashurbadjevii | Granilin | Asteraceae.
Artemisia arborescens, silver-lace sagebush, tree wormwood, silky, grey lacy aromatic leaves, shrub, repels insects, Asteraceae.
Artemisia brevifolia | Xanthoxylin | Asteraceae.

Artemisia caerulescens | beta-Santonin | Asteraceae.
Artemisia campestris, field wormwood, Asteraceae.
Camphor wormwood, (Artemisia Camphorata)
Artemisia cana | Artecanin | Canin | Ridentin | Viscidulin B | Asteraceae.
Artemisia canariensis | Pimpinellin | Asteraceae.
Artemisia capillaris | Capillarisin | Capillin | Asteraceae.
Artemisia caruthii | Matricin | Asteraceae.

Artem| Artemisin | isia cina | Artemisin | beta-Santonin | Asteraceae.
Artemisia compacta | beta-Santonin | Asteraceae.
Artemisia douglasiana | Ateglasin A | Asteraceae.

Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus), estragon, sweet tarragon, French tarragon, Russian tarragon, small dragon, perennial herb, easy to grow
but must be grown from cuttings not seeds, drought hardy, up to 60 cm, small narrow glossy leaves, store in freezer, aromatic aniseed-like,
full flavour, culinary uses, with chicken, fish, egg dishes, vegetables, aromatic leaves used to prepare béarnaise source, flavour salads, soups,
can be infused in oils and vinegar, tarragon vinegar, hollandaise sauce, tartar sauce, rich in vitamin C so used as former anti-scurvy plant,
Southern Europe
| Estragole | Limonene | Myrcene | Phellandrene | Pinene | herbal medicine, Siberia, Asteraceae.
French Tarragon, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Artemisia dracunculus), See text below images.
Russian tarragon, (Artemisia dracunculus), narrow leaves, no subsitute for French tarragon.

Artemisia feddei,| chamazulene | Asteraceae.
Artemisia finita | beta-Santonin | Asteraceae.

Fringed sagebush, (Artemisia frigida) ("Wormwood frigida"), Frigida Wormwood, fringed sagebush, perennial with woody base, aromatic
small shrub, up to 50 cm, grey-green feather-like leaves, drought resistant, herbal medicine, widespread species, Asteraceae.
Wormwood Artemisia frigida,, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.

Artemisia genipi, black genipi, used with other Artemisi to make genipi herbal liqueur, in Europe, Asteraceae.
Artemisia herba-alba, white wormwood, herbal medicine, Asteraceae.
Artemisia judaica, Judaen wormwood | Vulgarin | Asteraceae.
Artemisia klotzchiana | Eugenol | Asteraceae.
Artemisia lactifora, white mugwort, up to 2m, toothed, light green leaves, ornamental varieties, Asteraceae.
Artemisia ludoviciana, Mexican sagewort, silver wormwood| Arteglasin A | Asteraceae.
Artemisia macrocephala | Artemisin | Asteraceae.
Artemisia maritima, sea wormwood, levant wormseed| Artemisin | 1-8-Cineole | Asteraceae.
Artemisia mexicana | Artemorin | Asteraceae.
Artemisia pallens, davanam, grown for its fragrant leaves and flowers, Asteraceae.

Roman Wormwood (Artemisia pontica), small absinthe, feathery foliage, strong spicy smell, Asteraceae
Roman Wormwood, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.

Powis Castle Wormwood (Artemisia 'Powis Castle'), Asteraceae.
Powis Castle Wormwood, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Artemisia porrecta | Anethole | Asteraceae.
Korean wormwood (Artemisia princeps), Japanese mugwort, Asteraceae.
Artemisia rubripes | Rurabtilin | Asteraceae.
Virgate wormwood (Artemisia scoparia), redstem wormwood| Scoparone | Asteraceae.
Artemisia sieversiana | Artabsin | Asteraceae.
Common mugwort (Artemisia taurica) common wormwood | Vulgarin | Asteraceae.
Artemisia tilesii Tilesius' wormwood, Aleutian mugwort, stinkweed, perennial, up to 80 cm, yellow flowers, tough rhizome, aromatic
pleasant odour, used for revetation traditional native medicine, used by Eskimos to treat fevers, skin infections and joint pains, smell
of fish, Russia, Japan, North America, Asteraceae.
Artemisia transiliensis | Quercetin-3-methyl ether | Asteraceae.

Sagebush (Artemisia tridentata), big sagebush, aromatic desert shrub| Camphor | Arbusculin A | Ridentin | pungent when wet, North America, Asteraceae.
Threetip sagebush (Artemisia tripartita) | Ridentin | Asteraceae.

Chinese mugwort (Artemisia verlotorum), perennial, more than 2 metres high, drought hardy plants, used as windbreaks, worming
animals, bee forage, mulch| Artemorin | herbal medicine, Asteraceae.

Artemisia vestita, Russian wormwood, causes dermatitis, Asteraceae.

Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), common wormwood, "ai", perennial, hardy plant | borneol | Camphor | Cineole | Linalool | Vulgarin
| Dehydromatricaria ester | Chinese herbal medicine, antiseptic, leaves used to treat nausea, temporary relief of pain, cramps, shredded
artemisia called moxa is burnt (moxibustion), near the body for local heating, culinary uses, Australia, Asteraceae.
Mugwort, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Mugwort-Tree, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as aerials.

Tagetes species, Asteraceae.
Tagetes lemmonii, passionfruit marigold, ferny foliage, slight smell, daisy flowers during autumn and winter, Asteraceae.
Tagetes erecta, Mexican marigold, giant African marigold, Mexico, Asteraceae.
Tagetes lemmonii, passionfruit marigold, ferny foliage, slight smell, daisy flowers during autumn and winter, Asteraceae.

Mexican Tarragon (Tagetes lucida), Mexican mint marigold, perennial herb, easy to grow, in summer bright yellow flowers in clusters,
long narrow leaves with a distinct aniseed scent and flavour, use less than French tarragon in recipes, used for herb vinegar in salad
dressings, | Anethole | Estragole | Asteraceae.

Tagetes patula, marigold, French marigold, "small marigold", ornamental, target oil, Mexico, Asteraceae.
Daisy (Bellis perennis), "day's eye", bruisewort, bairnwort, measure-of-love, perennial, only basal leaves, broad stalk, solitary flower of
bright yellow disc florets surrounded by white ray florets, girls make "daisy chains and play the game "he loves me, he loves me not"
(florets are odd-numbered, so usually "loves me"), not usually consumed, flowers and leaves in salads, but do not pick from lawn sprayed
with weedkiller, herbal medicine, ointment for bruises and pains, Asteraceae.

Marigold (Calendula officinalis), common marigold, pot marigold, English marigold (calendae calender, because flowers for most of the
year), perennial, up to 50 cm, annual herb, bracts absent, companion plant, florets in culinary uses, yellow / orange petals and leaves in
salads, omelettes, sandwiches (E161b Lutein), herbal medicine, cuts, bruises, rashes, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, calendula flower tea
for mouth ulcers and nappy rash, flowers made into infused oil ointment (called "Mary gold" in honour of the Virgin Mary of the Bible),
used to treat eczema, dermatitis, inflamed skin and for wound healing, ornamental bright orange flowers on stiff stems, Europe, Asteraceae.
Marigold, Calendula officinalis, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as flowers and as petals.
See diagram: Calendula
(Different species and genera are called "marigold".)
Dried calendula.

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), distaff thistle, false saffron, annual, up to 50 cm, full sun, up to 1 m, single smooth stem, alternate
stalkless, pointed oval bristly leaves, spines at edges, thistle-like flower, red-orange florets, former herbal medicine, seed extracts to
treat blood pressure, flowers used as laxtives, yellow or red dye for silk, used as rouge, low cholesterol safflower oil for salads and
cooking, florets for saffron substitute food colouring,
Carthamin, ancient origin, China, Asteraceae.
Dried herb sold as petals.
Saffron thistle (Carthamus lanatus), woolly distaff thistle, annual, glandular, tangled fibres, pasture weed in Australia, Asteraceae.

Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus), bluebottle, bachelor's buttons, astringent tannins, Europe, west Asia, Asteraceae.
Dried herb sold as cornflower petals.
Centaurea species, knapweeds, Asteraceae.
Knapweed (Centaurea nigra), common knapweed, black knapweed, perennial, up to 1 m, lobed, hairy leaves, purple flowers, butterfly
food, Europe, Asteraceae.
Mountain bluet (Centaurea montana), mountain cornflower, widespread mountain plant, blue flowers, ornamental, Europe, Asteraceae.

Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), "camomile", German chamomile, the usual source of the herb chamomile, water of youth, annual,
drought-tolerant, self-sows, up to 60 cm, multi-branched, feathery foliage, white and yellow small "daisy" flowers with apple-like
fragrance, dried flowers for camomile tea| Apigenin | Bisabolol | Chamazulene | Luteolin | herbal medicine, anti-inflammatory,
chamomile tea used to treat acne, coughs and colds, gingivitis, headache temporary relief, hives, infant colic, indigestion, irritability,
insommnia, anxiety and phobias, morning sickness, period pain, skin conditions, teething problems, Asteraceae.
See diagram: Chamomile flowers
German Chamomile, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as flowers heads.
Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla, M. recutita), camomile, German chamomile, annual, raised from seed, Asteraceae
Dried herb sold as flowers.
Lawn chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile, var. Treneague), mat-forming low growing perennial, feathery leaves, non-flowering variety
suitable for lawns, used at Buckingham Palace, Asteraceae.
Lawn Chamomile, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile), English chamomile, garden chamomile, sweet chamomile, true chamomile, dog fennel,
herbacious perennial, mat-forming creeping groundcover, up to 25 cm, soft feathery foliage, full sun, formerly popular for its apple
scent when walked on, shade, yellow-centered, white-rayed flowers, grow on stalks, leaves used as wash, hair conditioner, dried
flowers for camomile tea, herbal medicine, digestive problems, morning sickness colic, stress-related dyspepsia, sleeplessness and
bad dreams, but may increase drowsiness caused by some drugs and may interact with prescription drugs for osteoporosis or cancer,
do not use if taking contraceptive pill or hormone replacement therapy, Western Europe. Asteraceae.
Roman Chamomile, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images, Asteraceae.
(Not all "chamomiles" are Chamaemelum species).

Chrysanthemum species, Asteraceae.
Pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium), Dalmation chrysanthemum, perennial, up to 70 mm, grow from seed, basal
clump of grey-green leaves, thin, erect flower stem, white flower with yellow centre, seeds attached to calyx beneath the flower,
commercial production of insecticide pyrethrum from dried flower heads, jasmolone monoterpene, ornamental, Yugoslavia, Asteraceae.
Pyrethrum, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Pyrethrum daisy (Chrysanthemum coccineum), Persian pellitory, painted daisy, formerly commercial production of insecticide
pyrethrum from dried flower heads, ornamental, Asteraceae.
Ox-eye daisy (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum), moon daisy, maudelenwort, grassland perennial, ornamental, invasive, annual,
former herbal medicine, diuretic, not cultivated, weed in damp places, ornamental, Greece, Asteraceae.
Florists' daisy (Chrysanthemum morifolium), "chrysanthemum", hardy garden mum, "Ju Hua", Chinese chrysanthemum, hardy,
herbal medicine, used to treat many disorders in Chinese medicine, boiled to make Chinese "chrysanthemum tea", added to Korean
rice wine, many chemical compounds, houseplant removes toxic chemicals from air, ornamental, Asteraceae.
Dried herb sold as Chrysanthemum flowers.

Feverfew (Tanecetum parthenium, Chrysanthemum parthenium), bachelor's buttons, featherfew, featherfoil, mutterkraut,
midsummer daisy, matrem (Latin febrifuga, fever, fugare drive away), aromatic perennial so good companion plant, bush, up to 60
cm, leaves with citrus smell, daisy-like flowers similar to chamomile, outer florets white, disc florets yellow, Parthenolide, herbal
medicine, fever, arthritis, migraine headache, skin damage but contact dermatitis, febrifuge, acts against Leishmania infection, essential
oil anti-microbial, herbal tea but not for pregnant women because may cause uterine contractions, avoid using with alcohol, bitter taste
and chewing leaves causes mouth sores, may affect platelets, ornamental, invasive, Europe, Asteraceae.
Chrysanthemum x morifolium, "chrysanthemum" (most important hybrid), Asteraceae.
Feverfew, Mudbrick Cottage (Chrysanthemum parthenium, Tanecetum parthenium), See text below images.
Feverfew - Golden, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Tanecetum parthenium 'Aureum'), Asteraceae
Dried herb sold as aerials.

Endive (Cichorium endivia), variety 'Salad king', true endive, curly endive (called "chicory" in USA), vegetable succory, herbal
medicine, rich in nutrients (also varieties, 'Belgian endive' and 'Esarole endive'), India, Europe, North America, Asteraceae.
Endive, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Wild endive (Cichorium pumilum), Asteraceae.

Chicory (Cichorium intybus var sativum, , Catalogna Brindisina), Red Treviso Chicory, Pala Rosa, Red Dandelion, root chicory,
common chicory, blue sailors, succory, blue dandelion, coffee weed perennial, attractive azure flowers, common on roadsides,
culinary herb, salads, roasted root coffee substitute, active compounds include mostly | Inulin
| also Lactucopicrin | Aesculetin |
Aesculin | Scopoletin | Umbelliferone | Dihydrocoumarin | sesquiterpene lactones, vitamins, minerals, fat, Mannitol, latex,
herbal medicine, reduces production of low density lipoproteins (VLDL), anti-inflammatory, fresh chicory to improve excretory
system to treat bad breath, gout, Europe, North America, China, Australia, Asteraceae.
Dried herb sold as root.
Chicory, (Catalogna Brindisina, Cichorium intybus), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Chicory - Red Treviso (Cichorium intybus variety), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Chicory - Pala Rosa (Cichorium intybus variety), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Chicory - Red Dandelion (Cichorium intybus variety), Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.

Blessed thistle (Cnicus benedictus), holy thistle, spotted thistle, have downy prickles, herbal medicine, Asteraceae.
Dried herb sold as aerials

Calliopsis (Coreopsis tinctoria), garden tickseed, yellow dye, Canada, Asteraceae.

Golden marguerite (Cota tinctoria) (but in horticulture trade may be still called Anthemis tinctoria), dyer's chamomile, yellow chamomile,
oxeye chamomile, Paris daisy, perennial bush, 30-60 cm, solitary flowers with bright yellow discs and rays, yellow dye from flowers
with tin mordant, Europe, Asia, Asteraceae.
Dyer's Chamomile, (Anthemis tinctoria, Cota tinctoria), golden flowers, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.

7.0.0 Artichoke growing, Asteraceae.
Artichoke thistle (Cynara cardunculus), cardoon, perennial, grown from seed, very large divided, lobed, spiny, leaves, grey-green
above and white and woolly below, stems up to 2 m, earth up or use black plastic to blanch stems, peel stalks like rhubarb and eat
inner fleshy leaf stalks and flower stalks as winter vegetable, ornamental, Mediterranean, Asteraceae.

Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus), spiny leaves, edible lobed flower buds, high in antioxidants, Asteraceae.
Artichoke (Cynara scolymus), green globe artichoke, globe artichoke, Asteraceae.
Artichoke - Green Globe, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.

Echinacea varieties, Asteraceae.
Narrow-leaved purple coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia), blacksamson echinacea, cornflower, herbal
medicine, antibacterial,
immunity stimulant, Asteraceae.
Echinacea angustifolia, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images
Pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), Asteraceae.
Echinacea pallida, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Bush's purple coneflower (Echinacea paradoxa), Asteraceae.
Echinacea paradoxa, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea), herbaceous perennial, flowers through spring, summer, die during autumn,
rise again early spring, root harvested when 2-3 years old, up to 1 metre, deciduous, purple flower, herbal medicine, use echinacea tablets to
improve immune system to treat odour-producing bacteria in the oral cavity, gingivitis, toothache, antibiotic properties, roots said to stimulate
the immune system and promote healing, treat common cold and sore throat, allergic reactions, herpes episodes, ear infections, echinacea tincture
for insect bites and stings, but do not take any Echinacea species if allergic to asters or chrysanthemums, Asteraceae.
Alkylamides, North America, Asteraceae.
See diagram: Purple flower
Purple coneflower, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images
Dried herb sold as whole plant.
Dried herb sold as root.
Eastern purple coneflower
(Echinacea purpurea), Asteraceae.
Echinacea purpurea 'White Swan', Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.

Globe thistle (Echinops ritro), ornamental (not a true "thistle"), Asteraceae.
False daisy (Eclipta prostrata), false daisy, trailing eclipta, bhringraj, perennial, up to 60 cm, Chinese and Ayurvedic
herbal medicine, hair and liver tonic, Asteraceae.

Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum), ague weed, crosswort, feverwort, herbal medicine for dengue
fever, not "setting bones", Asteraceae.
Boneset, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.
Kidney-root (Eupatorium purpureum), gravelroot, purple Joe-Pye weed, trumpet weed, perennial, up to 1 metre, deciduous, tall stems
with red flower heads and very small daisy-like flowers, aromatic leaves, ornamental, herbal medicine, root extract to treat
bladder stones, North America, Asteraceae.
Gravelroot, kidney-root, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Dried herb sold as root.

Garland chrysanthemum (Glebionis coronaria), edible garland chrysanthemum, chop suey greens, shungiku, crown daisy, annual,
grown from seeds, white / yellow / cream flowers, harvest young leafy tops when 15-30 cm high, later woody stems produce bitter
leaves, chop young leaves finely for Asian salad cuisine, petals (rays), mostly used in Japan, leaves and flowers in tempura, soaked to
make chrysanthemum tea, flowers as herbal medicine, East Asia, Asteraceae.
Edible Garland Chrysanthemum, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.

Great valley gumplant, (Grindelia camporum), great valley gumweed, tall perennial, thistle-like yellow flower heads, Native American folk
medicine, California, Asteraceae.
Grindelia camporum, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as aerials.
Gum plant (Grindelia robusta), France.
Dried herb sold as aerials.

Okinawa spinach (Gynura crepoides), Asteraceae
Okinawa Spinach, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Sambung (Gynura procumbens), Sambung Nyawa, "longevity spinach", perennial, up to 50-80 cm, herbal medicine, often referred
to as "life extender" antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, febrifuge, culinary uses, leaves used raw and cooked and made as tea, culinary uses,
herbal medicine, South East Asia, Asteraceae.
Sambung Nyawa, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus), annual, grown from seed, hairy, up to 1-3 metres, strong stalk, alternate leaves, up to 10-30 cm
long, heart-shaped, leaves on long stalks, solitary flower head 10-35 cm across, brown disc florets, single row of yellow rays, each
flower in the axil of a bract, large usually white seeds, culinary uses, seeds 25% protein, minerals, vitamins, D and E, seeds must be
well-chewed, sunflower oil, herbaceous stem, stalks and leaves for animal feed or compost, cortex differentiated into outer cortex,
collenchyma, middle cortex, and inner cortex, endodermis, inulin = D-fructose units, ornamental "children's plant", western North
America, Asteraceae.

Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus), Jerusalem sunflower, sunflower artichoke, sun root, sun choke, (Italian girasole
, sunflower), perennial, up to 1-2 metres, hardy plant, deciduous, yellow flowers grown by tubers, culinary uses, low starch,
tuber rich source vitamin, A, B, C and polysaccharide inulin, eaten raw is crisp and crunchy, or cooked, flavour egg dishes and teas,
little used for food, may cause flatulence, terpenes give pleasant aroma, flavour similar to globe artichoke but does not look like an
artichoke, herbal medicine, edible tubers contain inulin (fructose polymer) instead of starch, grown from tubers, agricultural weed,
ornamental, North America, Asteraceae.
Jerusalem artichoke, Daly's Fruit Trees

Helichrysum species
Curry plant (Helichrysm italicum), immortelle, everlasting helichrysum, perennial, grows on dry, rocky or
sandy ground from woody cuttings, small bush, stems woody at base up to 40 cm, silvery stems and narrow silver leaves smelling like
curry, clusters of pale gold flowers retain colour after picking, in dried flower arrangements, culinary uses, young shoots and leaves
are stewed meat, fish or vegetable dishes, finely chopped in omelettes, steam-distilled fragrant essential oil, used to freshen cupboards,
deter clothes moths, and in baths, herbal remedy, soothes damaged skin, Mediterranean region, Asteraceae.
Curry Plant, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm.

Orange hawkweed (Hieracium auranticum), Grim the collier, fox and cubs, dense terminal cluster of up to 6 orange flowers, former
herbal medicine, ornamental, France, Asteraceae.
Mouse-ear hawkweed (Hieracium pilosella), perennial, hardy plant, groundcover, yellow flowers, rosettes of leaves shaped like a
mouse, covered with star-shaped branched hairs, leaves in salads, yellow flowers, Umbelliferone, former herbal medicine, astringent,
antibiotic properties, ornamental, Europe, Asia, Asteraceae.

Elecampane (Inula helenium), horse-heal, yellow head, elecampane, wild sunflower, elfwort, ploughman's spikenard, scab wort,
gallant yellow stalwart, elf dock, velvet dock, perennial, hardy plant, up to 60 cm, yellow flowers, antibiotic leaves, herbal medicine,
candied root contains inulin, diabetic sugar, Europe, Asia, Asteraceae.
Elecampane, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as root.

Lettuce (Lactuce species)
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa), Asteraceae.
Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa), Asteraceae.

Shasta daisy (Leucanthemum x superbum), garden plant, possibly unpleasant odour, Asteraceae.

Liatris species, Asteraceae.
Gay feather (Liatris spicata), blazing star, button snakeroot, perennial, herbal medicine, North America, Asteraceae.

Scotch thistle (Onopordum acanthium), down thistle, cotton thistle, ornamental, herbal medicine, (emblem of Scotland), Asteraceae.

Winter heliotrope, (Petasites fragrans), widespread winter plant, large leaves with teeth, deep rhizome, erect pink flower heads,
sweet-scented, winter-flowering ornamental, herbal medicine, invasive, Mediterranean region, Asteraceae.
Butterbur (Petasites hybridus), common butterburr, bog rhubarb, devil's hat, up to 120 cm, large round leaves up to 70 cm, pink
multiple inflorescences, Petasin, traditional medicine, infections, allergies, anti-inflammatory, possible treatment of migraine, allergic
rhinitis, Europe, Asteraceae.

Yacon (Polymnia sonchifolia), Asteraceae, yacón, apple of the earth, Peruvian ground apple, perennial, daisy-like, sweet tuberous
roots contain inulin, Colombia, Argentina, Asteraceae.
Yacon, Daley's Fruit Trees

Bolivian coriander, (Porophyllum ruderale), Pápalo, perennial, hardy plant, up to 60 cm, culinary uses, Mexican herb, used like
coriander, herbal medicine, culinary uses, Asteraceae.

Black salsify (Scorzonera hispanica), Spanish salsify, black oyster plant, viper's grass, serpent root, cuisine, long black taproot is
nutritious root vegetable, scorzonera sweet, herbal medicine, Southern Europe, Asteraceae.
(Two other species also called "viper's grass".)

Santolina green (Santolina virens), small evergreen shrub, small yellow flowers, aromatic leaves, Asteraceae
Santolina Green, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Santolina grey (Santolina chamaecyparissus, Lavendula taemina), lavender cotton, cotton lavender, Asteraceae.
Santolina Grey, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.

Cutleaf viper grass, (Scorzonera laciniata), biennial herb, massive taproot, pasture weed, readily eaten by stock, Asteraceae.

Eastern Saint Paul's wort (Siegesbeckia orientalis), hardy plant, up to 1 metre, herbal medicine, stomach tonic, anti-rheumatic, skin
diseases, cuts, burns, made as a tincture gives a protective covering like a second skin on cuts, Asteraceae.

Golden rod (Solidago canadensis), Canada golden rod, perennial, deciduous, up to 1 metre, bright yellow flowers, Linalool, herbal medicine,
chew flowers for sore throat, invasive stolons, North America, Asteraceae.
Golden Rod, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm
Dried herb sold as root.
Sweet golden rod (Solidago odora), fragrant goldenrod, perennial, up to 1 metre, leaves deeper green smelling of anise when
crushed, yellow flowers are in one-sided spreading raceme, herbal medicine, stimulant "Blue Mountain Tea", North America, Asteraceae.
European goldenrod (Solidago virgaurea), woundwort, golden rod sorrel, perennial herb, up to 100 cm, woody rhizome, many flower
heads at top of stem, herbal medicine, astringent, diuretic, catarrh, kidney stones, garden herb, Hungary, Asteraceae.
Dried herb sold as aerials.

Milk thistle (Silybum marianum), milk thistle, blessed milk thistle, St Mary's thistle, variegated thistle, stock poison, weed, white markings
supposed to be from milk from Our Lady's breast, salads, herbal medicine, may lower the blood glucose level, affect how other herbs
are used by the liver's "cytochrome P450" enzyme system, and may slow calcium metabolism, protect liver from excess alcohol
consumption, China, Asteraceae.
Dried herb sold as whole seed or dried fruit and seed powder..
See diagram: Stevia

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana), sweetleaf, sugar herb, sugar leaf, Bertoni candyleaf,
perennial, up to 60 cm, if fresh sweetness then aniseed-like flavour but not if dried, best grown in sun, protected from frost, moist,
well-drained soil, culinary uses of leaves fresh or dried, natural sweetening properties times sweeter than sugar, said to be the only
natural sweetener with zero calories and zero glycemic index, use in drinks, baking, thistle flower heads in salads or herbal tea herbal
medicine, low sugar food alternative, glucoside extract is 300 times sweeter than sugar, trade name, "Rebiana", Paraguay, Brazil, Asteraceae.
Steviocide (steviol diterpene from Stevia rebaudiana + glucose --> steviocide sweetener), 250 to 300, e.g. "Stevia". CSR Smart label:
a "pinch" of Stevia added to cane sugar for the "Smart 50% less calories" white sugar blend, India, Paraguay, Asteraceae.
"CSR Smart white sugar blend, 50% less calories, twice as sweet so you use half as much cane sugar with a pinch of Stevia, 99.6%
sugar with a hint of Stevia, same level of sugar sweetener at half the amount.
Half a teaspoon (2 g), CSR SMART White Sugar Blend, 8 calories (34 Kj) | One teaspoon (4 g), sugar 16 calories (6 Kj).
Stevia rebaudiana, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as leaves and as leaf powder.
Stevia rebaudiana, Daleys Fruit Tree Nursery

Mexican marigold, (Tagetes erecta), African marigold, Aztec marigold, flor de muertos | Lutein | Zeaxanthin | Mexico, Asteraceae.
See diagram: Tagetes erecta

Passionfruit marigold (Tagetes lemmonii), Asteraceae.

Mexican mint marigold, (Tagetes lucida), Mexican tarragon, winter tarragon, Spanish tarragon, sweet marigold, sweet mace, cloud
plant, Texas tarragon, perennial, up to 60 cm, grown from seed or cuttings, 30-45 cm high, oblong leaves with toothed edges have fine
oil glands, small yellow flowers in terminal clusters, culinary uses, anise flavour, in savoury dishes, fruit salad, tea, vinegar, tingle taste,
tarragon-like flavoured leaves so may be tarragon substitute, herbal medicine, supposed used to anaesthetize Aztec sacrificial victims,
Mexico, Asteraceae.
Mexican Tarragon, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm (Tagetes lucida), See text below images.

Southern marigold, (Tagetes minuta), Black mint, muster John Henry, stinking roger, culinary uses, dry leaves for seasoning,
South American cuisine where sold as "black mint paste", herbal medicine respiratory and digestive problems, South America,

French marigold (Tagetes patula), edging plant, butterfly farms, herbal medicine, culinary uses, Mexico, Asteraceae.

Costmary (Tanacetum balsamita), alecost, balsam herb, mint geranium, perennial, temperate, up to 40 cm, small button-shaped
flowers, sweet aromatic leaves pressed for perfumed, bookmarks, dried for fresh leaves in salads, sauces, soups and
beverages, used for flavouring ale, Mediterranean, Asteraceae.

Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare, Chrysanthemum vulgare), sweet tansy, bitter buttons, bachelor's buttons, golden buttons, perennial, up
to 50 cm, companion plant, dried leaves in sachets in cupboards, garden spray, mulch, culinary uses, to flavour biscuits, Hungary,
Tansy, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as aerials.

Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), pepper bush, piss beds, wet-the-bed, piddley bed (French dent de lion, lion's tooth, leaves
have basal rosette, toothed), perennial in grasslands, up to 30 cm, bright yellow florets, stems have milky juice, culinary uses,
pickled leaves in salads as dandelion greens, steamed, tea from roasted root, root roasted as coffee substitute | Lactucopicrin | Lactucin |
herbal medicine, detoxifies, blood and liver tonic, diuretic, treat rashes, burdock and dandelion cordial for gout, pasture weed,
vegetative reproduction by contractile tuberous roots, stalk cross sections used to show osmotic pressure and absorbing pressure,
stigmas curve back to allow self fertilization, rich in vitamins A, B, C, and minerals, Asteraceae.
A "dandelion clock" is a children's game where the number of puffs needed to blow away all the achenes from the white ball of the seed
head, blowball, is supposed to tell the time.
Dandelion, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images
Dried herb sold as root.
Dried herb sold as leaf..

Arla (Tithonia diversifolia), Mexican sunflower, perennial, up to 1-3 metres, hardy plant, bees love it, white flowers, seed heads
used for dried flower arrangements and painted gold for Christmas decorations, leaves for compost and animal feed, large soft leaves
as toilet paper, culinary uses, herbal medicine, Asteraceae.

Yellow salsify (Tragopogon dubius), Asteraceae.
Salsify (Tragopogon porrifolius), common salsify, goat's beard, noon flower, jack-go-to-bed-at-noon, vegetable oyster,
gladwin, Jerusalem star, purple salsify, erect, stout, purple daisy flowered, hairless biennial, up to 1.3 m, long grass-like leaves and a fleshy
taproot, in damp places, milky sap when damaged. edible taproot has an oyster flavour, environmental weed in Australia, northern Africa,
See diagram: Salsify

Coltsfoot (Tussilago farafara), coughwort, perennial, up to 30 cm, hardy plant, bees love the yellow flowers, Retronecine, herbal
medicine, Asteraceae.
Coltsfoot, Mudbrick Cottage Herb Farm, See text below images
Dried herb sold as aerials.